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Complementary feeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644370/adaptation-of-new-colombian-food-based-complementary-feeding-recommendations-using-linear-programming
#1
Marion Tharrey, Gilma A Olaya, Mary Fewtrell, Elaine Ferguson
OBJECTIVE: To use Linear Programming (LP) analyses to adapt New Complementary Feeding Guidelines (NCFg) designed for infants aged 6-12 month (m) living in poor socioeconomic circumstances in Bogota to ensure dietary adequacy for young children aged 12-23 m. DESIGN: A secondary data analysis was performed using dietary and anthropometric data collected from 12 m old infants (n = 72) participating in a randomised controlled trial. LP analyses were performed to identify nutrients whose requirements were difficult to achieve using local foods as consumed; and to test and compare the NCFg and alternative food-based recommendations (FBRs) on the basis of dietary adequacy, for 11 micronutrients, at the population level...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636462/are-commercial-complementary-food-distributions-to-refugees-and-migrants-in-europe-conforming-to-international-policies-and-guidelines-on-infant-and-young-child-feeding-in-emergencies
#2
Melissa Ann Theurich, Veit Grote
In 2015, more than one million migrants and refugees arrived in Europe. Commercial complementary foods, processed foods marketed for infants and young children 6-23 months of age, were distributed by various humanitarian actors along migrant routes and in European refugee camps. Unsolicited donations and distributions of commercial complementary food products were problematic and divergent from international policies on infant and young child feeding during humanitarian emergencies. Interim guidance regarding commercial complementary foods was published during the peak of the emergency but implemented differently by various humanitarian actors...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630642/infant-and-young-child-feeding-practice-among-mothers-with-0-24%C3%A2-months-old-children-in-slum-areas-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#3
Yeshalem Mulugeta Demilew, Tadese Ejigu Tafere, Dereje Berhanu Abitew
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the health, growth and development of children. However, infant feeding practice is suboptimal in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. The slum area is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing, squalor, with a lack of reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Residents of the slum area were poor and less educated...
2017: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625036/sago-worms-as-a-nutritious-traditional-and-alternative-food-for-rural-children-in-southeast-sulawesi-indonesia
#4
Intan R Nirmala, Trees, Suwarni, Mochammad S Pramono
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The sago worm Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a nutritious food source found in the remaining parts of a sago palm trunk after the removal of sago starch by farmers. The effort to increase sago worm consumption is investigated in an intervention study among children aged <5 years. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Children aged 1-5 years were allocated to a sago worm inclusive diet (n=10) and to a control group eating a usual diet, but without sago worms (n=13)...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618837/fish-and-meat-are-often-withheld-from-the-diets-of-infants-6-to-12-months-in-fish-farming-households-in-rural-bangladesh
#5
Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, Natalie Valpiani, Rumana Akter, Md Abdul Baten, Sven Genschick, Manjurul Karim, Shakuntala H Thilsted
BACKGROUND: Fish is a widely available animal-source food in Bangladesh and a rich source of nutrients, yet little is known about practices related to incorporating fish into the diets of infants and young children. OBJECTIVE: Use dietary diversity data to explore consumption patterns of fish and high-quality food items within the household and examine factors associated with delayed introduction of fish to infants and young children. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 496 households with children <36 months participating in the Aquaculture for Income and Nutrition project in Bangladesh...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608753/quantitative-assessment-of-copper-proteinates-used-as-animal-feed-additives-using-atr-ftir-spectroscopy-and-powder-x-ray-diffraction-pxrd-analysis
#6
Caoimhe A Cantwell, Laurann A Byrne, Cathal D Connolly, Michael J Hynes, Patrick McArdle, Richard A Murphy
The aim of the present work was to establish a reliable analytical method to determine the degree of complexation in commercial metal proteinates used as feed additives in the solid state. Two complementary techniques were developed. Firstly, a quantitative attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic method investigated modifications in vibrational absorption bands of the ligand on complex formation. Secondly, a powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) method to quantify the amount of crystalline material in the proteinate product was developed...
June 13, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600160/family-based-obesity-prevention-for-infants-design-of-the-mothers-others-randomized-trial
#7
Heather M Wasser, Amanda L Thompson, Chirayath M Suchindran, Eric A Hodges, Barbara D Goldman, Eliana M Perrin, Myles S Faith, Cynthia M Bulik, M Jane Heinig, Margaret E Bentley
OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to test the efficacy of a family-based, multi-component intervention focused on infants of African-American (AA) mothers and families, a minority population at elevated risk for pediatric obesity, versus a child safety attention-control group to promote healthy weight gain patterns during the first two years of life. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND METHODS: The design is a two-group randomized controlled trial among 468 AA pregnant women in central North Carolina...
June 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595548/electrochemical-detectors-in-liquid-chromatography-recent-trends-in-pharmaceutical-and-biomedical-analysis
#8
Jean-Michel Kauffmanna, Nurgul K Bakirhan, Burcin Bozal-Palabiyik, Bengi Uslu, Rocio Rodriguez Gomez, Marie Vandeput, Sibel A Ozkan
Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to an electrochemical detector (EC) is a complementary analytical tool compared to LC coupled with optical or mass spectrometry detectors (LC-MS). LC-EC can be applied to the determination of molecules difficult to be analyzed by other commercially available detectors. New EC detector design and new working electrode material have extended the scope of application in the field of pharmaceutical compounds analysis. Combining EC with LC-MS offers additional advantages compared to optical detectors in terms of drug stability and drug metabolism mimicry studies...
June 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592490/functional-analyses-yield-detailed-insight-into-the-mechanism-of-thrombin-inhibition-by-the-antihemostatic-salivary-protein-ce5-from-anopheles-gambiae
#9
Luciano Pirone, Jorge Ripoll-Rozada, Marilisa Leone, Raffaele Ronca, Fabrizio Lombardo, Gabriella Fiorentino, John F Andersen, Pedro José Barbosa Pereira, Bruno Arcà, Emilia Pedone
Saliva of blood-feeding arthropods carries several antihemostatic compounds whose physiological role is to facilitate successful acquisition of blood. The identification of novel natural anticoagulants and the understanding of their mechanism of action may offer opportunities for designing new antithrombotics disrupting blood clotting. We report here an in depth structural and functional analysis of the anophelin family member cE5, a salivary protein from the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae that specifically tightly and quickly binds and inhibitss thrombin...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589023/measuring-manipulating-and-exploiting-behaviours-of-adult-mosquitoes-to-optimise-malaria-vector-control-impact
#10
Gerry F Killeen, John M Marshall, Samson S Kiware, Andy B South, Lucy S Tusting, Prosper P Chaki, Nicodem J Govella
Residual malaria transmission can persist despite high coverage with effective long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS), because many vector mosquitoes evade them by feeding on animals, feeding outdoors, resting outdoors or rapidly exiting from houses after entering them. However, many of these behaviours that render vectors resilient to control with IRS and LLINs also make them vulnerable to some emerging new alternative interventions. Furthermore, vector control measures targeting preferred behaviours of mosquitoes often force them to express previously rare alternative behaviours, which can then be targeted with these complementary new interventions...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588101/eggs-in-early-complementary-feeding-and-child-growth-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Lora L Iannotti, Chessa K Lutter, Christine P Stewart, Carlos Andres Gallegos Riofrío, Carla Malo, Gregory Reinhart, Ana Palacios, Celia Karp, Melissa Chapnick, Katherine Cox, William F Waters
BACKGROUND: Eggs are a good source of nutrients for growth and development. We hypothesized that introducing eggs early during complementary feeding would improve child nutrition. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Cotopaxi Province, Ecuador, from March to December 2015. Children ages 6 to 9 months were randomly assigned to treatment (1 egg per day for 6 months [n = 83]) and control (no intervention [n = 80]) groups. Both arms received social marketing messages to encourage participation in the Lulun Project (lulun meaning "egg" in Kichwa)...
June 7, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587669/ivermectin-treated-cattle-reduces-blood-digestion-egg-production-and-survival-of-a-free-living-population-of-anopheles-arabiensis-under-semi-field-condition-in-south-eastern-tanzania
#12
Issa N Lyimo, Stella T Kessy, Kasian F Mbina, Ally A Daraja, Ladslaus L Mnyone
BACKGROUND: Anopheles arabiensis feed on cattle and contributes to residual transmission of malaria in areas with high coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying in East Africa. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ivermectin-treated cattle as a complementary vector control tool against population of An. arabiensis under the semi-field conditions in south-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: The free-living population of An. arabiensis was allowed to forage on untreated or ivermectin-treated cattle in alternating nights within the semi-field system in south-eastern Tanzania...
June 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586401/3d-printing-and-milling-a-real-time-pcr-device-for-infectious-disease-diagnostics
#13
Geoffrey Mulberry, Kevin A White, Manjusha Vaidya, Kiminobu Sugaya, Brian N Kim
Diagnosing infectious diseases using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) offers a conclusive result in determining the infection, the strain or type of pathogen, and the level of infection. However, due to the high-cost instrumentation involved and the complexity in maintenance, it is rarely used in the field to make a quick turnaround diagnosis. In order to provide a higher level of accessibility than current qPCR devices, a set of 3D manufacturing methods is explored as a possible option to fabricate a low-cost and portable qPCR device...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578753/grandmothers-knowledge-positively-influences-maternal-knowledge-and-infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices
#14
Chandni Karmacharya, Kenda Cunningham, Jowel Choufani, Suneetha Kadiyala
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between grandmothers' knowledge and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and to test whether the associations are independent of or operate via maternal knowledge. DESIGN: Cross-sectional household survey data from households with a child under 5 years (n 4080). We used multivariate regression analyses, adjusted for child, maternal, grandmother and household characteristics, and district-level clustering, to test associations between grandmothers' knowledge and IYCF practices for children aged 6-24 months living with a grandmother...
June 5, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578214/biomarker-responses-to-environmental-contamination-in-estuaries-a-comparative-multi-taxa-approach
#15
Irina A Duarte, Patrick Reis-Santos, Susana França, Henrique Cabral, Vanessa F Fonseca
Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems subjected to numerous anthropogenic pressures with consequent environmental quality degradation. In this study, multiple biomarker responses [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage (DNAd)] were determined in two fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Pomatoschistus microps) and four macroinvertebrate species (Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon, Hediste diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) from the Ria de Aveiro and Tejo estuaries over distinct months...
May 26, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578061/effects-of-the-combination-of-%C3%AF-3-pufas-and-proanthocyanidins-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-rats
#16
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Eunice Molinar-Toribio, María Pilar Almajano, Lucía Méndez, Isabel Medina, Núria Taltavull, Marta Romeu, Maria Rosa Nogués, Josep Lluís Torres
ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and other pathologies that involve low-grade inflammation. They have recently been shown to exert complementary functional effects with proanthocyanidins. As the reduction of health-promoting gut bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been linked to a number of alterations in the host, the aim of this study was to determine whether PUFAs and proanthocyanidins also cooperate in maintaining well-balanced microbiota...
July 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562265/trends-in-food-and-beverage-consumption-among-infants-and-toddlers-2005-2012
#17
Gandarvaka Miles, Anna Maria Siega-Riz
BACKGROUND: Nutritional guidance for infants and toddlers is lacking, and the diets of American children in the first 2 years of life are not well characterized. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the NHANES were used to describe the diets of 0- to 23-month-olds in the United States. Participants with complete dietary data were eligible for the analysis (N = 2359). Linear regression models were constructed to identify changes from 2005 to 2008 and from 2009 to 2012 in food and beverage consumption, both overall and within sociodemographic groups...
May 1, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553673/fractal-regulation-in-temporal-activity-fluctuations-a-biomarker-for-circadian-control-and-beyond
#18
Peng Li, Tommy To, Wei-Yin Chiang, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs, Kun Hu
Motor activity in humans and other animals possesses fractal temporal fluctuations that co-exists with circadian or daily activity rhythms. The perturbations in fractal activity patterns are often accompanied by altered circadian/daily rhythms. The goal of this study is to test whether fractal regulation in motor activity provides physiological information independent from 24-h/circadian rhythmicity. To achieve the goal, we studied locomotor activity recordings of rats with the lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that are known to have diminished circadian/daily activity rhythms and perturbed fractal regulation...
2017: JSM Biomark
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551688/nutrition-of-infants-and-young-children-in-poland-pitnuts-2016
#19
Halina Weker, Marta Barańska, Agnieszka Riahi, Małgorzata Strucińska, Małgorzata Więch, Grażyna Rowicka, Hanna Dyląg, Witold Klemarczyk, Agnieszka Bzikowska, Piotr Socha
The study evaluating the feeding practices and the nutritional status of children aged 5 to 36 months in a general, Polish, representative population (n=1059) was carried out from May to July 2016. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding practices in children aged 5 to 36 months with regard to models of safe nutrition on the basis of the outcome of the population study performed in 2016. The data obtained show that the feeding practices in children in their first year of life do not meet the guidelines presented in the model of safe nutrition, particularly in matters of timing of complementary feeding introduction and food choice...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550150/cellulose-synthesis-and-cell-expansion-are-regulated-by-different-mechanisms-in-growing-arabidopsis-hypocotyls
#20
Alexander A Ivakov, Anna Flis, Federico Apelt, Maximilian Fuenfgeld, Ulrike Scherer, Mark Stitt, Friedrich Kragler, Kris Vissenberg, Staffan Persson, Dmitry Suslov
Plant growth is sustained by two complementary processes - biomass biosynthesis and cell expansion. The cell wall is crucial to both as it forms the majority of biomass, while its extensibility limits cell expansion. Cellulose is a major component of the cell wall and cellulose synthesis is pivotal to plant cell growth and its regulation is poorly understood. Using periodic diurnal variation in Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl growth, we found that cellulose synthesis and cell expansion can be uncoupled and are regulated by different mechanisms...
May 26, 2017: Plant Cell
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