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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906208/feed-efficient-pigs-exhibit-molecular-patterns-allowing-a-timely-circulation-of-hormones-and-nutrients
#1
Henry Reyer, Michael Oster, Elizabeth Magowan, Eduard Murani, Helga Sauerwein, Dirk Dannenberger, Björn Kuhla, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
Feed efficiency (FE) is a measure of the rate between feed intake and body weight gain and is subject to constant progress in pigs, based on extensive performance tests and analyses of physiological parameters. However, endocrine regulatory circuits which comprise the sensation and perception of intrinsic requirements and appropriate systemic responses have not yet been fully elucidated. It is hypothesized that the gut-brain-axis, which is a network of hierarchical anterior regulatory tissues, contributes largely to variations in FE...
June 15, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895723/factors-associated-with-maternal-worry-about-her-young-child-exhibiting-choosy-feeding-behaviour
#2
Pauline M Emmett, Nicholas P Hays, Caroline M Taylor
Choosiness in young children is a normal behaviour that sometimes worries parents. The study aimed to investigate factors that are associated with a mother being worried about her child’s choosy feeding behaviour. Parents of singleton children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children ( n = 5710) completed a questionnaire assessing perception of their child’s choosy feeding behaviour at 15 months of age and whether this choosiness worried them. Feeding behaviours and practices throughout the first 15 months were captured...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883782/multiple-mycotoxin-exposure-of-infants-and-young-children-via-breastfeeding-and-complementary-weaning-foods-consumption-in-ecuadorian-highlands
#3
Johana Ortiz, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Gabriela Astudillo, Adriana Ballesteros, Silvana Donoso, Lieven Huybregts, Bruno De Meulenaer
The dietary exposure to mycotoxins in Ecuadorian children aged 0-23 months (320 rural and 603 urban) was evaluated based on the intake of breast milk and staple cereals used as complementary/weaning foods. A probabilistic distribution approach by first order Monte Carlo simulation was adopted to assess the locally occurring mycotoxins (aflatoxins M1 and B1 in breast milk, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in wheat noodles and oat flakes, and HT-2 toxin in polished rice). Overall, exposure was modest but higher for rural children due to their monotonous diet...
June 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868719/association-of-exposure-to-formula-in-the-hospital-and-subsequent-infant-feeding-practices-with-gut-microbiota-and-risk-of-overweight-in-the-first-year-of-life
#4
Jessica D Forbes, Meghan B Azad, Lorena Vehling, Hein M Tun, Theodore B Konya, David S Guttman, Catherine J Field, Diana Lefebvre, Malcolm R Sears, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Theo J Moraes, Padmaja Subbarao, James A Scott, Anita L Kozyrskyj
Importance: The effect of neonatal and infant feeding practices on childhood obesity is unclear. The gut microbiome is strongly influenced by feeding practices and has been linked to obesity. Objective: To characterize the association between breastfeeding, microbiota, and risk of overweight during infancy, accounting for the type and timing of supplementary feeding. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this study of a subset of 1087 infants from the prospective CHILD pregnancy cohort, mothers were recruited between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012...
June 4, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803269/modified-version-of-baby-led-weaning-does-not-result-in-lower-zinc-intake-or-status-in-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Lisa Daniels, Rachael W Taylor, Sheila M Williams, Rosalind S Gibson, Samir Samman, Benjamin J Wheeler, Barry J Taylor, Elizabeth A Fleming, Nicola K Hartley, Anne-Louise M Heath
BACKGROUND: Little is known about zinc intakes and status during complementary feeding. This is particularly true for baby-led approaches, which encourage infants to feed themselves from the start of complementary feeding, although self-feeding may restrict the intake of zinc-rich foods. OBJECTIVE: To determine the zinc intakes, sources, and biochemical zinc status of infants following Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS), a modified version of Baby-Led Weaning (BLW), compared with traditional spoon-feeding...
June 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801436/modeling-trophic-dependencies-and-exchanges-among-insects-bacterial-symbionts-in-a-host-simulated-environment
#6
Itai Opatovsky, Diego Santos-Garcia, Zhepu Ruan, Tamar Lahav, Shany Ofaim, Laurence Mouton, Valérie Barbe, Jiandong Jiang, Einat Zchori-Fein, Shiri Freilich
BACKGROUND: Individual organisms are linked to their communities and ecosystems via metabolic activities. Metabolic exchanges and co-dependencies have long been suggested to have a pivotal role in determining community structure. In phloem-feeding insects such metabolic interactions with bacteria enable complementation of their deprived nutrition. The phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) harbors an obligatory symbiotic bacterium, as well as varying combinations of facultative symbionts...
May 25, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783689/cobalamin-and-folate-status-among-breastfed-infants-in-bhaktapur-nepal
#7
Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Ingrid Kvestad, Mari Hysing, Merina Shrestha, Suman Ranjitkar, Arve Ulvik, Per Magne Ueland, Laxman Shrestha, Tor A Strand
Cobalamin and folate are crucial micronutrients during infancy and they are required for growth and cognitive development. Due to the monotonous and predominantly vegetarian-based complementary feeding and poor maternal micronutrient status, infants from low- and middle-income countries are susceptible to cobalamin deficiency. However, data on plasma cobalamin and folate and the functional markers methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine from breastfed infants in Nepal are still needed. We collected plasma samples from 316 6⁻11-month-old breastfed infants with a length-for-age of less than minus one z -score and analyzed blood for plasma folate, cobalamin, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine concentrations...
May 18, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776331/genome-wide-detection-of-selection-signatures-in-chinese-indigenous-laiwu-pigs-revealed-candidate-genes-regulating-fat-deposition-in-muscle
#8
Minhui Chen, Jiying Wang, Yanping Wang, Ying Wu, Jinluan Fu, Jian-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Currently, genome-wide scans for positive selection signatures in commercial breed have been investigated. However, few studies have focused on selection footprints of indigenous breeds. Laiwu pig is an invaluable Chinese indigenous pig breed with extremely high proportion of intramuscular fat (IMF), and an excellent model to detect footprint as the result of natural and artificial selection for fat deposition in muscle. RESULT: In this study, based on GeneSeek Genomic profiler Porcine HD data, three complementary methods, FST , iHS (integrated haplotype homozygosity score) and CLR (composite likelihood ratio), were implemented to detect selection signatures in the whole genome of Laiwu pigs...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775501/educational-interventions-for-improving-primary-caregiver-complementary-feeding-practices-for-children-aged-24-months-and-under
#9
REVIEW
Dachi Arikpo, Ededet Sewanu Edet, Moriam T Chibuzor, Friday Odey, Deborah M Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Although complementary feeding is a universal practice, the methods and manner in which it is practiced vary between cultures, individuals and socioeconomic classes. The period of complementary feeding is a critical time of transition in the life of an infant, and inappropriate complementary feeding practices, with their associated adverse health consequences, remain a significant global public health problem. Educational interventions are widely acknowledged as effective in promoting public health strategy, and those aimed at improving complementary feeding practices provide information about proper complementary feeding practices to caregivers of infants/children...
May 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773785/revealing-isoelectronic-size-conversion-dynamics-of-metal-nanoclusters-by-a-noncrystallization-approach
#10
Qiaofeng Yao, Victor Fung, Cheng Sun, Sida Huang, Tiankai Chen, De-En Jiang, Jim Yang Lee, Jianping Xie
Atom-by-atom engineering of nanomaterials requires atomic-level knowledge of the size evolution mechanism of nanoparticles, which remains one of the greatest mysteries in nanochemistry. Here we reveal atomic-level dynamics of size evolution reaction of molecular-like nanoparticles, i.e., nanoclusters (NCs) by delicate mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. The model size-conversion reaction is [Au23 (SR)16 ]- → [Au25 (SR)18 ]- (SR = thiolate ligand). We demonstrate that such isoelectronic (valence electron count is 8 in both NCs) size-conversion occurs by a surface-motif-exchange-induced symmetry-breaking core structure transformation mechanism, surfacing as a definitive reaction of [Au23 (SR)16 ]-  + 2 [Au2 (SR)3 ]- → [Au25 (SR)18 ]-  + 2 [Au(SR)2 ]- ...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766369/nutritional-issues-in-food-allergy
#11
REVIEW
Isabel J Skypala, Rebecca McKenzie
Diet and nutrition play an important role in the development and management of food allergy. The diet of expectant mothers can have an effect on their offspring in terms of allergic outcomes. A host of confounding factors may influence this, with a maternal diet rich in fruits and vegetables, fish, vitamin D-rich foods associated with a lower risk of allergic disease in their children. More surprisingly, the consumption of milk and butter has also been shown to have a protective effect, especially in a farm environment...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762472/weaning-time-in-preterm-infants-an-audit-of-italian-primary-care-paediatricians
#12
Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, Antonio Di Mauro, Annarita Pedico, Valentina Rizzo, Manuela Capozza, Fabio Meneghin, Gianluca Lista, Nicola Laforgia
INTRODUCTION: According to the 2016 Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) data in Italy, about 6.7% of all newborns are born prematurely. Due to the lack of data on current complementary feeding in preterm infants in Italy, the aim of the survey was to evaluate individual attitudes of primary care paediatricians, concerning the introduction of complementary foods in preterm infants. METHODS: An internet-based survey was conducted among primary care paediatricians, working in Italy, regarding (1) timing of the introduction of complementary foods to preterm newborns; (2) type of complementary foods introduced; (3) vitamin D and iron supplementations...
May 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762375/starch-consumption-patterns-in-infants-and-young-children
#13
Erin Quann, Ryan Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The introduction of starch into an infant's diet is an important milestone in the feeding journey. Intestinal maturity and the presence of digestive enzymes are necessary for the physiologic breakdown of starch and other complementary foods. However, little is known about the consumption patterns of starch containing foods during complementary feeding. METHOD: The 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) is a cross-sectional 24-hour dietary intake survey of a nationally representative sample of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers from birth to 48 months of age...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762374/structure-and-digestion-of-common-complementary-food-starches
#14
Amy Hui-Mei Lin
Starch is the major source of dietary glucose for rapid development of children. Starches from various crops naturally differ in molecular structures and properties. Cooking, processing, and storage may change their molecular properties and affect their digestibility and functionality. Starch digestion is affected by its susceptibility to α-amylase and α-glucosidase (maltase), and the susceptibility is determined by starch granule architecture and glucan structures, as well as the interaction between starch and other food components...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762373/use-of-starch-and-modified-starches-in-infant-feeding-a-historical-perspective
#15
Frank R Greer
There is a long history of the use of starch in infant feeding. Proprietary infant foods (1867-1920) contained added starch from either cereal grains or malted carbohydrates. When evaporated milk became available in the 1920s, the use of proprietary foods fell out of favor. Evaporated milk formulas were a mixture of milk, water, and modified starch or milk sugar (lactose). By the late 1920s, however, corn syrup became the most common modified starch added to evaporated milk formulas as it was widely available, inexpensive, and readily accepted...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762366/complementary-starch-feeding-of-the-young-child-starch-digestion-consortium-workshop-18
#16
Buford Nichols, William J Klish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762053/factors-associated-with-salmonella-prevalence-in-u-s-swine-grower-finisher-operations-2012
#17
Kathe E Bjork, Victoria Fields, Lindsey P Garber, Christine A Kopral
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen with diverse serotypes occurring in animal and human populations. The prevalence of the organism on swine farms has been associated with numerous risk factors, and although there are strong veterinary public health controls for preventing Salmonella from entering food, there remains interest in eradicating or controlling the organism in the preharvest environment. In this study, using data collected via the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2012 study, we describe nontyphoidal Salmonella and specific serotype prevalence on U...
May 15, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756958/poor-breastfeeding-complementary-feeding-and-dietary-diversity-in-children-and-their-relationship-with-stunting-in-rural-communities
#18
Jessica Zaragoza Cortes, Luis Eduardo Trejo Osti, Moisés Ocampo Torres, Laura Maldonado Vargas, Alicia Arminda Ortiz Gress
INTRODUCTION: stunted growth is the most common manifestation of malnutrition in México. Breastfeeding, adequate introduction of complementary feeding and dietary diversity can avoid this. OBJECTIVE: to characterize the feeding practices in children 1-24 months of age in rural communities of Hidalgo and define their relationship with stunting. METHODS: a 24-hour recall was used to obtain information. Z-scores for length-for-age (ZLA), complementary feeding (CF) and minimal dietary diversity (MDD) were determined...
February 27, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756957/nutritional-outcomes-in-children-with-epidermolysis-bullosa-long-term-follow-up
#19
Ana Paula Caio Zidório, Dryelle Oliveira Dias Leão, Kenia Mara Baiocchi De Carvalho, Eliane Said Dutra
BACKGROUND: some types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) have extracutaneous manifestations. Manifestations that limit food intake and absorption may compromise nutritional status and increasing nutritional requirements. OBJECTIVES: to investigate the following nutritional status indicators: exclusive breastfeeding duration, problems caused by the introduction of complementary foods, birth weight and length, and growth curves of children with EB. METHODS: assessment was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts...
January 19, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751757/assessment-of-the-knowledge-and-attitude-of-infants-mothers-from-bushehr-iran-on-food-security-using-anthropometric-indicators-in-2016-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Sedigheh Yeganeh, Niloofar Motamed, Saeid NajafpourBoushehri, Maryam Ravanipour
BACKGROUND: Among the main elements of food security, in terms of food usage, are knowledge and attitude. These are particularly important during the initial two years of a child's life. The present study was conducted in 2016 and aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of infants' mothers from Bushehr (Iran) towards food security using anthropometric indicators. METHODS: The present cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was performed on 400 mothers of children aged 1-2 years in Bushehr, Iran...
May 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
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