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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919734/microdamage-induced-by-in-vivo-reference-point-indentation-in-mice-is-repaired-by-osteocyte-apoptosis-mediated-remodeling
#1
Oran D Kennedy, Matin Lendhey, Peter Mauer, Anaya Philip, Jelena Basta-Pljakic, Mitchell B Schaffler
Reference Point Indentation (RPI) is a technology that is designed to measure mechanical properties that relate to bone toughness, or its ability to resist crack growth, in vivo. Independent of the mechanical parameters generated by RPI, its ability to initiate and propagate microcracks in bone is itself an interesting issue. Microcracks have a crucial biological relevance in bone, are central to its ability to maintain homeostasis. In healthy tissues, a process of targeted remodeling routinely repairs microcracks in a process mediated by osteocyte apoptosis...
December 2, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910171/results-of-computed-tomography-in-dogs-with-suspected-wooden-foreign-bodies
#2
Christopher R Lamb, Elizabeth H W Pope, Karla C L Lee
Detection of wooden foreign bodies in dogs can be challenging. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was done to describe computed tomographic (CT) signs associated with wooden foreign bodies, and to estimate the accuracy of CT for detection of wooden foreign bodies. Patient records and CT images were reviewed for 72 dogs that had a history of suspected stick injury and CT of the affected body part, or possible wooden foreign object reported on CT, and had surgical exploration during the same period of hospitalization...
December 1, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906469/corrective-osteotomy-of-a-metacarpal-deviation-caused-by-fracture-in-a-9-month-old-german-fleckvieh-heifer
#3
Theresa S Tschoner, Roberto G Köstlin, Melanie Feist
OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical treatment of a metacarpal deviation caused by an untreated Salter-Harris type I fracture in a heifer. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMAL: 9-month-old German Fleckvieh heifer. METHODS: A closing wedge osteotomy was performed to correct deviation of fused metacarpal III and IV. A triangular bone wedge was removed and the proximal and distal fragments of the bone were brought into apposition and stabilized with an 11-hole T-plate...
December 1, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894941/one-year-of-abaloparatide-a-selective-peptide-activator-of-the-pth1-receptor-increased-bone-mass-and-strength-in-ovariectomized-rats
#4
Aurore Varela, Luc Chouinard, Elisabeth Lesage, Robert Guldberg, Susan Y Smith, Paul J Kostenuik, Gary Hattersley
Abaloparatide is a novel 34 amino acid peptide selected to be a potent and selective activator of the parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1) signaling pathway. The effects of 12months of abaloparatide treatment on bone mass, bone strength and bone quality was assessed in osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats. SD rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery at 6months of age and left untreated for 3months to allow OVX-induced bone loss. Eighteen OVX rats were sacrificed after this bone depletion period, and the remaining OVX rats received daily s...
November 25, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893558/medial-femoral-condyle-free-flap-for-premaxillary-reconstruction-in-median-facial-dysplasia
#5
Jong Woo Choi, Woo Shik Jeong, Soon Man Kwon, Kyung S Koh
OBJECTIVE: Median facial dysplasia is a distinct development anomaly of the craniofacial region that is characterized by deficient mid facial structures. Medial femoral condyle free flap could be used as a bony flap, and the unique characteristics of this flap provide the surgeons with the periosteal component as well. In this work, the authors present our experience with a patient of median facial dysplasia with unilateral cleft lip, cleft palate, and premaxillary deficiency. METHODS: The patient was diagnosed with median facial dysplasia accompanied by unilateral cleft lip, cleft palate, and premaxillary...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893512/flap-designs-for-flap-advancement-during-implant-therapy-a-systematic-review
#6
Alexandra B Plonka, Rachel A Sheridan, Hom-Lay Wang
PURPOSE: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures allow ridge augmentation before or at time of implant placement. GBR outcomes rely on primary passive tension-free wound closure, which may be achieved by a variety of flap designs and surgical procedures. A comprehensive literature review of flap design and management is provided, including material types, incision design, reflection, releasing, and suturing techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two reviewers completed a literature search using the PubMed database and a manual search of relevant journals...
November 23, 2016: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889558/the-periosteal-microcirculation-in-health-and-disease-an-update-on-clinical-significance
#7
REVIEW
Andrea Szabó, Ágnes Janovszky, Levente Pócs, Mihály Boros
Apart from its nutritive functions, the periosteum critically affects bone regeneration via its stem/osteoprogenitor cell content. Normal healing after bone fractures, trauma-orthopedic interventions and invasive dental procedures is critically linked to the reestablishment of the periosteal microcirculation, but the reconstruction, replacement or repair of lost tissues may also be performed with autologous periosteum. Besides the initiation of cell differentiation during bone repair and remodeling processes, the periosteum together with the endosteum plays significant roles in the pathogenesis of both hormone-related and trauma-induced osteoporotic alterations in the bone metabolism...
November 23, 2016: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884787/loss-of-cbl-pi3k-interaction-modulates-the-periosteal-response-to-fracture-by-enhancing-osteogenic-commitment-and-differentiation
#8
Vanessa Scanlon, Bhavita Walia, Jungeun Yu, Marc Hansen, Hicham Drissi, Peter Maye, Archana Sanjay
The periosteum contains multipotent skeletal progenitors that contribute to bone repair. The signaling pathways regulating the response of periosteal cells to fracture are largely unknown. Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase (PI3K), a prominent lipid kinase, is a major signaling protein downstream of several factors that regulate osteoblast differentiation. Cbl is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a major adaptor protein that binds to the p85 regulatory subunit and modulates PI3K activity. Substitution of tyrosine 737 to phenylalanine (Y737F) in Cbl abolishes the interaction between Cbl and p85 subunit without affecting the Cbl's ubiquitin ligase function...
November 22, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882147/molecular-profiling-of-a-simple-rat-model-of-open-tibial-fractures-with-hematoma-and-periosteum-disruption
#9
Jose Rafael Villafan-Bernal, Lorenzo Franco-De La Torre, Ana Soledad Sandoval-Rodriguez, Juan Armendariz-Borunda, Juan Luis Alcala-Zermeno, Jose Alfonso Cruz-Ramos, Gabriela Lopez-Armas, Blanca Estela Ramirez-Bastidas, Gracia Viviana González-Enríquez, Emerson Armando Collazo-Guzman, Raigam Jafet Martinez-Portilla, Sergio Sánchez-Enríquez
Bone fractures are a worldwide public health concern. Therefore, improving understanding of the bone healing process at a molecular level, which could lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets, is important. In the present study, a model of open tibial fractures with hematoma disruption, periosteal rupture and internal fixation in 6-month-old male Wistar rats was established, in order to identify expression patterns of key genes and their protein products throughout the bone healing process. A tibial shaft fracture was produced using the three-point bending technique, the hematoma was drained through a 4-mm incision on the medial aspect of the tibia and the fracture stabilized by inserting a needle into the medullary canal...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879512/uhmwpe-sublaminar-wires-in-posterior-spinal-instrumentation-stability-and-biocompatibility-assessment-in-an-ovine-pilot-study
#10
Rob Bogie, Laura Voss, Jacobus J Arts, Arno Lataster, Paul C Willems, Boudewijn Brans, Lodewijk W van Rhijn, Tim J M Welting
STUDY DESIGN: An animal study. OBJECTIVE: To explore ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sublaminar wires in spinal surgery and to assess stability and biocompatibility of the UHMWPE instrumentation in an ovine model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Sublaminar wiring is a well-established technique in segmental scoliosis surgery. However, during introduction and/or removal of the metal sublaminar wires, neurological problems can occur...
December 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876575/effects-of-collagen-membrane-application-and-cortical-bone-perforation-on-de-novo-bone-formation-in-periosteal-distraction-an-experimental-study-in-a-rabbit-calvaria
#11
Ken Nakahara, Maiko Haga-Tsujimura, Kosaku Sawada, Matthias Mottini, Benoit Schaller, Nikola Saulacic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of collagen membrane application and cortical bone perforations in periosteal distraction osteogenesis. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 32 New Zealand rabbits were randomized into four experimental groups, considering two treatment modalities. Calvarial bone was perforated or left intact (P+/-). In half the animals, the distraction mesh was covered with a collagen membrane (M+/-). All animals were subjected to a 7-day latency period and a 10-day distraction period...
September 28, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870352/membranous-support-for-eyes-of-strepsirrhine-primates-and-fruit-bats
#12
Brianna M Harvey, Kunwar P Bhatnagar, Robert J Schenck, Alfred L Rosenberger, Susan J Rehorek, Anne M Burrows, Valerie B DeLeon, Timothy D Smith
Living primates have relatively large eyes and support orbital tissues with a postorbital bar (POB) and/or septum. Some mammals with large eyes lack a POB, and presumably rely on soft tissues. Here, we examined the orbits of four species of strepsirrhine primates (Galagidae, Cheirogaleidae) and three species of fruit bats (Pteropodidae). Microdissection and light microscopy were employed to identify support structures of the orbit. In bats and primates, there are two layers of fascial sheets that border the eye laterally...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870350/the-periosteum-of-the-zygomatic-arch-vascularization-and-growth
#13
Susan W Herring, Pannee Ochareon
In addition to conveying the forces of attaching muscles and ligaments to the zygomatic and temporal bones, the arch periosteum is responsible for lateral apposition and medial resorption during the growth period. In this contribution, we describe the vasculature of the zygomatic arch in young pigs (Sus scrofa dom.) in order to understand the relationship of osseous and periosteal vessels to each other, to surrounding tissues, and to patterns of modeling. Subjects 2-6 weeks of age were perfused with vascular fill; some also received the vital bone label calcein...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866322/rare-case-of-an-ancient-craniofacial-osteosarcoma-with-probable-surgical-intervention
#14
Erika Molnár, Michael Schultz, Tyede H Schmidt-Schultz, Antónia Marcsik, Krisztina Buczkó, Péter Zádori, Gergely Biró, Zsolt Bernert, Daniel Baumhoer, Tamás Hajdu
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor both today and in antiquity. Nevertheless, it is a comparatively rare tumor. This paper describes a case of a highly aggressive craniofacial lesion from the 11th-12th centuries AD, most likely representing osteosarcoma. During the paleopathological study, macroscopic, endoscopic, radiological, scanning-electron and light microscopic investigations were performed. The skull of the approximately 40-50 year-old female revealed several pathological findings...
November 19, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865001/romosozumab-improves-bone-mass-and-strength-while-maintaining-bone-quality-in-ovariectomized-cynomolgus-monkeys
#15
Michael S Ominsky, Steven K Boyd, Aurore Varela, Jacquelin Jolette, Melanie Felx, Nancy Doyle, Nacera Mellal, Susan Y Smith, Kathrin Locher, Sabina Buntich, Ian Pyrah, Rogely W Boyce
Romosozumab (Romo), a humanized sclerostin antibody, is a bone-forming agent under development for treatment of osteoporosis. To examine the effects of Romo on bone quality, mature cynomolgus monkeys (cynos) were treated 4 months post-ovariectomy (OVX) with vehicle, 3, or 30 mg/kg Romo for 12 months, or with 30 mg/kg Romo for 6 months followed by vehicle for 6 months (30/0). Serum bone formation markers were increased by Romo during the first 6 months, corresponding to increased cancellous, endocortical, and periosteal bone formation in rib and iliac biopsies at months 3 and 6...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864378/loss-of-scleraxis-in-mice-leads-to-geometric-and-structural-changes-in-cortical-bone-as-well-as-asymmetry-in-fracture-healing
#16
Jennifer A McKenzie, Evan Buettmann, Adam C Abraham, Michael J Gardner, Matthew J Silva, Megan L Killian
Scleraxis (Scx) is a known regulator of tendon development, and recent work has identified the role of Scx in bone modeling. However, the role of Scx in fracture healing has not yet been explored. This study was conducted to identify the role of Scx in cortical bone development and fracture healing. Scx (ScxGFP) reporter and Scx knockout (Scx-mutant) mice were used to assess bone morphometry and the effects of fracture healing on Scx localization and gene expression, as well as callus healing response. Botulinum toxin (BTX) was used to investigate muscle unloading effects on callus shape...
November 18, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862326/sclerostin-antibody-administration-converts-bone-lining-cells-into-active-osteoblasts
#17
Sang Wan Kim, Yanhui Lu, Elizabeth A Williams, Forest Lai, Ji Yeon Lee, Tetsuya Enishi, Deepak H Balani, Michael S Ominsky, Hua Zhu Ke, Henry M Kronenberg, Marc N Wein
Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) increases osteoblast activity, in part through increasing modeling-based bone formation on previously quiescent surfaces. Histomorphometric studies have suggested that this might occur through conversion of bone lining cells into active osteoblasts. However, direct data demonstrating Scl-Ab-induced conversion of lining cells into active osteoblasts is lacking. Here, we used in vivo lineage tracing to determine if Scl-Ab promotes the conversion of lining cells into osteoblasts on periosteal and endocortical bone surfaces in mice...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861456/dynamic-stabilization-of-simple-fractures-with-active-plates-delivers-stronger-healing-than-conventional-compression-plating
#18
Michael Bottlang, Stanley Tsai, Emily K Bliven, Brigitte von Rechenberg, Philipp Kindt, Peter Augat, Julia Henschel, Daniel C Fitzpatrick, Steven M Madey
OBJECTIVES: Active plates dynamize a fracture by elastic suspension of screw holes within the plate. We hypothesized that dynamic stabilization with active plates delivers stronger healing relative to standard compression plating. METHODS: Twelve sheep were randomized to receive either a standard compression plate (CP) or an active plate (ACTIVE) for stabilization of an anatomically reduced tibial osteotomy. In the CP group, absolute stabilization was pursued by interfragmentary compression with six cortical screws...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860377/local-application-of-lactoferrin-promotes-bone-regeneration-in-a-rat-critical-sized-calvarial-defect-model-as-demonstrated-by-micro-ct-and-histological-analysis
#19
Ryan Gao, Maureen Watson, Karen E Callon, Donna Tuari, Michael S Dray, Dorit Naot, Satya Amirapu, Jacob T Munro, Jillian Cornish, David S Musson
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein with therapeutic potential for bone tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of local application of lactoferrin on bone regeneration. Five-millimetre critical-sized defects were created over the right parietal bone in 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomized into four groups: group 1 (n = 20) had empty defects; group 2 (n = 20) had defects grafted with collagen gels (3 mg/mL); group 3 (n = 20) had defects grafted with collagen gels impregnated with bovine lactoferrin (10 µg/gel) and group 4 (n = 4) had sham surgeries (skin and periosteal incisions only)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853597/first-diagnosis-of-septic-arthritis-in-a-dinosaur
#20
Jennifer Anné, Brandon P Hedrick, Jason P Schein
Identification and interpretation of pathologies in the fossil record allows for unique insights into the life histories of extinct organisms. However, the rarity of such finds limits not only the sample size for palaeopathologic studies, but also the types of analyses that may be performed. In this study, we present the first occurrence of a palaeopathology in a vertebrate from the Mesozoic of the East Coast of North America (Appalachia), a pathologic ulna and radius of an indeterminate hadrosaur from the Navesink Formation (New Jersey)...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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