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Farahnaz Golriz, Lane F Donnelly, Sridevi Devaraj, Raj Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND: Until recently scurvy has been viewed in developed countries as a disease of the past. More recently there have been reports of case series of children with scurvy who have had a delayed diagnosis after an extensive diagnostic workup that included imaging. Most of these children have had underlying neurologic conditions such as autism. OBJECTIVE: To review the medical records of children diagnosed with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency based on serum ascorbic acid levels at a large pediatric health care system, to determine imaging findings and utility of imaging in management, and to identify at-risk pediatric populations...
October 24, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
B C C Khoo, J K Brown, R L Prince
OBJECTIVES: In recent years quantitative computed tomography (QCT) has allowed precise non-invasive, three dimensional, in vivo measurement of hip structure in large numbers of individuals. The effects of ageing on proximal femur structure are reported and implications for the prevention of hip prosthesis loosening and hip fracture considered. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: An observational cross-sectional study of proximal femur QCT in 719 unselected female European descent aged 20 to 89 years recruited from US and Australian populations...
2016: PloS One
Roderick J Finlayson, Atikun Thonnagith, Maria Francisca Elgueta, Jordi Perez, John-Paul B Etheridge, De Q H Tran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Novel multitined cannulae constitute an attractive option for ultrasound-guided radiofrequency neurotomy of cervical medial branches. The deployment tines increase the cannula's active area, thus altering its lesion size. Despite their theoretical benefits, multitined cannulae have not been assessed. In this bench study, we sought to investigate the lesions produced by a standard 18-gauge and 2 commercially available multitined deployment cannulae. We created ex vivo models to evaluate lesion morphology at a periosteal interface using approach angles likely to be encountered during an ultrasound-guided technique...
October 21, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
A L Adams, F Xue, J Q Chantra, R M Dell, S M Ott, S Silverman, J C Giaconi, C Critchlow
: Using the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Task Force case definition for atypical femoral fractures, sensitivity and specificity of radiographic fracture characteristics were calculated. Fracture pattern was the most sensitive and specific characteristic. This suggests that some characteristics should be weighted more heavily when identifying these fractures. INTRODUCTION: To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of each radiographic criterion in the 2013 ASBMR atypical femoral fracture (AFF) case definition for distinguishing AFF from other subtrochanteric/diaphyseal fractures (non-AFF) among women enrolled in a large integrated health care organization...
October 21, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Apeksha Chaturvedi, R A C Dilhani Ranasinghe, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Steven P Meyers
BACKGROUND: Lesions involving the outer cortical surface of the bone occur quite often among children. Broadly, these include benign cortical, juxtacortical and periarticular lesions, dysplasias affecting the cortical bone, regional and diffuse periosteal pathology and malignant tumours. Some of these lesions are unique to the paediatric population; others are more frequently seen among children than adults - yet others have an adult predilection but can occasionally be seen in children...
October 19, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Gabriela Abrego, Julio García, Bruce Gilbert, Scott Forseen, Michael Toscano
Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon extra nodal disease that represents about 1-3% of lymphoma cases. Imaging findings are variable and non-specific. Computed tomography may demonstrate lytic lesions with sequestra and periosteal reaction. On magnetic resonance imaging, lesions are T1WI hypointense and T2WI hyperintense, related to peritumoral edema or bone marrow replacement. Rarely lesions may have associated fibrosis and show a more hypointense signal pattern on T2WI. After administration of contrast, PBL tends to enhance avidly...
September 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Paul J M Salmon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Aurore Varela, Luc Chouinard, Elisabeth Lesage, Susan Y Smith, Gary Hattersley
Abaloparatide is a novel 34-amino acid peptide selected to be a potent and selective activator of the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) signaling pathway with 41% homology to PTH(1-34) and 76% homology to PTHrP(1-34). A 12-month treatment study was conducted in osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats to characterize the mechanisms by which abaloparatide increases bone mass. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery at age 6 months and left untreated for 3 months to allow OVX-induced bone loss...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Hideo Masuki, Toshimitsu Okudera, Taisuke Watanebe, Masashi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Nishiyama, Hajime Okudera, Koh Nakata, Kohya Uematsu, Chen-Yao Su, Tomoyuki Kawase
BACKGROUND: The development of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) drastically simplified the preparation procedure of platelet-concentrated biomaterials, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and facilitated their clinical application. PRF's clinical effectiveness has often been demonstrated in pre-clinical and clinical studies; however, it is still controversial whether growth factors are significantly concentrated in PRF preparations to facilitate wound healing and tissue regeneration. To address this matter, we performed a comparative study of growth factor contents in PRP and its derivatives, such as advanced PRF (A-PRF) and concentrated growth factors (CGF)...
December 2016: Int J Implant Dent
Yukimori Isoda, Eisaku Imamura, Daisuke Ueno, Tsubasa Akaike, Yoshiki Hamada
Iliac particulate cancellous bone and marrow (PCBM) is still the most predictable autogenous graft material for vertical ridge reconstruction because of its high cell content as well as osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. However, postoperative meralgia paresthetica, gait disturbance, pain, and bleeding have been reported following conventional harvesting from the anterior iliac crest. We present a case of minimally invasive harvesting of iliac PCBM. A short incision was made, and the iliac crest was exposed after elevation of the periosteal membrane...
December 2016: Int J Implant Dent
Yeongu Chung, Sung Ho Lee, Seok Keun Choi
BACKGROUND: Superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass is associated with several surgical problems. Despite the vascular patency and hemodynamic changes after the anastomosis, wound problems can be a major surgical complication. METHODS: In a review of 41 surgical cases of STA-MCA bypass for moyamoya disease or cerebral occlusive vascular diseases, we compared the conventional ("Out-to-In") dissection method for STA (n=23) with the "In-to-Out" (ITO) dissection method (n=18) and evaluated the surgical results with respect to wound problems...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Tao Wang, Xinping Zhang, Daniel D Bikle
5-10% of fractures fail to heal normally leading to additional surgery, morbidity, and altered quality of life. Fracture healing involves the coordinated action of stem cells primarily coming from the periosteum which differentiate into the chondrocytes and osteoblasts, forming first the soft (cartilage) callus followed by the hard (bone) callus. These stem cells are accompanied by a vascular invasion that appears critical for the differentiation process and which may enable the entry of osteoclasts necessary for the remodeling of the callus into mature bone...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kyung Hyun Kim, Yun Hwa Jung, Chi Wha Han, In Sook Woo, Jong Ho Son
BACKGROUND Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a relatively rare subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Like other types of NHL, ALCL primarily involves the nodal area, and sometimes it can involve several extra-nodal sites such as skin, soft tissue, and lungs. However, extensive bone involvement in cases of ALCL is very rare whether it is primary or secondary. Without nodular involvement, ALCL can be misdiagnosed as bone tumor or metastatic carcinoma such as lung, breast, or prostate cancer, which frequently spread to bone...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Helen D Donoghue
Tuberculosis is a significant global disease today, so understanding its origins and history is important. It is primarily a lung infection and is transmitted by infectious aerosols from person to person, so a high population density encourages its spread. The causative organism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen in the M. tuberculosis complex that also contains closely related species, such as Mycobacterium bovis, that primarily infect animals. Typical bone lesions occur in about 5% of untreated infections...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Jorge Delgado, Diego Jaramillo, Nancy A Chauvin
Increased physical activity in childhood has resulted in a large number of sports-related injuries. Although there is overlap between the sports-related injuries seen in pediatric and adult patients, important differences exist in the injury patterns of pediatric patients. These differences are related to the continuous changes in the developing skeleton and its relationship with adjacent soft tissues. The imbalance in strength between the growing bones and the nearby tendons and ligaments makes the bones prone to acute and chronic injuries...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
J Delgado-Calle, X Tu, R Pacheco-Costa, K McAndrews, R Edwards, G Pellegrini, K Kuhlenschmidt, N Olivos, A Robling, M Peacock, L I Plotkin, T Bellido
Osteocytes integrate the responses of bone to mechanical and hormonal stimuli by mechanisms poorly understood. We report here that mice with conditional deletion of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor 1 (Pth1r) in DMP1-8kb-expressing cells (cKO) exhibit a modest decrease in bone resorption leading to a mild increase in cancellous bone without changes in cortical bone. However, bone resorption in response to endogenous chronic elevation of PTH in growing or adult cKO mice induced by a low calcium diet remained intact, as the increased bone remodeling and bone loss was indistinguishable from that exhibited by control littermates...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Antonio Cortese, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Antonio Borri, Mario Caggiano, Massimo Amato
INTRODUCTION: Some studies have demonstrated that platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is a healing biomaterial with a great potential for bone and soft tissue regeneration, without any inflammatory reactions and may be used alone or in combination with bone grafts, promoting hemostasis, bone growth, and maturation. PRF appears as a natural and satisfactory aid in bone regenerative surgery in elderly patients with favorable results and low risks. AIM: This study wants to demonstrate how PRF in association with a new split crest augmentation technique can be a great aid in implant rehabilitation, especially in the elderly patients, when bone regeneration is required...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
C Blake Perry, Richard C Allen
INTRODUCTION: Repair of large defects of the lower eyelid can be difficult. A common procedure performed to address these defects is a Hughes flap. This procedure has a number of disadvantages: The eye is closed postoperatively, a second stage is required, and the edge of the flap is often erythematous. The purpose of this paper is to describe a one-stage procedure for the repair of large full-thickness defects of the lower lid as an alternative to a Hughes flap. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent the described procedure...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Christina Vrahnas, Thomas A Pearson, Athena R Brunt, Mark R Forwood, Keith R Bambery, Mark J Tobin, T John Martin, Natalie A Sims
Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is used to stimulate bone formation in patients with osteoporosis. A reduction in the degree of matrix mineralisation has been reported during treatment, which may reflect either production of undermineralised matrix or a greater proportion of new matrix within the bone samples assessed. To explore these alternatives, high resolution synchrotron-based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy (sFTIRM) coupled with calcein labelling was used in a region of non-remodelling cortical bone to determine bone composition during anabolic PTH treatment compared with region-matched samples from controls...
September 28, 2016: Bone
Germán Montoya-Sanhueza, Anusuya Chinsamy
Patterns of bone development in mammals are best known from terrestrial and cursorial groups, but there is a considerable gap in our understanding of how specializations for life underground affect bone growth and development. Likewise, studies of bone microstructure in wild populations are still scarce, and they often include few individuals and tend to be focused on adults. For these reasons, the processes generating bone microstructural variation at intra- and interspecific levels are not fully understood...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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