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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143443/multiscale-characterisation-of-cortical-bone-composition-microstructure-and-nanomechanical-properties-in-experimentally-induced-osteoporosis
#1
Furqan A Shah, Adrian Stoica, Carina Cardemil, Anders Palmquist
Cortical bone plays a vital role in determining overall bone strength. We investigate the structural, compositional, and nanomechanical properties of cortical bone following ovariectomy (OVX) of 12 week old Sprague Dawley rats, since this animal model is frequently employed to evaluate the performance of implantable biomaterials in compromised bone healing conditions. Morphological parameters and material properties of bone in the geometrical centre of the femoral cortex were investigated four and eight weeks post-OVX and in unoperated controls (Ctrl), using X-ray micro-computed tomography, backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125707/vascularized-humeral-periosteal-flap-to-treat-lateral-humeral-condyle-nonunion-an-anatomical-study-and-report-of-two-successfully-treated-pediatric-cases
#2
S Sergi Barrera-Ochoa, Francisco Soldado, Alfonso Rodriguez-Baeza, Paula Diaz-Gallardo, Felipe Hodgson, Pablo S Corona, Jorge Knörr
PURPOSE: Nonunion is a common complication of lateral condyle humeral (LCH) fractures in children. In situ fixation with a screw and bone grafting is the classically-recommended method of treatment. The purpose of this study is to analyze the feasibility of obtaining a vascularized periosteal flap obtained from the lateral humerus and based on the posterior collateral radial vessels (PCRV). Second, to report the results after the application in two pediatric cases. METHODS: Periosteal branches of PCRV were studied in ten upper limbs from fresh human cadavers...
November 10, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125481/identification-of-serum-mir-124-as-a-biomarker-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-in-osteosarcoma
#3
Chunlei Cong, Wenbo Wang, Jun Tian, Tianqi Gao, Weizhuo Zheng, Changlin Zhou
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the carcinogenesis of osteosarcoma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum miR-124 in osteosarcoma. METHODS: The serum miR-124 expression levels in 114 osteosarcoma patients, 40 periostitis patients and 50 normal controls were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
November 3, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124297/complete-resolution-and-remodeling-of-chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-on-mri-and-radiographs
#4
Y J Berkowitz, S J Greenwood, G Cribb, K Davies, V N Cassar-Pullicino
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare condition thought to be under-diagnosed, with a true prevalence of more than the 1 in 10,000 estimated. It is a condition that is classically described as polyostotic with a relapsing and remitting course, preferentially affecting the metaphyses of tubular bones in the pediatric population. Lesions have characteristic appearances of cortical hyperostosis and mixed lytic/sclerotic medullary appearances radiographically, with active osteitis and periostitis best seen with fluid-sensitive sequences on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 9, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122117/plate-versus-intramedullary-fixation-of-two-part-and-multifragmentary-displaced-midshaft-clavicle-fractures-a-long-term-analysis
#5
Gareth Chan, Zelimir Korac, Matija Miletic, Dinko Vidovic, Joideep Phadnis, Bore Bakota
INTRODUCTION: Surgical fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures is predominantly achieved with intramedullary (IM) or plate fixation. Both techniques have potential pitfalls: plate fixation involves greater periosteal stripping and protuberance of the implant, whereas IM fixation may be associated with implant-related complications, such as migration or skin irritation, which may lead to further surgery for implant removal. The aim of this study was to compare these two methods in simple (Robinson 2b...
November 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113210/analysis-of-imaging-characteristics-of-primary-malignant-bone-tumors-in-children
#6
Yingwei Sun, Xueyong Liu, Shinong Pan, Chunbo Deng, Xiaohan Li, Qiyong Guo
The present study aimed to investigate the imaging characteristics of primary malignant bone tumors in children. The imaging results of 34 children with primary malignant bone tumors confirmed by histopathological diagnosis between March 2008 and January 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. In total, 25 patients had osteosarcoma, with radiography and computed tomography (CT) showing osteolytic bone destruction or/and osteoblastic bone sclerosis, an aggressive periosteal reaction, a soft-tissue mass and cancerous bone...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106746/low-dose-lithium-regimen-enhances-endochondral-fracture-healing-in-osteoporotic-rodent-bone
#7
Kathak Vachhani, Cari Whyne, Yufa Wang, David Burns, Diane Nam
Osteoporotic bone fractures are highly prevalent and involve lengthy recovery. Lithium, commonly used in psychiatric medicine, inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, leading to up-regulation of osteogenesis. Our recent preclinical work demonstrated that a 20mg/kg lithium dose administered beginning 7 days post-fracture for 14 days optimally improved femoral fracture healing in healthy rats at 4 weeks post fracture (46% higher torsional strength). In this study, lithium treatment was evaluated for healing of osteoporotic bone fractures...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089254/biocompatibility-and-degradation-properties-of-we43-mg-alloys-with-and-without-heat-treatment-in%C3%A2-vivo-evaluation-and-comparison-in-a-cranial-bone-sheep-model
#8
Andrea Torroni, Chongchen Xiang, Lukasz Witek, Eduardo D Rodriguez, Paulo G Coelho, Nikhil Gupta
PURPOSE: Orthopedic and maxillofacial bone fractures are routinely treated by titanium internal fixation, which may be prone to exposure, infection or intolerance. Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys represent promising alternatives to produce biodegradable osteosynthesis devices, with biocompatibility and, specifically, hydrogen gas production during the degradation process, being the main drawback. Aim of this study is to test and compare biocompatibility, degradation rate and physiscochemical properties of two Mg-alloys to identify which one possesses the most suitable characteristics to be used as resorbable hardware in load-bearing fracture sites...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081377/the-effect-of-switching-from-teriparatide-to-anti-rankl-antibody-on-cancellous-and-cortical-bone-in-ovariectomized-mice
#9
Toshinobu Omiya, Jun Hirose, Tomoka Hasegawa, Norio Amizuka, Yasunori Omata, Naohiro Izawa, Hisataka Yasuda, Yuho Kadono, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Takeshi Miyamoto, Sakae Tanaka
We examined the effect of teriparatide, and switching from teriparatide to anti-RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) monoclonal antibody, in ovariectomized mice. Twelve-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized or sham operated. Four weeks after surgery, ovariectomized mice were subjected to one of the following four treatments: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 8weeks; teriparatide for 4weeks followed by PBS for 4weeks (PTH4W group); teriparatide for 8weeks (PTH8W group); or teriparatide for 4weeks followed by anti-RANKL antibody (single subcutaneous injection of 5mg/kg) (SWITCH group)...
November 2, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077068/reg-gene-expression-in-periosteum-after-fracture-and-its-in-vitro-induction-triggered-by-il-6
#10
Yasuaki Tohma, Yoshiko Dohi, Ryogo Shobatake, Tomoko Uchiyama, Maiko Takeda, Shin Takasawa, Yasuhito Tanaka, Hajime Ohgushi
The periosteum is a thin membrane that surrounds the outer surface of bones and participates in fracture healing. However, the molecular signals that trigger/initiate the periosteal reaction are not well established. We fractured the rat femoral bone at the diaphysis and fixed it with an intramedullary inserted wire, and the expression of regenerating gene (Reg) I, which encodes a tissue regeneration/growth factor, was analyzed. Neither bone/marrow nor muscle showed RegI gene expression before or after the fracture...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069393/sclerostin-antibody-reverses-bone-loss-by-increasing-bone-formation-and-decreasing-bone-resorption-in-a-rat-model-of-male-osteoporosis
#11
Xiaodong Li, Michael S Ominsky, Kelly S Villasenor, Qing-Tian Niu, Frank J Asuncion, Xuechun Xia, Mario Grisanti, Thomas J Wronski, W Scott Simonet, Hua Zhu Ke
Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) restored bone mass and strength in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increased bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased skeletal fragility fracture risk have been reported in postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving Scl-Ab. In males, loss of androgen leads to rapid decreases in BMD and increased risk for fragility fractures. We hypothesized that Scl-Ab could reverse the loss of bone mass and strength caused by androgen ablation in the orchiectomized (ORX) rat model of male osteoporosis...
October 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064765/examination-of-local-periosteal-microcirculation-after-application-of-absorbable-and-non-absorbable-membranes
#12
Anna Joop, Björn Rahlf, Nils-Claudius Gellrich, Andreas Kampmann, Constantin von See, Marcus Stoetzer
The use of different membranes is common in dentoalveolar surgery. Absorbable and non-absorbable membranes are used, often beneath the periosteum, in order to fulfil different functions (as barriers, patches, spacers, etc.). It is still unclear to what extent such membranes affect the biology of the periosteum and what role is played by the use of piezoelectric devices during preparation of the periosteum. We placed two different membranes (absorbable and non-absorbable) underneath the periosteum of rat calvariae...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062647/anatomical-study-of-perfusion-of-a-periosteal-flap-with-a-lateral-pedicle
#13
Boktae Kim, Yoshikazu Inoue, Nobuaki Imanishi, Hak Chang, Yusuke Shimizu, Takayuki Okumoto, Kazuo Kishi
BACKGROUND: Pedicled periosteal flaps are commonly used for tissue defects between the base of the skull and the midfacial area. This study aimed to clarify the 3-dimensional vascular distribution of temporal region flaps. METHODS: Ten fresh cadavers were used. Full-thickness cranial flaps were elevated from the cranial bone and each layer was detached separately. Contrast enhancement of the full thickness of the scalp, macroscopic evaluation, and histologic analyses were performed...
September 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058054/long-term-high-dose-resveratrol-supplementation-reduces-bone-mass-and-fracture-strength-in-rats
#14
Marie Juul Ornstrup, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Torben Harsløf, Bente Lomholt Langdahl, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenolic compound. A recent study suggests a positive effect on BMD in men; however, the underlying changes in microstructure and strength remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of RSV on the skeleton in hindlimb-immobilized and non-immobilized rats. Seventy-two female Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Two baseline (BSL) groups underwent short-term diet intervention for 4 weeks before sacrifice [phytoestrogen-deficient diet (PD) (BSL + PD) or RSV diet (600 mg/kg body weight/day) (BSL + RSV)]...
October 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046472/-surgical-treatment-of-a-giant-olfactory-groove-schwannoma-a-case-report
#15
Takashi Fujii, Naoki Otani, Kazuma Doi, Masataka Miyama, Yohei Otsuka, Takashi Matsumoto, Toru Yoshiura, Satoru Takeuchi, Satoshi Tomura, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, Kojiro Wada, Kentaro Mori
Schwannomas originating from the olfactory nerve are extremely rare because the olfactory nerve does not normally contain Schwann cells. We describe a case of a giant schwannoma of the olfactory groove. A 73-year-old woman presented with anosmia persisting for 10 months. Head computed tomography(CT)for head trauma at another hospital demonstrated a tumor lesion located in the left frontal lobe and paranasal sinus. She had never suffered epilepsy, and past medical history and family history identified no indicators...
October 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044091/management-of-a-case-of-divergent-strabismus-fixus-secondary-to-a-congenital-fibrosis-of-extraocular-muscles-type-2
#16
Jyoti Himanshu Matalia, Pratibha Panmand, Pooja Ghalla
A 17-year-old boy presented with a large exotropia with both eyes fixed in an abduction and upgaze, pupillary involvement since childhood. He had mild optic nerve hypoplasia in the right eye and situs inversus of the retinal vessels in the left optic disc. His ocular motility showed restriction of eye movements in all gazes. He was diagnosed with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles, type 2 (CFEOM2) and operated upon in a staged procedure with a satisfactory eye alignment using hang-back sutures in one eye and periosteal fixation in the other...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042719/a-novel-conservative-approach-combining-sealbio-and-surgical-fenestration-for-healing-of-large-periapical-cystic-lesions-of-endodontic-origin-a-pilot-study
#17
Naseem Shah
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the treatment outcome of large periapical cystic lesions treated by combining two novel, conservative approaches, "SealBio" and "Surgical Fenestration". MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five cases (4M:1F, age range 14-38 years, mean age 24.5 years) of large periapical cystic lesions, diagnosed on clinical and radiographic examination, were included in the study. After informed consent, endodontic treatment was initiated; chemo-mechanical preparation and intra-canal dressing of calcium hydroxide was given...
July 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037743/the-effect-of-platelet-rich-fibrin-on-autologous-osteochondral-transplantation-an-in-vivo-porcine-model
#18
S Y Sheu, C H Wang, Y H Pao, Y T Fu, C H Liu, C H Yao, T F Kuo
BACKGROUND: This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cartilage transplantation to the medial femoral condyle±platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) augmentation in a porcine model. The hypothesis of the study was that PRF may act as a bioactive cell scaffold to fill defects and enhance cartilage regeneration. METHODS: Thirty-two knees of 16 miniature pigs were randomly assigned to four groups. The critical-size osteochondral defects (8x5mm) in femoral condyle of both knees were treated with one of the following: group 1-untreated controls; group 2-cartilage fragments alone; group 3-PRF alone; group 4-PRFT+cartilage fragments...
October 13, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037583/landmarks-for-the-preservation-of-the-middle-temporal-artery-during-mastoid-surgery-cadaveric-dissection-study
#19
Pedram Daraei, Douglas E Mattox
IMPORTANCE: The middle temporal artery flap is a vascularized periosteal flap that is highly useful for otologic reconstruction including the middle cranial fossa, mastoidectomy defect, and external auditory canal. The course of the artery is close to the external auditory canal and is easily injured during preliminary exposure and elevation of flaps. OBJECTIVES: To describe the course of the middle temporal artery in relation to the external auditory canal and the superficial temporal artery in order to enhance preservation and use in otologic reconstruction...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025613/the-treatment-of-long-bones-nonunions-of-upper-limb-with-microsurgical-cortico-periosteal-free-flap
#20
Matteo Guzzini, Riccardo Maria Lanzetti, Dario Perugia, Domenico Lupariello, Antonio Vadalà, Marco Guidi, Carolina Civitenga, Andrea Ferretti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Medial condyle corticoperiosteal flap is an emerging option for the treatment of upper limb non-infected nonunions. The hypothesis of our study is that corticoperiosteal flap could be an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of upper limb non-infected nonunions, evaluating radiographic and clinical outcome. METHODS: We enrolled 14 patients who underwent vascularized medial femoral condyle corticoperiosteal free flaps from January 2011 to December 2014...
October 2017: Injury
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