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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821457/spontaneous-mutation-of-dock7-results-in-lower-trabecular-bone-mass-and-impaired-periosteal-expansion-in-aged-female-misty-mice
#1
Phuong T Le, Kathleen A Bishop, David E Maridas, Katherine J Motyl, Daniel J Brooks, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary L Bouxsein, Clifford J Rosen
Misty mice (m/m) have a loss of function mutation in Dock7 gene, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, resulting in low bone mineral density, uncoupled bone remodeling and reduced bone formation. Dock7 has been identified as a modulator of osteoblast number and in vitro osteogenic differentiation in calvarial osteoblast culture. In addition, m/m exhibit reduced preformed brown adipose tissue innervation and temperature as well as compensatory increase in beige adipocyte markers. While the low bone mineral density phenotype is in part due to higher sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive in young mice, it is unclear what effect aging would have in mice homozygous for the mutation in the Dock7 gene...
August 15, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820323/non-surgical-model-for-alveolar-bone-regeneration-by-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-7-gene-therapy
#2
Mariko Kawai, Yo-Hei Kataoka, Junya Sonobe, Hiromitsu Yamamoto, Masakazu Inubushi, Takuya Ishimoto, Takayoshi Nakano, Hiroki Maruyama, Jun-Ichi Miyazaki, Toshio Yamamoto, Kazuhisa Bessho, Kiyoshi Ohura
BACKGROUND: Alveolar bone is a critical tissue for tooth retention; however, once alveolar bone is lost, it may not spontaneously regenerate. Currently, bone grafts or artificial bone are commonly used for alveolar bone regeneration therapy. However, these therapies require surgical procedures, which present risks, particularly in aged patients. Therefore, the development of alveolar bone regeneration techniques that do not require surgical procedures is critical. It is well known that stem cells present in the periosteal and periodontal ligament may be induced to differentiate into osteogenic cells...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812206/differences-in-femoral-neck-structure-between-elderly-caucasian-and-chinese-populations-a-cross-sectional-study-of-perth-beijing-cohorts
#3
L Wang, B C C Khoo, X G Cheng, K Brown, J R Lewis, Y B Su, Z Guo, K Li, R L Prince
Structural skeletal differences of the femoral neck of older Beijing-Chinese and Perth-Caucasian women were compared; adjusting for frame size-related differences, Beijing-Chinese have lower periosteal width; however, indices of internal bone distribution suggest that Beijing-Chinese may exhibit increased resistance to fracture that may relate to the reduced hip fracture incidence. INTRODUCTION: Ethnic differences in skeletal structure may relate to differences in hip fracture risk in Chinese and Caucasian populations...
August 15, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810926/the-association-between-sonographic-enthesitis-and-radiographic-damage-in-psoriatic-arthritis
#4
Ari Polachek, Richard Cook, Vinod Chandran, Dafna D Gladman, Lihi Eder
BACKGROUND: To examine the association between sonographic enthesitis and the severity of radiographic features of damage in the peripheral and axial joints in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in patients with PsA. The MAdrid Sonography Enthesitis Index (MASEI) scoring system was used to quantify the extent of sonographic entheseal abnormalities. Radiographic damage in the peripheral joints and spine was assessed by the modified Steinbrocker score (mSS), Modified New York Criteria for sacroiliitis, and the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS)...
August 15, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806248/bone-spect-ct-localizes-increased-bone-metabolism-and-subsequent-bone-resorption-in-reflex-sympathetic-dystrophy
#5
Hidetoshi Narimatsu, Tadaki Nakahara, Sayuri Kodama, Hiromi Hisazumi, Shinichi Tominaga, Kiyoshi Ohkuma, Masahiro Jinzaki
A 64-year-old man with lung cancer with a history of revascularization of the occluded right femoral artery underwent bone scintigraphy, which showed intense uptake in the distal side of the right leg. The additional SPECT/CT clarified that the uptake was predominantly increased in the epiphyses of the right ankle and foot with possible osteopenia. One month later, follow-up SPECT/CT showed the manifestation of periosteal resorption in the hypermetabolic sites with slight decrease in bone metabolism. Radiological correlation between bone metabolism and subsequent bone resorption in addition to clinical symptoms in this patient suggested the diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804639/tuberculosis-joint-infections-in-four-domestic-cats
#6
Stephanie M Lalor, Stephen Clarke, Jonathan Pink, Andrew Parry, Emma Scurrell, Noel Fitzpatrick, Fraje Watson, Conor O'Halloran, Danielle Gunn-Moore
CASE SERIES SUMMARY: This paper describes the clinical presentation, diagnostic imaging findings and outcome in four cats with confirmed joint-associated tuberculosis. The cats were 2-6 years of age, and immune competent. Three cases had tuberculosis affecting only one joint, whereas one case had at least three joints affected. Two cases were caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and the other two were caused by Mycobacterium microti. Radiological findings included osteolysis, periosteal reaction and associated soft tissue swelling...
July 2017: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797511/conditions-simulating-primary-bone-neoplasms
#7
REVIEW
Jodi M Carter, Benjamin Matthew Howe, Carrie Y Inwards
A number of nonneoplastic conditions can mimic tumors of bone. Some of the more common mimics of primary bone tumors include infectious, inflammatory, periosteal, and degenerative joint disease-associated lesions that produce tumorlike bone surface-based or intraosseous lesions. This article considers a spectrum of reactive and nonreactive processes including stress fracture, subchondral cysts, osteonecrosis, heterotopic ossification, osteomyelitis, sarcoidosis, and amyloidoma that can present in such a way that they are mistaken for a tumor arising primary in bone...
September 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797501/integrating-morphology-and-genetics-in-the-diagnosis-of-cartilage-tumors
#8
REVIEW
Carlos E de Andrea, Mikel San-Julian, Judith V M G Bovée
Cartilage-forming tumors of bone are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different molecular mechanisms involved. Enchondromas are benign hyaline cartilage-forming tumors of medullary bone caused by mutations in IDH1 or IDH2. Osteochondromas are benign cartilage-capped bony projections at the surface of bone. IDH mutations are also found in dedifferentiated and periosteal chondrosarcoma. A recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 fusion characterizes mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Molecular changes are increasingly used to improve diagnostic accuracy in chondrosarcomas...
September 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792122/acceleration-of-fracture-healing-by-overexpression-of-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-in-the-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#9
Hongliang Zhang, Alexander Kot, Yu-An E Lay, Fernando A Fierro, Haiyan Chen, Nancy E Lane, Wei Yao
In this study, we engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to over-express basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and evaluated its effects on fracture healing. Adipose-derived mouse MSCs were transduced to express bFGF and green fluorescence protein (ADSC(bFGF) -GFP). Closed-femoral fractures were performed with osterix-mCherry reporter mice of both sexes. The mice received 3 × 10(5) ADSCs transfected with control vector or bFGF via intramuscular injection within or around the fracture sites. Mice were euthanized at days 7, 14, and 35 to monitor MSC engraftment, osteogenic differentiation, callus formation, and bone strength...
August 9, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790485/bone-wasn-t-built-in-a-day-destruction-and-formation-of-bone-in-the-rheumatic-diseases
#10
Ellen M Gravallese
The hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis is synovitis, or inflammation of synovial tissues lining joints. Synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis promotes destruction of articular bone by inducing the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, leading to significant patient morbidity. The cell types and pathways mediating articular bone destruction have now been elucidated and the critical role of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand has been recognized, leading to the identification of new targets for the protection of articular bone...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780005/the-role-of-the-periosteal-sleeve-in-the-reconstruction-of-bone-defects-using-a-non-vascularised-fibula-graft-in-the-pediatric-population
#11
N Christina Steiger, Pierre Journeau, Pierre Lascombes
BACKGROUND: Following resection of large benign bone tumors surgeons are confronted with bone defects severely affecting the stability of a limb. To restore the mechanical continuity of the bone different treatment methods using bone grafts have been described. In pediatric patients the thick periosteal sleeve is thought to contribute to bone formation. HYPOTHESIS: An intact periosteal sleeve is crucial in bone remodelling around a non-vascularised fibular graft used to bridge large bone defects...
August 2, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765053/metatarsal-periosteal-plantar-ganglion-cyst-associated-with-stress-fracture-a-case-report
#12
Kenji Serigano, Masayoshi Ikeda, Tadashi Nukaga, Masahiko Watanabe
We encountered a rare case of a periosteal ganglion cyst at the plantar aspect of the metatarsal that induced a stress fracture in a 77-year-old female. The clinical manifestation of the plantar ganglion cyst of the foot was not evident because of its location deep beneath the plantar fascia. A pressure cortical indentation was detected at the metatarsal neck on the initial radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a stress fracture of the metatarsal with a ganglion cyst. The stress fracture was thought to have resulted from several factors, including structural weakness due to bony absorption from the ganglion cyst, osteoporosis that induced a fragility fracture, and a load-induced fatigue fracture...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764916/outcome-of-oscillating-saw-open-osteotomy-in-two-stage-lower-extremity-bone-transport-with-monolateral-frame
#13
Pablo S Corona, Luis J Ramirez-Nuñez, Carles Amat, Luis Carrera
INTRODUCTION: Bone transport techniques have been widely used to solve massive bone defects due to trauma, osteomyelitis or bone tumors. The technique of bone interruption to achieve better new bone formation is a subject of debate. Low-energy osteotomy (LEO) techniques have been proposed as the gold standard. Some authors reject open osteotomy with an oscillating saw (OOS osteotomy), based on the danger of bone tissue thermal necrosis and periosteal damage. To date, however, there is no strong clinical evidence to discourage this high-energy (HEO) bone interruption technique...
July 25, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761877/basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-anchored-multilayered-mesenchymal-cell-sheets-accelerate-periosteal-bone-formation
#14
Kentaro Uchida, Gen Inoue, Osamu Matsushita, Kyosuke Horikawa, Hiroyuki Sekiguchi, Wataru Saito, Shotaro Takano, Hisako Fujimaki, Masayuki Miyagi, Masashi Takaso
Cell-based regenerative therapy has the potential to repair bone injuries or large defects that are recalcitrant to conventional treatment methods, including drugs and surgery. Here, we developed a multilayered cell-based bone formation system using cells coated with fibronectin-gelatin (FN-G) nanofilms. The multilayered mesenchymal cells (MLMCs) were formed after two days of culture and were shown to express higher levels of BMP-2 and VEGF compared to monolayer cultures of MCs. The MLMCs were used as a graft material in combination with a fusion protein consisting of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), polycystic kidney disease (PKD) domain, and the collagen-binding domain (CBD) of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760713/histopathological-comparison-of-bone-healing-effects-of-endonasal-and-percutaneous-lateral-osteotomy-methods-in-rabbit-rhinoplasty-model
#15
Şahin Öğreden, Sedat Rüzgar, Hasan Deniz Tansuker, Ümit Taşkın, Yalcin Alimoglu, Salih Aydın, Mehmet Faruk Oktay, Uğur İzol
INTRODUCTION: Lateral osteotomy is mainly performed either endonasally or percutaneously in rhinoplasty which is a frequently performed operation for the correction of nasal deformities. Both techniques have both advantages and disadvantages relative to each other. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the histopathological effects of endonasal and percutaneous osteotomy techniques performed in rhinoplasty on bone healing and nasal stability in an experimental animal model...
July 17, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752112/lacunar-canalicular-network-in-femoral-cortical-bone-is-reduced-in-aged-women-and-is-predominantly-due-to-a-loss-of-canalicular-porosity
#16
A M Ashique, L S Hart, C D L Thomas, J G Clement, P Pivonka, Y Carter, D D Mousseau, D M L Cooper
The lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) of bone contains osteocytes and their dendritic extensions, which allow for intercellular communication, and are believed to serve as the mechanosensors that coordinate the processes of bone modeling and remodeling. Imbalances in remodeling, for example, are linked to bone disease, including fragility associated with aging. We have reported that there is a reduction in scale for one component of the LCN, osteocyte lacunar volume, across the human lifespan in females. In the present study, we explore the hypothesis that canalicular porosity also declines with age...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750038/low-calcium-diet-increases-4t1-mammary-tumor-carcinoma-cell-burden-and-bone-pathology-in-mice
#17
Wendan Wang, Jody L Gordon, Kenneth A Philbrick, Xujuan Yang, Adam J Branscum, Christiane V Löhr, Wanda M Haschek, Russell T Turner, Urszula T Iwaniec, William G Helferich
Breast cancer metastasizes to bone in the majority of patients with advanced disease. We investigated the effects of inadequate dietary calcium (Ca) on bone turnover, tumor growth, and bone response to tumor in tibia inoculated with 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. Nine-month-old female Balb/c mice were placed on an adequate Ca (5 g/kg diet, n = 30) or low Ca (80 mg/kg diet, n = 31) diet for 14 days, then injected intratibially with 1,000 4T1 cells (transfected with luciferase for bioluminescence imaging), and sacrificed at 5, 10, or 21 days post-inoculation (n = 7-10 mice/group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745437/vascularized-ulnar-periosteal-pedicled-flap-for-forearm-reconstruction-anatomical-study-and-a-case-report
#18
Barrera-Ochoa Sergi, Velez Roberto, Rodriguez-Baeza Alfonso, De Bergua-Domingo Josep Maria, Knörr Jorge, Soldado Francisco
PURPOSE: Through an anatomical review, the aim of this study is to define the ulnar periosteal branches of the posterior interosseous vessels (PIV). In addition, we report the clinical utility of a vascularized ulnar periosteal pedicled flap (VUPPF), supplied by the investigated PIV, in a complex case of radial nonunion. METHODS: Ten upper limbs latex colored from fresh human cadavers were used. Branches of the PIV were dissected under 2.5× loupe magnification, noting the periosteal, muscular, and cutaneous branches arising distal to the interosseous recurrent artery...
July 26, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743899/thrombopoiesis-is-spatially-regulated-by-the-bone-marrow-vasculature
#19
David Stegner, Judith M M vanEeuwijk, Oğuzhan Angay, Maximilian G Gorelashvili, Daniela Semeniak, Jürgen Pinnecker, Patrick Schmithausen, Imke Meyer, Mike Friedrich, Sebastian Dütting, Christian Brede, Andreas Beilhack, Harald Schulze, Bernhard Nieswandt, Katrin G Heinze
In mammals, megakaryocytes (MKs) in the bone marrow (BM) produce blood platelets, required for hemostasis and thrombosis. MKs originate from hematopoietic stem cells and are thought to migrate from an endosteal niche towards the vascular sinusoids during their maturation. Through imaging of MKs in the intact BM, here we show that MKs can be found within the entire BM, without a bias towards bone-distant regions. By combining in vivo two-photon microscopy and in situ light-sheet fluorescence microscopy with computational simulations, we reveal surprisingly slow MK migration, limited intervascular space, and a vessel-biased MK pool...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742256/effect-of-chenopodium-ambrosioides-on-the-healing-process-of-the-in-vivo-bone-tissue
#20
Elizandra Silva da Penha, Rogério Lacerda-Santos, Maria Goretti Freire de Carvalho, Patrícia Teixeira de Oliveira
The focus of this double-blind randomized study was on evaluating the effect of an aqueous extract of Mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) on the bone repair process in vivo. In total, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly selected for this study, and divided into 3 groups (n = 12): Group HS (Hemostatic Sponge), Group SM (Hemostatic Sponge with Mastruz) and Group BC (Blood Clot). In each animal, bone defects measuring 2 mm in diameter were performed in both tibias for placement of the substances. After 3 and 10 days, the animals were sacrificed, and the tissues were analyzed under an optical microscope relative to the following events: inflammatory infiltrate; necrosis; young fibroblasts; osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity; endosteal and periosteal bone formation; and bone repair...
July 25, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
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