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Thomas J Younts, Hannah R Monday, Barna Dudok, Matthew E Klein, Bryen A Jordan, István Katona, Pablo E Castillo
Long-term changes of neurotransmitter release are critical for proper brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. While protein synthesis is crucial for the consolidation of postsynaptic plasticity, whether and how protein synthesis regulates presynaptic plasticity in the mature mammalian brain remain unclear. Here, using paired whole-cell recordings in rodent hippocampal slices, we report that presynaptic protein synthesis is required for long-term, but not short-term, plasticity of GABA release from type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-expressing axons...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Katherine D Shives, Aaron R Massey, Nicholas A May, Thomas E Morrison, J David Beckham
West Nile virus (WNV) is a (+) sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flavivirus genus. WNV RNA possesses an (m7)GpppNm 5' cap with 2'-O-methylation that mimics host mRNAs preventing innate immune detection and allowing the virus to translate its RNA genome through the utilization of cap-dependent translation initiation effectors in a wide variety of host species. Our prior work established the requirement of the host mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) for optimal WNV growth and protein expression; yet, the roles of the downstream effectors of mTORC1 in WNV translation are unknown...
October 18, 2016: Viruses
Ka-Yee Au, Wei-Wei Shi, Shuai Qian, Zhong Zuo, Pang-Chui Shaw
To improve the pharmacological properties of maize ribosome-inactivating protein (maize RIP) for targeting HIV-infected cells, the previously engineered TAT-fused active form of maize RIP (MOD) was further engineered for cysteine-directed PEGylation. In this work, two potential antigenic sites, namely Lys-78 and Lys-264, were identified. They were mutated to cysteine residue and conjugated with PEG5k or PEG20k. The resultant PEG derivatives of MOD variants were examined for ribosome-inactivating activity, circulating half-life and immunogenicity...
October 17, 2016: Toxins
Tofayel Ahmed, Zhan Yin, Shashi Bhushan
Protein synthesis in the chloroplast is mediated by the chloroplast ribosome (chloro-ribosome). Overall architecture of the chloro-ribosome is considerably similar to the Escherichia coli (E. coli) ribosome but certain differences are evident. The chloro-ribosome proteins are generally larger because of the presence of chloroplast-specific extensions in their N- and C-termini. The chloro-ribosome harbours six plastid-specific ribosomal proteins (PSRPs); four in the small subunit and two in the large subunit...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
O M Kandil, K A Abdelrahman, H A Fahmy, M S Mahmoud, A H El Namaky, J E Miller
Haemonchus contortus is a major parasite of small ruminants and its blood-feeding behaviour causes effects ranging from mild anaemia to death. Knowledge of the genetic variation within and among H. contortus populations can provide the foundation for understanding transmission patterns and aid in the control of haemonchosis. Adult male H. contortus were collected from three geographical regions in Egypt. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced directly...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Iva Přikrylová, Andrew P Shinn, Giuseppe Paladini
A new genus and species of monogenean belonging to the Gyrodactylidae, Citharodactylus gagei n. gen. et n. sp. (Plathyhelminthes, Monogenea), is described from the gills of the moon fish, Citharinus citharus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire), a characiform fish collected from Lake Turkana in northern Kenya. The new viviparous genus can be readily distinguished from the six other gyrodactylid genera recorded from Africa and from the other viviparous genera within the Gyrodactylidae based on the morphology of the male copulatory organ (MCO), which consists of a muscular ovate organ with an opening onto the tegument through which the narrow tapered end of a sclerotised curved cone-shaped structure protrudes...
October 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
Oselyne T W Ong, Lauren J Young, Julie M Old
BACKGROUND: Reference genes serve an important role as an endogenous control/standard for data normalisation in gene expression studies. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for marsupials, independent analysis of reference genes on different immune tissues is yet to be tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes is needed for the selection of stable, expressed genes across different marsupial tissues. METHODS: The study was conducted on red-tailed phascogales (Phascogale calura) using five juvenile and five adult males...
2016: PeerJ
Yongbo Bao, Xiao Liu, Weiwei Zhang, Jianping Cao, Wei Li, Chenghua Li, Zhihua Lin
Clam, a filter-feeding lamellibranch mollusk, is capable to accumulate high levels of trace metals and has therefore become a model for investigation the mechanism of heavy metal toxification. In this study, the effects of cadmium were characterized in the gills of Tegillarca granosa during a 96-hour exposure course using integrated metabolomic and proteomic approaches. Neurotoxicity and disturbances in energy metabolism were implicated according to the metabolic responses after Cd exposure, and eventually affected the osmotic function of gill tissue...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lyne Jossé, Jianling Xie, Christopher Gregory Proud, C Mark Smales
Many protein-based biotherapeutics are produced in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Recent reports have demonstrated that translation of recombinant mRNAs and global control of the translation machinery via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling are important determinants of the amount and quality of recombinant protein such cells can produce. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of cell growth/division, ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis, but the relationship between mTORC1 signalling, cell growth and proliferation and recombinant protein yields from mammalian cells, and whether this master regulating signalling pathway can be manipulated to enhance cell biomass and recombinant protein production (rPP) are not well explored...
October 19, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Mayuki Tanaka, Naoyuki Sotta, Yusuke Yamazumi, Yui Yamashita, Kyoko Miwa, Katsunori Murota, Yukako Chiba, Masami Yokota Hirai, Tetsu Akiyama, Hitoshi Onouchi, Satoshi Naito, Toru Fujiwara
Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are often translated ahead of the main ORF of a gene and regulate gene expression, sometimes in a condition-dependent manner, but such a role for the minimum uORF (hereafter referred to as 'AUG-stop') in living organisms is currently unclear. Here, we show that AUG-stop plays an important role in the boron (B)-dependent regulation of NIP5;1, encoding a boric acid channel required for normal growth under low B conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana. High B enhanced ribosome stalling at AUG-stop, which was accompanied by the suppression of translation and mRNA degradation...
October 19, 2016: Plant Cell
Can Chen, Junfeng Pan, Xiaobing Yang, Chenghao Guo, Wei Ding, Meiru Si, Yi Zhang, Xihui Shen, Yao Wang
Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Vanillin is one of the major phenolic inhibitors in biomass production using lignocellulose. To assess the response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to vanillin stress, we performed a global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional data showed that the vanillin stress not only affected the genes involved in degradation of vanillin, but also differentially regulated several genes related to the stress response, ribosome/translation, protein secretion, and the cell envelope...
2016: PloS One
Gillian Hertlein, Marlene Seiffert, Sebastian Gensel, Eva Garcia-Gonzalez, Julia Ebeling, Ranko Skobalj, Anja Kuthning, Roderich D Süssmuth, Elke Genersch
The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is the causative agent of a deadly honey bee brood disease called American Foulbrood (AFB). AFB is a notifiable epizootic in most countries and, hence, P. larvae is of considerable relevance for veterinarians and apiculturists alike. Over the last decade, much progress has been made in the understanding of the (patho)biology of P. larvae. Recently, several non-ribosomally produced peptides (NRP) and peptide/polyketide (NRP/PK) hybrids produced by P...
2016: PloS One
Camila Oliveira, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Lysangela Ronalte Alves, Samuel Goldenberg
The regulation of gene expression in trypanosomatids occurs mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Despite the importance of this type of control in Trypanosoma cruzi, few RNA binding proteins have been characterized. The RRM domain (RNA Recognition Motif) is one of the most abundant domains found in RNA-binding proteins in higher eukaryotes. Proteins containing the RRM domain are involved in the majority of post-transcriptional processes regulating gene expression. In this work, we aimed to characterize the protein TcNRBD1 from T...
2016: PloS One
Daifeng Wang, Fei He, Sergei Maslov, Mark Gerstein
Gene expression is controlled by the combinatorial effects of regulatory factors from different biological subsystems such as general transcription factors (TFs), cellular growth factors and microRNAs. A subsystem's gene expression may be controlled by its internal regulatory factors, exclusively, or by external subsystems, or by both. It is thus useful to distinguish the degree to which a subsystem is regulated internally or externally-e.g., how non-conserved, species-specific TFs affect the expression of conserved, cross-species genes during evolution...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Pooja Gopal, Michelle Yee, Jickky Sarathy, Jian Liang Low, Jansy P Sarathy, Firat Kaya, Véronique Dartois, Martin Gengenbacher, Thomas Dick
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a critical component of first- and second-line treatments of tuberculosis (TB), yet its mechanism of action largely remains an enigma. We carried out a genetic screen to isolate Mycobacterium bovis BCG mutants resistant to pyrazinoic acid (POA), the bioactive derivative of PZA, followed by whole genome sequencing of 26 POA resistant strains. Rather than finding mutations in the proposed candidate targets fatty acid synthase I and ribosomal protein S1, we found resistance conferring mutations in two pathways: missense mutations in aspartate decarboxylase panD, involved in the synthesis of the essential acyl carrier coenzyme A (CoA), and frameshift mutations in the vitro nonessential polyketide synthase genes mas and ppsA-E, involved in the synthesis of the virulence factor phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM)...
September 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Xiang Yu, Matthew R Willmann, Stephen J Anderson, Brian D Gregory
RNA turnover is necessary for controlling proper mRNA levels post-transcriptionally. In general, RNA degradation is via exoribonucleases that degrade RNA either from the 5' end to the 3' end, such as XRN4, or in the opposite direction by the multi-subunit exosome complex. Here, we use genome-wide mapping of uncapped and cleaved transcripts to reveal the global landscape of co-translational mRNA decay in the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome. We found that this process leaves a clear three nucleotide periodicity in open reading frames...
October 7, 2016: Plant Cell
Juliana Blin, Emiliano P Ricci
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques have revolutionized most biomedical research fields over the past decade by allowing a broader vision on biological processes that occur at the molecular level. Among these, ribosome profiling or footprinting is a powerful tool to study mRNA translation in a transcriptome-wide manner. Ribosome profiling has been used to study the impact of translational control of gene expression under many different cellular conditions including viral infections. Indeed, translation is a critical step during the viral replication cycle in which the infected cell is embezzled to produce viral proteins...
October 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Yunpeng Wang, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
BACKGROUND: 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. In our previous study, the biosynthetic pathway of 3-HP was constructed and optimized in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which led to 3-HP production directly from CO2 at a level of 837.18 mg L(-1) (348.8 mg/g dry cell weight). As the production and accumulation of 3-HP in cells affect cellular metabolism, a better understanding of cellular responses to 3-HP synthesized internally in Synechocystis will be important for further increasing 3-HP productivity in cyanobacterial chassis...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Todd Atherly, Curtis Mosher, Chong Wang, Jesse Hostetter, Alexandra Proctor, Meghan W Brand, Gregory J Phillips, Michael Wannemuehler, Albert E Jergens
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter bilis infection of C3H/HeN mice harboring the altered Schaedler flora (ASF) triggers progressive immune responsiveness and the development of colitis. We sought to investigate temporal alterations in community structure of a defined (ASF-colonized) microbiota in normal and inflamed murine intestines and to correlate microbiota changes to histopathologic lesions. METHODS: The colonic mucosal microbiota of healthy mice and ASF mice colonized with H...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Gregory Bertoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Plant Cell
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