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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241071/structure-of-a-pentameric-virion-associated-fiber-with-a-potential-role-in-orsay-virus-entry-to-host-cells
#1
Yanlin Fan, Yusong R Guo, Wang Yuan, Ying Zhou, Matthew V Holt, Tao Wang, Borries Demeler, Nicolas L Young, Weiwei Zhong, Yizhi J Tao
Despite the wide use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, the first virus naturally infecting this organism was not discovered until six years ago. The Orsay virus and its related nematode viruses have a positive-sense RNA genome, encoding three proteins: CP, RdRP, and a novel δ protein that shares no homology with any other proteins. δ can be expressed either as a free δ or a CP-δ fusion protein by ribosomal frameshift, but the structure and function of both δ and CP-δ remain unknown. Using a combination of electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, computational and biophysical analyses, here we show that the Orsay δ protein forms a ~420-Å long, pentameric fiber with an N-terminal α-helical bundle, a β-stranded filament in the middle, and a C-terminal head domain...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241034/detection-of-plant-micrornas-in-honey
#2
Angelo Gismondi, Gabriele Di Marco, Antonella Canini
For the first time in the literature, our group has managed to demonstrate the existence of plant RNAs in honey samples. In particular, in our work, different RNA extraction procedures were performed in order to identify a purification method for nucleic acids from honey. Purity, stability and integrity of the RNA samples were evaluated by spectrophotometric, PCR and electrophoretic analyses. Among all honey RNAs, we specifically revealed the presence of both plastidial and nuclear plant transcripts: RuBisCO large subunit mRNA, maturase K messenger and 18S ribosomal RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241020/investigation-of-the-fungal-community-structures-of-imported-wheat-using-high-throughput-sequencing-technology
#3
Yaqian Shi, Yinghui Cheng, Ying Wang, Guiming Zhang, Ruifang Gao, Caiyu Xiang, Jianjun Feng, Dingfeng Lou, Ying Liu
This study introduced the application of high-throughput sequencing techniques to the investigation of microbial diversity in the field of plant quarantine. It examined the microbial diversity of wheat imported into China, and established a bioinformatics database of wheat pathogens based on high-throughput sequencing results. This study analyzed the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of fungi through Illumina Miseq sequencing to investigate the fungal communities of both seeds and sieve-through...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240607/downregulation-of-gata1-drives-impaired-hematopoiesis-in-primary-myelofibrosis
#4
Laure Gilles, Ahmet Dirim Arslan, Christian Marinaccio, Qiang Jeremy Wen, Priyanka Arya, Maureen McNulty, Qiong Yang, Jonathan C Zhao, Katerina Konstantinoff, Terra Lasho, Animesh Pardanani, Brady Stein, Isabelle Plo, Sriram Sundaravel, Amittha Wickrema, Annarita Migliaccio, Sandeep Gurbuxani, William Vainchenker, Leonidas C Platanias, Ayalew Tefferi, John D Crispino
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a clonal hematologic malignancy characterized by BM fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, circulating CD34+ cells, splenomegaly, and a propensity to evolve to acute myeloid leukemia. Moreover, the spleen and BM of patients harbor atypical, clustered megakaryocytes, which contribute to the disease by secreting profibrotic cytokines. Here, we have revealed that megakaryocytes in PMF show impaired maturation that is associated with reduced GATA1 protein. In investigating the cause of GATA1 downregulation, our gene-expression study revealed the presence of the RPS14-deficient gene signature, which is associated with defective ribosomal protein function and linked to the erythroid lineage in 5q deletion myelodysplastic syndrome...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240253/proteomic-analysis-of-the-mediator-complex-interactome-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Henriette Uthe, Jens T Vanselow, Andreas Schlosser
Here we present the most comprehensive analysis of the yeast Mediator complex interactome to date. Particularly gentle cell lysis and co-immunopurification conditions allowed us to preserve even transient protein-protein interactions and to comprehensively probe the molecular environment of the Mediator complex in the cell. Metabolic (15)N-labeling thereby enabled stringent discrimination between bona fide interaction partners and nonspecifically captured proteins. Our data indicates a functional role for Mediator beyond transcription initiation...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238960/inter-and-intra-subtype-variation-of-blastocystis-subtypes-isolated-from-diarrheic-and-non-diarrheic-patients-in-iran
#6
Atefe Alinaghizade, Hamed Mirjalali, Mehdi Mohebali, Christen Rune Stensvold, Mostafa Rezaeian
Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasitic protist infecting birds and mammals. Blastocystis comprises at least 17 subtypes (ST), of which ST1-ST9 have been detected in humans. Significant correlation between certain subtypes and pathogenicity remains to be established. Nevertheless, some studies suggest a potential linkage between subtypes (inter- and intra-subtype variation) and clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to identify intra-subtype genetic variation of subtypes of Blastocystis in stools samples submitted by diarrheic and non-diarrheic patients...
February 23, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238762/the-intersubunit-bridge-b1b-of-the-bacterial-ribosome-facilitates-initiation-of-protein-synthesis-and-maintenance-of-translational-fidelity
#7
Silva Lilleorg, Kaspar Reier, Jaanus Remme, Aivar Liiv
In bacteria, ribosomal subunits are connected via 12 intersubunit bridges involving RNA-RNA, RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. The only protein-protein bridge in the ribosome is B1b, which is mainly formed by the bacterial protein L31 (bL31) and connects the head domain of 30S subunit and the central protuberance of the 50S subunit. It is known to be the most dynamic intersubunit bridge. Here, we have evaluated the role of bL31 and thereby the bridge B1b in the working cycle of the ribosome. First, bL31 deficient ribosomes are severely compromised in their ability to ensure translational fidelity in particular reading frame maintenance in vivo...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238286/a-13-year-old-girl-with-pancytopenia-at-the-presentation-of-a-borrelia-hispanica-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Irmin Leen, Peggy Bruynseels, Benoît Kabamba Mukadi, Mark van Oort, Machiel van den Akker
BACKGROUND: It is not uncommon that a child with a febrile illness of unknown etiology is admitted to the hospital. When the complete blood count reveals a pancytopenia, the diagnostic process can be a real challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year girl of Arab-Berber descent presented with abdominal pain and fever after a holiday in northwestern Morocco. A complete blood count revealed a pancytopenia and blood smear test results revealed spirochetes. Borrelia hispanica was identified by sequencing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237528/identification-of-potential-therapeutic-target-genes-key-mirnas-and-mechanisms-in-oral-lichen-planus-by-bioinformatics-analysis
#9
Cuihua Gong, Shangtong Sun, Bing Liu, Jing Wang, Xiaodong Chen
The study aimed to identify the potential target genes and key miRNAs as well as to explore the underlying mechanisms in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP) by bioinformatics analysis. The microarray data of GSE38617 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. A total of 7 OLP and 7 normal samples were used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs. The DEGs were then performed functional enrichment analyses. Furthermore, DEG-miRNA network and miRNA-function network were constructed by Cytoscape software...
February 12, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236807/pediatric-tuberculosis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infection-in-the-united-kingdom-highlights-the-need-for-better-therapy-monitoring-tools-a-case-report
#10
Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Elizabeth Whittaker, Isobella Honeyborne, Timothy D McHugh, Nigel Klein, Delane Shingadia
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an infection that requires at least 6 months of chemotherapy in order to clear the bacteria from the patient's lungs. Usually, therapeutic monitoring is dependent on smear microscopy where a decline in acid-fast bacilli is observed. However, this might not be indicative of the actual decline of bacterial load and thus other tools such as culture and molecular assays are required for patient management. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 12-year-old Black African boy co-infected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus who remained smear culture positive and liquid culture negative for a prolonged period of time following chemotherapy...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236701/an-alternative-poldip3-transcript-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression
#11
Xiao-Ning Liu, Ji-Hang Yuan, Tian-Tian Wang, Wei Pan, Shu-Han Sun
Alternative splicing plays critical roles in many pathophysiological processes and splicing dysregulation is a hallmark of cancer. The different isoforms may have significantly different effects on cancers. POLDIP3 is a target of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, and regulates DNA replication and mRNA translation. In this study, we measured the expression of an alternative POLDIP3 transcript (POLDIP3-β), which lacks exon 3 and 29 amine acids, in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. The roles of POLDIP3-β on HCC cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration were assessed by Glo cell viability assays, Ethynyl deoxyuridine incorporation assays, colony formation assays, TUNEL assays, Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry, transwell assays, wound healing assays, and in vivo xenograft growth...
February 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235988/comparable-dynamics-of-linuron-catabolic-genes-and-incp-1-plasmids-in-biopurification-systems-bpss-as-a-response-to-linuron-spiking
#12
Eman H Nour, Tarek R Elsayed, Dirk Springael, Kornelia Smalla
On-farm biopurification systems (BPSs) represent an efficient technology for treating pesticide-contaminated wastewater. Biodegradation by genetically adapted bacteria has been suggested to perform a major contribution to the removal of pesticides in BPSs. Recently, several studies pointed to the role of IncP-1 plasmids in the degradation of pesticides in BPSs but this was never linked with catabolic markers. Therefore, a microcosm experiment was conducted in order to examine whether changes in mobile genetic element (MGE) abundances in response to the application of phenylurea herbicide linuron are linked with changes in catabolic genes...
February 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235572/role-of-akt-pkb-and-pfkfb-isoenzymes-in-the-control-of-glycolysis-cell-proliferation-and-protein-synthesis-in-mitogen-stimulated-thymocytes
#13
Amina Houddane, Laurent Bultot, Laura Novellasdemunt, Manuel Johanns, Marie-Agnès Gueuning, Didier Vertommen, Pierre G Coulie, Ramon Bartrons, Louis Hue, Mark H Rider
Proliferating cells depend on glycolysis mainly to supply precursors for macromolecular synthesis. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) is the most potent positive allosteric effector of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), and hence of glycolysis. Mitogen stimulation of rat thymocytes with concanavalin A (ConA) led to time-dependent increases in lactate accumulation (6-fold), Fru-2,6-P2 content (4-fold), 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2)/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase isoenzyme 3 and 4 (PFKFB3 and PFKFB4) protein levels (~2-fold and ~15-fold, respectively) and rates of cell proliferation (~40-fold) and protein synthesis (10-fold) after 68h of incubation compared with resting cells...
February 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235458/no-molecular-epidemiological-evidence-supporting-household-transmission-of-zoonotic-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-from-pet-dogs-and-cats-in-the-province-of-%C3%A3-lava-northern-spain
#14
Aida de Lucio, Begoña Bailo, María Aguilera, Guillermo A Cardona, Juan C Fernández-Crespo, David Carmena
The role of pet dogs and cats as suitable source of human infections by the diarrheagenic protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. has been a topic of intense debate for long time and still remains a largely unsolved problem. In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiological survey we attempted to investigate whether zoonotic (or zooanthroponotic) disease transmission was occurring among humans and domestic dogs and cats sharing the same spatial and temporal setting in both rural and urban areas of the province of Álava, Northern Spain...
February 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231297/cytoplasmic-deadenylase-ccr4-is-required-for-translational-repression-of-lrg1-mrna-in-the-stationary-phase
#15
Duong Long Duy, Yasuyuki Suda, Kenji Irie
Ccr4 is a major cytoplasmic deadenylase involved in mRNA poly(A) tail shortening in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have previously shown that Ccr4 negatively regulates expression of LRG1 mRNA encoding a GTPase-activating protein for the small GTPase Rho1, a component of cell wall integrity pathway, and deletion of LRG1 suppresses the temperature-sensitive growth defect of the ccr4Δ mutant. We have also shown that the slow growth of the ccr4Δ mutant is suppressed by deletion of another gene, PBP1, encoding a poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1)-binding protein 1; however, the underlying mechanism still remains unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230975/tuning-of-recombinant-protein-expression-in-escherichia-coli-by-manipulating-transcription-translation-initiation-rates-and-incorporation-of-non-canonical-amino-acids
#16
Orr Schlesinger, Yonatan Chemla, Mathias Heltberg, Eden Ozer, Ryan Marshall, Vincent Noireaux, Mogens Hogh Jensen, Lital Alfonta
Protein synthesis in cells has been thoroughly investigated and characterized over the past 60 years. However, some fundamental issues remain unresolved, including the reasons for genetic code redundancy and codon bias. In this study, we changed the kinetics of the E. coli transcription and translation processes by mutating the promoter and ribosome binding domains and by using genetic code expansion. The results expose a counterintuitive phenomenon, whereby an increase in the initiation rates of transcription and translation lead to a decrease in protein expression...
February 23, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230972/paclitaxel-biosynthesis-adenylation-and-thiolation-domains-of-an-nrps-tyca-pheat-module-produce-various-arylisoserine-coa-thioesters
#17
Ruth Muchiri, Kevin D Walker
Structure-activity relationship studies show that the phenylisoserinyl moiety of paclitaxel is largely necessary for the effective anticancer activity. Several paclitaxel analogs with a variant isoserinyl sides chain have improved pharmaceutical properties over the parent drug. To produce the isoserinyl CoAs as intermediates needed for enzyme catalysis on a semibiosynthetic pathway to paclitaxel analogs, we repurposed the adenylation and thiolation domains of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (Phe-AT) to function as a CoA ligase...
February 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230853/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-inhibit-cd25-expression-via-the-mtor-pathway-to-potentiate-t-cell-suppression
#18
Hyun Seung Yoo, Kyuheon Lee, Kwangmin Na, Yong Xu Zhang, Hyun-Ja Lim, TacGhee Yi, Sun U Song, Myung-Shin Jeon
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are known to suppress T-cell activation and proliferation. Several studies have reported that MSCs suppress CD25 expression in T cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying MSC-mediated suppression of CD25 expression has not been fully examined. Here, we investigated the mTOR pathway, which is involved in CD25 expression in T cells. We showed that MSCs inhibited CD25 expression, which was restored in the presence of an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230789/fungal-ribotoxins-a-review-of-potential-biotechnological-applications
#19
REVIEW
Miriam Olombrada, Rodrigo Lázaro-Gorines, Juan C López-Rodríguez, Álvaro Martínez-Del-Pozo, Mercedes Oñaderra, Moisés Maestro-López, Javier Lacadena, José G Gavilanes, Lucía García-Ortega
Fungi establish a complex network of biological interactions with other organisms in nature. In many cases, these involve the production of toxins for survival or colonization purposes. Among these toxins, ribotoxins stand out as promising candidates for their use in biotechnological applications. They constitute a group of highly specific extracellular ribonucleases that target a universally conserved sequence of RNA in the ribosome, the sarcin-ricin loop. The detailed molecular study of this family of toxic proteins over the past decades has highlighted their potential in applied research...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230163/ectopic-expression-of-arabidopsis-target-of-rapamycin-attor-improves-water-use-efficiency-and-yield-potential-in-rice
#20
Achala Bakshi, Mazahar Moin, M Udaya Kumar, Aramati Bindu Madhava Reddy, Maozhi Ren, Raju Datla, E A Siddiq, P B Kirti
The target of Rapamycin (TOR) present in all eukaryotes is a multifunctional protein, regulating growth, development, protein translation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient, and energy signaling. In the present study, ectopic expression of TOR gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in a widely cultivated indica rice resulted in enhanced plant growth under water-limiting conditions conferring agronomically important water-use efficiency (WUE) trait. The AtTOR high expression lines of rice exhibited profuse tillering, increased panicle length, increased plant height, high photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and low ∆(13)C...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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