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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224045/association-of-adolescent-and-caregiver-reported-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-with-hiv-viral-load-among-perinatally-infected-south-african-adolescents
#1
Kirsty Brittain, Nana Akua Asafu-Agyei, Jacqueline Hoare, Linda-Gail Bekker, Helena Rabie, James Nuttall, Paul Roux, Dan J Stein, Heather J Zar, Landon Myer
Accurate measurement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence remains challenging and there are few data assessing the validity of self-reported adherence among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. We examined adolescent and caregiver reports of adolescent adherence among perinatally-infected adolescents aged 9-14 years in Cape Town, South Africa, and explored factors that may modify associations between reported adherence and elevated viral load (VL). Among 474 adolescents (median age 12.0 years; median duration of ART use 7...
December 9, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223341/genetic-resistance-against-viruses-in-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-state-of-the-art-and-future-prospects
#2
REVIEW
Chouaïb Meziadi, Sophie Blanchet, Valérie Geffroy, Stéphanie Pflieger
Viruses are obligate parasites that replicate intracellularly in many living organisms, including plants. Consequently, no chemicals are available that target only the virus without impacting host cells or vector organisms. The use of natural resistant varieties appears as the most reliable control strategy and remains the best and cheapest option in managing virus diseases, especially in the current ecological context of preserving biodiversity and environment in which the use of phytosanitary products becomes limited...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223105/towards-a-rapid-assessment-protocol-for-identifying-pit-lakes-worthy-of-restoration
#3
W J de Lange, B Genthe, L Hill, P J Oberholster
Before the introduction of reclamation legislation in South Africa, final cut lakes in mining areas were left without any restoration while the final excavation was not back filled. Characteristics of these lacustrine water bodies vary considerably, but they are often linear in shape, large (1-30 ha), deep (2-30 m) and have poorly developed littoral zones. With water tables often near the surface; a variety of vascular hydrophytes can colonize these bodies, thus establishing emerging wetland type ecosystems...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223085/global-platinum-group-element-resources-reserves-and-mining-a-critical-assessment
#4
Gavin M Mudd, Simon M Jowitt, Timothy T Werner
The platinum group elements (PGEs) are used in many technologies and products in modern society, especially auto-catalysts, chemical process catalysts and specialty alloys, yet supply is dominated by South Africa. This leads PGEs to be assessed as 'critical metals', signalling concern about the likelihood and consequences of social, environmental and economic impacts from disruptions to supply. In order to better understand the global PGE situation, this paper presents a comprehensive global assessment of PGE reserves and resources and the key mining trends which can affect supply...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222506/an-assessment-of-the-global-impact-of-21st-century-land-use-change-on-soil-erosion
#5
Pasquale Borrelli, David A Robinson, Larissa R Fleischer, Emanuele Lugato, Cristiano Ballabio, Christine Alewell, Katrin Meusburger, Sirio Modugno, Brigitta Schütt, Vito Ferro, Vincenzo Bagarello, Kristof Van Oost, Luca Montanarella, Panos Panagos
Human activity and related land use change are the primary cause of accelerated soil erosion, which has substantial implications for nutrient and carbon cycling, land productivity and in turn, worldwide socio-economic conditions. Here we present an unprecedentedly high resolution (250 × 250 m) global potential soil erosion model, using a combination of remote sensing, GIS modelling and census data. We challenge the previous annual soil erosion reference values as our estimate, of 35.9 Pg yr-1 of soil eroded in 2012, is at least two times lower...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222137/benefits-of-probiotics-in-preterm-neonates-in-low-income-and-medium-income-countries-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#6
Girish Deshpande, Gayatri Jape, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
OBJECTIVE: Although there is an overall reduction in underfive mortality rate, the progress in reducing neonatal mortality rate has been very slow. Over the last 20 years, preterm births have steadily increased in low-income and medium-income countries (LMICs) particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, particularly in LMICs. Based on systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), many neonatal units in high-income countries have adopted probiotics as standard of care for preterm neonates...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222064/evolution-in-the-amphi-atlantic-tropical-genus-guibourtia-fabaceae-detarioideae-combining-ngs-phylogeny-and-morphology
#7
Félicien Tosso, Olivier J Hardy, Jean-Louis Doucet, Kasso Daïnou, Esra Kaymak, Jérémy Migliore
Tropical rain forests support a remarkable diversity of tree species, questioning how and when this diversity arose. The genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Detarioideae), characterized by two South American and 13 African tree species growing in various tropical biomes, is an interesting model to address the role of biogeographic processes and adaptation to contrasted environments on species diversification. Combining whole plastid genome sequencing and morphological characters analysis, we studied the timing of speciation and diversification processes in Guibourtia through molecular dating and ancestral habitats reconstruction...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221522/barriers-to-smoking-cessation-among-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-africa
#8
Zifikile Phindile Shangase, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni, Catherine O Egbe
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The long-term health effects of smoking and the risk of adverse TB outcomes, including increased periods of infectiousness, have been reported among DR-TB patients in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the barriers to smoking cessation among DR-TB inpatients at a hospital in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative design using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 DR-TB inpatients was employed...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220610/predictors-of-alcohol-use-during-pregnancy-among-women-attending-midwife-obstetric-units-in-the-cape-metropole-south-africa
#9
Petal Petersen-Williams, Catherine Mathews, Esmé Jordaan, Charles D H Parry
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the nature and extent of substance use among pregnant women in Cape Town (South Africa) despite the very high levels of substance use and related consequences such as FASD in this part of the country. The aim of the study was to determine predictors of alcohol use among pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending 11 Midwife Obstetric Units (MOUs) in greater Cape Town. A two-stage cluster survey design was used...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220369/can-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-be-eliminated-without-addressing-the-issue-of-stigma-modeling-the-case-for-a-setting-in-south-africa
#10
Holly J Prudden, Matthew Hamilton, Anna M Foss, Nicole Dzialowy Adams, Melissa Stockton, Vivian Black, Laura Nyblade
BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination ontinue to undermine the effectiveness of the HIV response. Despite a growing body of evidence of the negative relationship between stigma and HIV outcomes, there is a paucity of data available on the prevalence of stigma and its impact. We present a probabilistic cascade model to estimate the magnitude of impact stigma has on mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT). METHODS: The model was parameterized using 2010 data from Johannesburg, South Africa, from which loss-to-care at each stage of the antenatal cascade were available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219098/analyzing-implementation-dynamics-using-theory-driven-evaluation-principles-lessons-learnt-from-a-south-african-centralized-chronic-dispensing-model
#11
Bvudzai Priscilla Magadzire, Bruno Marchal, Tania Mathys, Richard O Laing, Kim Ward
BACKGROUND: Centralized dispensing of essential medicines is one of South Africa's strategies to address the shortage of pharmacists, reduce patients' waiting times and reduce over-crowding at public sector healthcare facilities. This article reports findings of an evaluation of the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU) in one province. The objectives of this process evaluation were to: (1) compare what was planned versus the actual implementation and (2) establish the causal elements and contextual factors influencing implementation...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219085/perceptions-about-data-informed-decisions-an-assessment-of-information-use-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings-in-south-africa
#12
Edward Nicol, Debbie Bradshaw, Jeannine Uwimana-Nicol, Lilian Dudley
BACKGROUND: Information-use is an integral component of a routine health information system and essential to influence policy-making, program actions and research. Despite an increased amount of routine data collected, planning and resource-allocation decisions made by health managers for managing HIV programs are often not based on data. This study investigated the use of information, and barriers to using routine data for monitoring the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in two high HIV-prevalence districts in South Africa...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219083/a-descriptive-study-of-treatment-provision-for-problem-alcohol-drinking-in-adult-males-in-khayelitsha-cape-town-south-africa
#13
Amina Saban, Neo Morojele, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Poor, Black African males are underrepresented as patients in facilities that treat problem drinking in Cape Town, South Africa. Reasons for this remain unclear, but factors such as the kinds of treatment provided, perceptions of treatment efficacy, social stigma and traditional treatment beliefs have been suggested as possible barriers to treatment seeking. This descriptive study examined the availability and nature of problem drinking treatment facilities in Khayelitsha, a largely poor township of Black, Xhosa-speaking Africans, on the outskirts of Cape Town...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218375/genetic-analysis-of-multi-environmental-spring-wheat-trials-identifies-genomic-regions-for-locus-specific-trade-offs-for-grain-weight-and-grain-number
#14
Sivakumar Sukumaran, Marta Lopes, Susanne Dreisigacker, Matthew Reynolds
GWAS on multi-environment data identified genomic regions associated with trade-offs for grain weight and grain number. Grain yield (GY) can be dissected into its components thousand grain weight (TGW) and grain number (GN), but little has been achieved in assessing the trade-off between them in spring wheat. In the present study, the Wheat Association Mapping Initiative (WAMI) panel of 287 elite spring bread wheat lines was phenotyped for GY, GN, and TGW in ten environments across different wheat growing regions in Mexico, South Asia, and North Africa...
December 7, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218136/assessing-the-impact-of-a-waiting-time-survey-on-reducing-waiting-times-in-urban-primary-care-clinics-in-cape-town-south-africa
#15
Johann Daniels, Virginia Zweigenthal, Gavin Reagon
A waiting time survey (WTS) conducted in several clinics in Cape Town, South Africa provided recommendations on how to shorten waiting times (WT). A follow-up study was conducted to assess whether WT had reduced. Using a stratified sample of 22 clinics, a before and after study design assessed changes in WT. The WT was measured and perceptions of clinic managers were elicited, about the previous survey's recommendations. The overall median WT decreased by 21 minutes (95%CI: 11.77-30.23), a 28% decrease from the previous WTS...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216890/in-silico-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-partial-bbrap-1-bbcp2-bbsbp-4-and-bb%C3%AE-tub-gene-sequences-of-babesia-bovis-isolates-from-cattle-in-south-africa
#16
Phillip Senzo Mtshali, Moses Sibusiso Mtshali
BACKGROUND: Bovine babesiosis is one of the most economically important tick-borne diseases threatening the livestock industry globally including South Africa. This disease is induced by members of Babesia bovis species. Antigenic variations among geographical strains of B. bovis, and these heterogeneities are cited as the mechanism by which parasites evade from host immune system and they hamper the successful development of a single vaccine that could confer absolute protection. Given the economic importance of livestock industry in South Africa, the extent of genetic diversity among field isolates of B...
December 8, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216468/determination-of-legacy-and-novel-brominated-flame-retardants-in-dust-from-end-of-life-office-equipment-and-furniture-from-pretoria-south-africa
#17
Sylvia N Nkabinde, Jonathan O Okonkwo, Olubiyi I Olukunle, Adegbenro P Daso
Indoor dust is known to be a source of human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and these consists of the legacy polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), total hexabromocyclododecane (T-HBCDD) and the "Novel or alternate" Brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). In this study, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser was employed to measure elemental bromine contents in office furniture and electronics as the first indication of the possible presence of BFRs. To investigate the possible BFRs present, a total of 21 dust samples were collected from surfaces of electronic equipment and office furniture and were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216028/progress-toward-global-eradication-of-dracunculiasis-january-2016-june-2017
#18
Donald R Hopkins, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Mark L Eberhard, Sharon L Roy, Adam J Weiss
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitic worm. Approximately 1 year after a person acquires infection from contaminated drinking water, the worm emerges through the skin, usually on a lower limb (1). Pain and secondary bacterial infection can cause temporary or permanent disability that disrupts work and schooling. The campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis worldwide began in 1980 at CDC. In 1986, the World Health Assembly called for dracunculiasis elimination,* and the global Guinea Worm Eradication Program, led by the Carter Center and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund, CDC, and other partners, began assisting ministries of health in countries with endemic dracunculiasis...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215793/genetic-history-of-the-african-sahelian-populations
#19
REVIEW
V Černý, I Kulichová, E S Poloni, J M Nunes, L Pereira, A Mayor, A Sanchez-Mazas
From a biogeographic perspective Africa is subdivided into distinct horizontal belts. Human populations living along the Sahel/Savannah belt south of the Sahara Desert have often been overshadowed by extensive studies focusing on other African populations such as hunter-gatherers or Bantu in particular. However, the Sahel together with the savannah bordering it in the south, is a challenging region where people had and still have to cope with harsh climatic conditions and show resilient behaviours. Besides exponentially growing urban populations, several local groups leading various lifestyles and speaking languages belonging to three main linguistic families still live in rural localities across that region today...
December 7, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215360/viruses-in-the-environment-presence-and-diversity-of-bacteriophage-and-enteric-virus-populations-in-the-umhlangane-river-durban-south-africa
#20
Veronna Marie, Johnson Lin
Due to the continued persistence of waterborne viral-associated infections, the presence of enteric viruses is a concern. Notwithstanding the health implications, viral diversity and abundance is an indicator of water quality declination in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of viruses (bacteriophage and enteric viruses) in a highly polluted, anthropogenic-influenced river system over a 6-month period at five sampling points. Cytopathic-based tissue culture assays revealed that the isolated viruses were infectious when tested on Hep-G2, HEK293 and Vero cells...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
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