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South Africa

Dong Jiang, Mengmeng Hao, Fangyu Ding, Jingying Fu, Meng Li
Zika virus, which has been linked to severe congenital abnormalities, is exacerbating global public health problems with its rapid transnational expansion fueled by increased global travel and trade. Suitability mapping of the transmission risk of Zika virus is essential for drafting public health plans and disease control strategies, which are especially important in areas where medical resources are relatively scarce. Predicting the risk of Zika virus outbreak has been studied in recent years, but the published literature rarely includes multiple model comparisons or predictive uncertainty analysis...
June 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Theola Potgieter, Johanna E Maree
AIMS: To describe what motivates cancer patients, treated at a private cancer care centre in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, to undergo palliative chemotherapy and how the patients and their families experienced this treatment. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative design was used. Researchers conducted 22 in-depth interviews with 11 purposively selected patients and 11 family members nominated by the patients. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
Melissa J Palmer, Sharmani Barnard, Pablo Perel, Caroline Free
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of disability and mortality globally. Premature fatal and non-fatal CVD is considered to be largely preventable through the control of risk factors via lifestyle modifications and preventive medication. Lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drug therapies for primary prevention are cost-effective in reducing CVD morbidity and mortality among high-risk people and are recommended by international guidelines. However, adherence to medication prescribed for the prevention of CVD can be poor...
June 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Donna Angelina Rade, Gemma Crawford, Roanna Lobo, Corie Gray, Graham Brown
The number of migrants has increased globally. This phenomenon has contributed to increasing health problems amongst migrants in high-income countries, including vulnerability for HIV acquisition and other sexual health issues. Adaptation processes in destination countries can present difficulties for migrants to seek help from and gain access to health services. This study examined migrants’ from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South East Asia (SEA) sexual health help-seeking behavior in high-income countries with universal health coverage...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kinga Grenda, Julien Arnold, José A F Gamelas, Maria G Rasteiro
Tannin extracts from the bark of Acacia mearnsii and wood of Schinopsis balansae, commonly known as Quebracho, were employed. These were modified at laboratory sale via the Mannich aminomethylation with formaldehyde and dimethylamine hydrochloride. Some reaction conditions were varied, namely the formaldehyde dosage and reaction time, while keeping the Mannich solution activation time constant, and their influence on the shear viscosity of the created bio-coagulants was evaluated. The effect of the final pH of the products on their shear viscosity was also analyzed...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Brian Rha, Rebecca M Dahl, Jocelyn Moyes, Alison M Binder, Stefano Tempia, Sibongile Walaza, Daoling Bi, Michelle J Groome, Ebrahim Variava, Fathima Naby, Kathleen Kahn, Florette Treurnicht, Adam L Cohen, Susan I Gerber, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in young children, but data on surveillance case definition performance in estimating burdens have been limited. Methods: We enrolled children aged <5 years hospitalized for ALRTI (or neonatal sepsis in young infants) through active prospective surveillance at 5 sentinel hospitals in South Africa and collected nasopharyngeal aspirates from them for RSV molecular diagnostic testing between 2009 and 2014...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Adam Bertscher, Leslie London, Marsha Orgill
Alcohol is a major contributor to the Non-Communicable Disease burden in South Africa. In 2000, 7.1% of all deaths and 7% of total disability-adjusted life years were ascribed to alcohol-related harm in the country. Regulations proposed to restrict alcohol advertising in South Africa present an evidence-based upstream intervention. Research on policy formulation in low- and middle-income countries is limited. This study aims to describe and explore the policy formulation process of the 2013 draft Control of Marketing of Alcoholic Beverages Bill in South Africa between March 2011 and May 2017...
June 21, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Eduardo I Faúndez
Bagrada hilaris is an invasive stink bug present in Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, and recently found in Chile, South America. Painted bug is well known as an agricultural pest, attacking mostly Brassicaceae. First records of the painted bug B. hilaris invading homes are given from Chile, from the Metropolitan, and Valparaiso Regions, including mild and heavily infested homes. In addition, the first case ever of an adventitious bite in a human being by this species is provided and described. Additionally, first alleged cases of occupational allergy are also mentioned...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Sandy J Snyman, Dennis M Komape, Hlobisile Khanyi, Johnnie van den Berg, Dirk Cilliers, Dyfed Lloyd Evans, Sandra Barnard, Stefan J Siebert
Pre-commercialization studies on environmental biosafety of genetically modified (GM) crops are necessary to evaluate the potential for sexual hybridization with related plant species that occur in the release area. The aim of the study was a preliminary assessment of factors that may contribute to gene flow from sugarcane ( Saccharum hybrids) to indigenous relatives in the sugarcane production regions of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, South Africa. In the first instance, an assessment of Saccharum wild relatives was conducted based on existing phylogenies and literature surveys...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Sara Nieuwoudt, Lenore Manderson
Background: Mothers rely heavily on health worker advice to make infant feeding decisions. Confusing or misleading advice can lead to suboptimal feeding practices. From 2001, HIV positive mothers in South Africa were counseled to choose either exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive formula feeding to minimize vertical HIV transmission. On the basis of revised World Health Organization guidelines, the government amended this policy in 2011, by promoting exclusive breastfeeding and discontinuing the provision of free formula...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Mpho D Mhlongo, Andrew Tomita, Lindokuhle Thela, Varsha Maharaj, Jonathan K Burns
Background: While there is considerable research in developed countries on the nature and extent of post-traumatic stress among refugees and migrants, few report on female Africans migrating within Africa. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to traumatic life events and post-traumatic stress disorder risk in refugees and migrants in Durban, South Africa, with specific focus on sexual trauma events among women. Methods: Interviews were conducted on 157 consenting non-South African adults using a sociodemographic questionnaire, Life Events Checklist (documenting traumatic events experienced) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (measuring post-traumatic symptomatology)...
2018: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP: the Journal of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa
Mushal Allam, Nomsa Tau, Shannon L Smouse, Phillip S Mtshali, Florah Mnyameni, Zamantungwa T H Khumalo, Arshad Ismail, Nevashan Govender, Juno Thomas, Anthony M Smith
We report whole-genome sequences for 10 Listeria monocytogenes sequence type 6 isolates associated with a large listeriosis outbreak in South Africa, which occurred over the period of 2017 to 2018. The possibility of listeriosis spreading beyond South Africa's borders as a result of exported contaminated food products prompted us to make the genome sequences publicly available.
June 21, 2018: Genome Announcements
Angelique van Rensburg, Linda Theron, Sebastiaan Rothmann
The primary aim of the study that this article reports was to model and test a social ecological explanation of resilience as explained by Ungar. Its secondary aim was to investigate resilience-promoting supports in school-going Black South African adolescents. School attendance was specified as a culturally appropriate, functional outcome of resilience. The Pathways to Resilience Research Project gathered data through the Pathways to Resilience Youth Measure. Seven hundred and thirty school-going adolescents (age 12-19 years, 388 female, 341 male, one unspecified) from Thabo Mofutsanyana District, in South Africa's Free State province, participated in this cross-sectional study...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Alexandre Liautaud, Prince A Adu, Annalee Yassi, Muzimkhulu Zungu, Jerry M Spiegel, Angeli Rawat, Elizabeth A Bryce, Michelle C Engelbrecht
Background: Insufficient training in infection control and occupational health among healthcare workers (HCWs) in countries with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) burdens requires attention. We examined the effectiveness of a 1-year Certificate Program in Occupational Health and Infection Control conducted in Free State Province, South Africa in an international partnership to empower HCWs to become change agents to promote workplace-based HIV and TB prevention...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Andrea A Kim, Thomas Rehle
BACKGROUND: A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) that includes a test for recent HIV infection and a viral load (VL) test is the recommended strategy to estimate population-level HIV incidence, reducing false-recent misclassification to <1%. The inclusion of information on exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), as a supplement to VL testing, could improve RITA performance by further lowering false-recent misclassification of true long-term infection. METHODS: In 2012, Kenya and South Africa conducted national population-based surveys that collected information on HIV recency (i...
June 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Matthew Quaife, Peter Vickerman, Shanthi Manian, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera-Escobar, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Fern Terris-Prestholt
Evidence suggests that economic factors play an important role in commercial sex work, in particular that condomless sex commands a price premium relative to condom-protected sex. This paper explores whether the use of a new HIV prevention product, with 100% efficacy but modeled after pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), could change the price and quantity of condomless commercial sex supplied. We collected stated preference data from 122 HIV-negative female sex workers in urban South Africa, using a repeated choice experiment to simulate the impact of using PrEP on choices...
June 21, 2018: Health Economics
Laticha Elizabeth Marolana Walters, Richard Ernest Scott, Maurice Mars
BACKGROUND: The objectives of South Africa's electronic health (eHealth) strategy recognize the value proposition that telemedicine practices hold for rural and urban referrals, but a lack of accepted and formalized scale-up has impeded realization of benefits. While both synchronous and asynchronous teledermatology exist, these remain localized and not scaled-up. Skin pathology is often the first sign of an HIV/AIDS infection, which remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in South Africa...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Yvonne Commodore-Mensah, Elizabeth Selvin, Jonathan Aboagye, Ruth-Alma Turkson-Ocran, Ximin Li, Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb, Rexford S Ahima, Lisa A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minority populations in the United States (US) are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including hypertension, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. The size and diversity of ethnic minority immigrant populations in the US have increased substantially over the past three decades. However, most studies on immigrants in the US are limited to Asians and Hispanics; only a few have examined the prevalence of CVD risk factors across diverse immigrant populations...
June 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ye Ruan, Yanfei Guo, Yang Zheng, Zhezhou Huang, Shuangyuan Sun, Paul Kowal, Yan Shi, Fan Wu
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence of two conditions, angina and stroke, and relevant risk factors among older adults in six low- and middle- income countries(LMICs). METHODS: The data was from World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1 in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa. Presence of CVD was based on self-report of angina and stroke...
June 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Young Gi Min, Seung Ho Ham, Yoon Seok Jung, Sangchun Choi
In recent years, various kinds of non-indigenous snakes have become popular as domestic pets globally. If the snake is highly venomous, this would be a potentially life-threatening emergency for breeders. In such a case, the specific antidote should be administered immediately for saving the life. "Salmusa" genus (e.g. Gloydius genus) is a representative indigenous venomous snake in South Korea. Therefore, only one antidote for the "Salmusa" genus is commercially available in South Korea...
June 2018: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
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