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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457868/exploring-acceptability-of-oral-prep-prior-to-implementation-among-female-sex-workers-in-south-africa
#1
Robyn Eakle, Adam Bourne, Judie Mbogua, Nyaradzo Mutanha, Helen Rees
INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high-risk for HIV acquisition in South Africa, where the advent of new HIV prevention and treatment interventions represent the potential to significantly impact the epidemic. This paper focuses on aspects of PrEP acceptability as a new intervention within the context of a larger service delivery programme including the simultaneous rollout of early ART. This paper explores PrEP acceptability among the FGD participants as future potential users...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457055/tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-disease-in-the-first-5-years-of-life-a-birth-cohort-study-from-cape-town-south-africa
#2
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455918/consistent-patterns-of-debris-on-south-african-beaches-indicate-that-industrial-pellets-and-other-mesoplastic-items-mostly-derive-from-local-sources
#3
Peter G Ryan, Vonica Perold, Alexis Osborne, Coleen L Moloney
Identifying the sources of small plastic fragments is challenging because the original source item seldom can be identified. South Africa provides a useful model system to understand the factors influencing the distribution of beach litter because it has an open coastline with four equally-spaced urban-industrial centres distant from other major source areas. We sampled mesodebris (∼2-25 mm) at 82 South African beaches in 1994, 2005 and 2015. Plastic items comprised 99% by number and 95% by mass of litter items...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455703/the-development-of-a-single-health-endorsement-logo-for-south-africa
#4
Nelene Koen, Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Reneé Blaauw
OBJECTIVE: To develop health-endorsement logos (HEL) for food products indicating healthy choices based on the South African nutrient profile model and to pilot test these logos with consumers. DESIGN: Multistage mixed-methods design. SETTING: Cape Town, South Africa. SUBJECTS: Nine focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with adult consumers to explore what types of HEL are preferred and why. Based on the findings, ten HEL were designed by a graphic design team...
February 19, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455701/estimating-the-pathways-through-which-maternal-education-affects-stunting-evidence-from-an-urban-cohort-in-south-africa
#5
Daniela Casale, Gabriel Espi, Shane A Norris
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the determinants of stunting using rich data from a birth cohort study from urban South Africa and to examine the various mechanisms, both proximate and distal, through which maternal education affects stunting. DESIGN: Multivariate regression analysis using birth cohort data, where the outcome variable was stunting at age 2 years, and multiple mediator analysis to identify pathways from maternal education to stunting. SETTING: South Africa's largest metropolitan area, Soweto-Johannesburg...
February 19, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454351/disparate-compensation-policies-for-research-related-injury-in-an-era-of-multinational-trials-a-case-study-of-brazil-russia-india-china-and-south-africa
#6
George Rugare Chingarande, Keymanthri Moodley
BACKGROUND: Compensation for research related injuries is a subject that is increasingly gaining traction in developing countries which are burgeoning destinations of multi center research. However, the existence of disparate compensation rules violates the ethical principle of fairness. The current paper presents a comparison of the policies of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). METHODS: A systematic search of good clinical practice guidelines was conducted employing search strategies modeled in line with the recommendations of ADPTE Collaboration (2007)...
February 17, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454323/autonomy-and-infant-feeding-decision-making-among-teenage-mothers-in-a-rural-and-urban-setting-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#7
Ngcwalisa Amanda Jama, Aurene Wilford, Lyn Haskins, Anna Coutsoudis, Lenore Spies, Christiane Horwood
BACKGROUND: The nutritional status of infants born to teenage mothers can be sub-optimal compared to those born to older mothers. One contributing factor is inappropriate feeding practices adopted by teenage mothers. Little is known about how infant feeding decisions are made among teenage mothers, particularly in under resourced settings. In this study we prospectively explored autonomy and infant feeding decision-making among teenage mothers in a rural and urban setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
February 17, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453181/fish-consumption-from-urban-impoundments-what-are-the-health-risks-associated-with-ddts-and-other-organochlorine-pesticides-in-fish-to-township-residents-of-a-major-inland-city
#8
Wihan Pheiffer, Nico J Wolmarans, Ruan Gerber, Yared B Yohannes, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Mayumi Ishizuka, Nico J Smit, Victor Wepener, Rialet Pieters
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South Africa have for the most part been banned, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) which is still used as malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to determine OCP residues in the aquatic fauna of one of South Africa's most populated areas, Soweto. Risk to human health through OCP exposure via fish consumption was investigated. Clarias gariepinus was chosen as bioindicator because it is an apex predator that is in abundance, but is also a valued food source...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453120/mycobiota-and-co-occurrence-of-mycotoxins-in-south-african-maize-based-opaque-beer
#9
Ifeoluwa Adekoya, Adewale Obadina, Cynthia Chilaka Adaku, Marthe De Boevre, Sheila Okoth, Sarah De Saeger, Patrick Njobeh
Beer, a beverage consumed throughout the world, is mainly derived from cereals. In this study, fungal and mycotoxin contamination, as well as the physicochemical properties of maize-based opaque beer (umqombothi) obtained from the Gauteng province of South Africa, was investigated. The mean water activity, pH and total titratable acidity of the analysed beer samples were 0.91, 3.76 and 1.20% lactic acid, respectively. The investigation revealed Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma and Saccharomyces as the predominant fungal genera with a mean fungal load of 3...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452942/early-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-combination-of-bedaquiline-and-delamanid-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-armenia-india-and-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Gabriella Ferlazzo, Erika Mohr, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Catherine Hewison, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Naira Khachatryan, Virginia De Avezedo, Lusine Egazaryan, Amir Shroufi, Stobdan Kalon, Helen Cox, Jennifer Furin, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline and delamanid have been approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in the past 5 years. Because of theoretical safety concerns, patients have been unable to access the two drugs in combination. Médecins Sans Frontières has supported the use of combination bedaquiline and delamanid for people with few treatment options since 2016. We describe early safety and efficacy of regimens containing the bedaquiline and delamanid combination in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Yerevan, Armenia; Mumbai, India; and Khayelitsha, South Africa...
February 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452219/increased-cd4-counts-pain-and-depression-are-correlates-of-lower-sleep-quality-in-treated-hiv-positive-patients-with-low-baseline-cd4-counts
#11
K N Redman, A S Karstaedt, K Scheuermaier
Poor sleep quality leads to increased immune activation and immune activation leads to worse sleep quality. South African HIV positive patients typically have delayed start of treatment, which has been associated with CD4+ effector T cells being more spontaneously activated in chronically treated patients. This cross-sectional study investigated whether subjective sleep quality was associated with CD4+ T lymphocyte reconstitution in treated South African HIV+ patients. One hundred and thirty-nine treated HIV+ patients (109 F, age average (SD)= 43 (9)) were recruited from Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa...
February 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451887/evaluating-diagnostic-indicators-of-urogenital-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-in-young-women-a-cross-sectional-study-in-rural-south-africa
#12
Hashini Nilushika Galappaththi-Arachchige, Sigve Holmen, Artemis Koukounari, Elisabeth Kleppa, Pavitra Pillay, Motshedisi Sebitloane, Patricia Ndhlovu, Lisette van Lieshout, Birgitte Jyding Vennervald, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Myra Taylor, Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland
BACKGROUND: Urine microscopy is the standard diagnostic method for urogenital S. haematobium infection. However, this may lead to under-diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis, as the disease may present itself with genital symptoms in the absence of ova in the urine. Currently there is no single reliable and affordable diagnostic method to diagnose the full spectrum of urogenital S. haematobium infection. In this study we explore the classic indicators in the diagnosis of urogenital S...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449853/targeted-haplotype-comparisons-between-south-african-wheat-cultivars-appear-predictive-of-pre-harvest-sprouting-tolerance
#13
Scott L Sydenham, Annelie Barnard
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) has been a serious production constraint for over two decades, especially in the summer rainfall wheat production regions of South Africa. It is a complex genetic trait controlled by multiple genes, which are significantly influenced by environmental conditions. This complicates the accurate prediction of a cultivar's stability in terms of PHS tolerance. A number of reports have documented the presence of major QTL on chromosomes 3A and 4A of modern bread wheat cultivars, which confer PHS tolerance...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448884/ameliorating-the-in-vivo-antimalarial-efficacy-of-artemether-using-nanostructured-lipid-carriers
#14
Vanka Ravisankar, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy, Praveen Kumar Simhadri, Uday Krishna Baruah, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri, Vimal Pandey, Phanithi Prakash Babu
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a fatal neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that affects children (below five years old) in sub-Saharan Africa and adults in South-East Asia each year having the fatality rate of 10-25%. The survivors of CM also have high risk of long term neurological or cognitive deficits. The objective of the present investigation was to develop optimized nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of artemether (ARM) for enhanced anti-malarial efficacy of ARM.NLCs of ARM were prepared by a combination of high speed homogenization (HSH) and probe sonication techniques...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448854/mental-health-care-providers-talk-about-their-experiences-preventing-suicide-in-people-with-substance-use-disorders-in-south-africa-implications-for-clinical-practice
#15
Daniel Goldstone, Jason Bantjes
OBJECTIVE: This study explored mental health care providers' experiences of preventing suicide in people with substance use disorders and their perceptions of factors related to clinical practice that contributed to these experiences. METHODS: In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 mental health care providers working in South Africa. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data inductively with Atlas.ti software. RESULTS: Participants described feeling hopeless, helpless, powerless and guilty and needed to debrief from their experiences of preventing suicide...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448252/functions-and-roles-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-human-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#16
JingJing Wu, Swei Sunny Hann
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common cancers originating in the nasopharynx and occurring at high frequency in South-eastern Asia and North Africa. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding RNA molecules and key regulators of developmental, physiological, and pathological processes in humans. Emerging studies have shown that lncRNAs play critical roles in tumorgenicity and cancer prognosis. With the development of deep sequencing analyses, an extensive amount of functional lncRNAs have been discovered in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cell lines...
February 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447764/retraction-notice-to-the-revised-stratigraphy-of-the-hominin-bearing-site-of-kromdraai-gauteng-south-africa-and-associated-perspectives-j-human-evol-114-2018-1-19
#17
Laurent Bruxelles, Richard Maire, Amélie Beaudet, Raymond Couzens, Francis Duranthon, Jean-Baptiste Fourvel, Dominic Stratford, Francis Thackeray, José Braga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447754/strontium-isotopic-aspects-of-paranthropus-robustus-teeth-implications-for-habitat-residence-and-growth
#18
Andrew Sillen, Vincent Balter
The strontium isotopic ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr has been studied in the Sterkfontein Valley of South Africa to infer both habitat usage and residence for a number of early hominins. This paper examines the existing 87 Sr/ 86 Sr data collectively derived from three studies of Paranthropus robustus teeth with the aim of exploring whether the dataset as a whole may provide deeper insight into habitat, mobility, and growth for this species. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr from seven Swartkrans Member I third molars varies in a well defined narrow range, and while some canines were consistent with this range, a number of P...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447752/retracted-the-revised-stratigraphy-of-the-hominin-bearing-site-of-kromdraai-gauteng-south-africa-and-associated-perspectives
#19
Laurent Bruxelles, Richard Maire, Amélie Beaudet, Raymond Couzens, Francis Duranthon, Jean-Baptiste Fourvel, Dominic Stratford, Francis Thackeray, José Braga
This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the co-Editors-in-Chief and the authors. The Results and Discussion of this article duplicate significant parts of book chapter "A revised stratigraphy of Kromdraai", published by L.B., R.M., R.C., F.T. and J.B. in Braga, J. and Thackeray, J.F. (Eds.), "Kromdraai. A Birthplace of Paranthropus in the Cradle of Humankind" (2016, SUN MeDIA MeTRO, pp...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446825/phytomedicines-medicines-derived-from-plants-for-sickle-cell-disease
#20
REVIEW
Oluseyi Oniyangi, Damian H Cohall
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease, a common recessively inherited haemoglobin disorder, affects people from sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Mediterranean basin, Indian subcontinent, Caribbean and South America. It is associated with complications and a reduced life expectancy. Phytomedicines (medicine derived from plants in their original state) encompass many of the plant remedies from traditional healers which the populations most affected would encounter. Laboratory research and limited clinical trials have suggested positive effects of phytomedicines both in vivo and in vitro...
February 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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