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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054106/age-of-diagnosis-incidence-and-prevalence-of-recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-a-south-african-perspective
#1
R Y Seedat, R Schall
OBJECTIVES: To determine the distribution of the age of onset of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) and to determine the incidence and prevalence of RRP in both adults and children in the Free State province of South Africa in order to provide data from a population in sub-Saharan African. DESIGN: Retrospective record review. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the Free State province of South Africa between 2011 and 2015...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053634/petroleum-hydrocarbon-profiles-of-water-and-sediment-of-algoa-bay-eastern-cape-south-africa
#2
Abiodun O Adeniji, Omobola O Okoh, Anthony I Okoh
Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels) and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053590/land-use-regression-modeling-of-outdoor-noise-exposure-in-informal-settlements-in-western-cape-south-africa
#3
Chloé Sieber, Martina S Ragettli, Mark Brink, Olaniyan Toyib, Roslyn Baatjies, Apolline Saucy, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Martin Röösli
In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden) from geographic information system (GIS) variables...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053145/geometagenomics-illuminates-the-impact-of-agriculture-on-the-distribution-and-prevalence-of-plant-viruses-at-the-ecosystem-scale
#4
Pauline Bernardo, Tristan Charles-Dominique, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Emmanuel Fernandez, Denis Filloux, Penelope Hartnady, Tony A Rebelo, Stephen R Cousins, François Mesleard, Damien Cohez, Nicole Yavercovski, Arvind Varsani, Gordon W Harkins, Michel Peterschmitt, Carolyn M Malmstrom, Darren P Martin, Philippe Roumagnac
Disease emergence events regularly result from human activities such as agriculture, which frequently brings large populations of genetically uniform hosts into contact with potential pathogens. Although viruses cause nearly 50% of emerging plant diseases, there is little systematic information about virus distribution across agro-ecological interfaces and large gaps in understanding of virus diversity in nature. Here we applied a novel landscape-scale geometagenomics approach to examine relationships between agricultural land use and distributions of plant-associated viruses in two Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots (Western Cape region of South Africa and Rhône river delta region of France)...
October 20, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052018/end-users-product-preference-across-three-multipurpose-prevention-technology-delivery-forms-baseline-results-from-young-women-in-kenya-and-south-africa
#5
Rachel Weinrib, Alexandra Minnis, Kawango Agot, Khatija Ahmed, Fred Owino, Kgahlisho Manenzhe, Helen Cheng, Ariane van der Straten
A multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) that combines HIV and pregnancy prevention is a promising women's health intervention, particularly for young women. However, little is known about the drivers of acceptability and product choice for MPTs in this population. This paper explores approval ratings and stated choice across three different MPT delivery forms among potential end-users. The Trio Study was a mixed-methods study in women ages 18-30 that examined acceptability of three MPT delivery forms: oral tablets, injections, and vaginal ring...
October 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051999/comparative-early-life-stage-toxicity-of-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis-following-exposure-to-selected-herbicide-formulations-applied-to-eradicate-alien-plants-in-south-africa
#6
Oluwaseun O Babalola, J H Van Wyk
The rise in pesticides application has increased the need for better understanding of their ecological impacts. The global amphibian declines, for example, have been positively correlated with pesticides use. The differential susceptibility in the developmental stages of amphibians to chemical substances are still largely unknown. We examined the 96-h differential toxicity responses of embryos, premetamorphic and transitional larval stage of Xenopus laevis, to six formulated aquatic herbicide products containing the active ingredients of diquat dibromide (Midstream), glufosinate ammonium (Basta), imazapyr (Arsenal), and three glyphosate formulations (Roundup, Kilo Max, and Environ Glyphosate)...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051241/genome-sequences-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-strains-isolated-in-south-africa-namibia-and-turkey
#7
Marko Zivcec, Cesar G Albarino, Lisa I W Guerrero, Thomas G Ksiazek, Stuart T Nichol, Robert Swanepoel, Pierre E Rollin, Christina F Spiropoulou
We report here the full-length sequences of 16 historical isolates of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus (CCHFV) obtained in Turkey, Namibia, and South Africa. The strains may be useful for future work to develop molecular diagnostics or viral evolution studies.
October 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050646/worldwide-incidence-and-prevalence-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-the-21st-century-a-systematic-review-of-population-based-studies
#8
Siew C Ng, Hai Yun Shi, Nima Hamidi, Fox E Underwood, Whitney Tang, Eric I Benchimol, Remo Panaccione, Subrata Ghosh, Justin C Y Wu, Francis K L Chan, Joseph J Y Sung, Gilaad G Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease is a global disease in the 21st century. We aimed to assess the changing incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease around the world. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and Embase up to and including Dec 31, 2016, to identify observational, population-based studies reporting the incidence or prevalence of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis from 1990 or later. A study was regarded as population-based if it involved all residents within a specific area and the patients were representative of that area...
October 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048512/excellent-treatment-outcomes-in-children-treated-for-tuberculosis-under-routine-operational-conditions-in-cape-town-south-africa
#9
Muhammad Osman, Kevin Lee, Karen Du Preez, Rory Dunbar, Anneke C Hesseling, James A Seddon
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children globally. It is recognized that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases the risk of developing TB, but our understanding of the impact of HIV on risk of mortality for children treated for TB is limited. We aimed to identify predictors of mortality in children treated for drug-susceptible TB. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children (<15 years of age) routinely treated between 2005 and 2012 for drug-susceptible TB in Cape Town was conducted using the programmatic electronic TB treatment database...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048487/the-genome-draft-of-coconut-cocos-nucifera
#10
Yong Xiao, Pengwei Xu, Haikuo Fan, Luc Baudouin, Wei Xia, Stéphanie Bocs, Junyang Xu, Qiong Li, Anping Guo, Lixia Zhou, Jing Li, Yi Wu, Zilong Ma, Alix Armero, Auguste Emmanuel Issali, Na Liu, Ming Peng, Yaodong Yang
Background: Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera, 2n = 32), a member of genus Cocos and family Arecaceae (Palmaceae), is an important tropical fruit and oil crop. Currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including Central and South America, East and West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific island, with a total growth area of more than 12 million hectares (www.fao.org/faostat/en/). Coconut palm is generally classified into two main categories: "Tall" (flowering 8-10 years after planting) and "Dwarf" (flowering 4-6 years after planting), based on morphological characteristics and breeding habits...
October 5, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048296/chlamydia-trachomatis-biovar-l2-infection-in-women-in-south-africa
#11
Remco P H Peters, Ronan Doyle, Mathys J Redelinghuys, James A McIntyre, Georges M Verjans, Judith Breuer, Marleen M Kock
We detected Chlamydia trachomatis biovar L2 in vaginal swab specimens of 7 women with vaginal discharge in South Africa. Whole-genome sequencing directly from clinical specimens identified a closely related cluster of strains. The clinical role of this infection in the context of syndromic management should be clarified.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047381/a-critical-appraisal-of-guidelines-used-for-management-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-south-africa-s-referral-system
#12
Faith Nankasa Mambulu-Chikankheni, John Eyles, Ejemai Amaize Eboreime, Prudence Ditlopo
BACKGROUND: Focusing on healthcare referral processes for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in South Africa, this paper discusses the comprehensiveness of documents (global and national) that guide the country's SAM healthcare. This research is relevant because South African studies on SAM mostly examine the implementation of WHO guidelines in hospitals, making their technical relevance to the country's lower level and referral healthcare system under-explored. METHODS: To add to both literature and methods for studying SAM healthcare, we critically appraised four child healthcare guidelines (global and national) and conducted complementary expert interviews (n = 5)...
October 18, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047149/cognitive-and-physical-development-in-hiv-positive-children-in-south-africa-and-malawi-a-community-based-follow-up-comparison-study
#13
L Sherr, I S Hensels, M Tomlinson, S Skeen, A Macedo
BACKGROUND: Child development is negatively impacted by HIV with children that are infected and affected by HIV performing worse than their peers in cognitive assessments. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive follow-up comparison study (n=989) in South Africa and Malawi. We tracked child development in 135 HIV-positive children compared to 854 uninfected children aged 4-13 years attending community-based organizations at baseline and again 12-15 months later. RESULTS: Children with HIV were more often stunted (58...
October 19, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045681/international-patterns-and-trends-in-endometrial-cancer-incidence-1978-2013
#14
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Jacques Ferlay, Freddie Bray, Ahmedin Jemal
Background: Cancers of the corpus uteri-primarily of the endometrium-rank as the sixth most common neoplasm in women worldwide. Analyses of the global patterns and trends of uterine cancer rates are needed in view of the ongoing obesity epidemic, a major risk factor for the disease. Methods: Data on endometrial cancer (ICD-10 C54) incidence from population-based cancer registries in 43 populations, published in CI5plus or by registries, were extracted for 1978 to 2013...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045665/dna-barcode-reference-library-for-the-african-citrus-triozid-trioza-erytreae-hemiptera-triozidae-vector-of-african-citrus-greening
#15
F M Khamis, I Rwomushana, L O Ombura, G Cook, S A Mohamed, C M Tanga, P W Nderitu, C Borgemeister, M Sétamou, T G Grout, S Ekesi, Stephen Garczynski
Citrus (Citrus spp.) production continues to decline in East Africa, particularly in Kenya and Tanzania, the two major producers in the region. This decline is attributed to pests and diseases including infestation by the African citrus triozid, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Besides direct feeding damage by adults and immature stages, T. erytreae is the main vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus', the causative agent of Greening disease in Africa, closely related to Huanglongbing...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045436/development-and-characterization-of-novel-chimeric-monoclonal-antibodies-for-broad-spectrum-neutralization-of-rabies-virus
#16
Pan Kyeom Kim, Sun Ju Keum, Modupe O V Osinubi, Richard Franka, Ji Young Shin, Sang Tae Park, Man Su Kim, Mi Jung Park, Soo Young Lee, William Carson, Lauren Greenberg, Pengcheng Yu, Xiaoyan Tao, Wang Lihua, Qing Tang, Guodong Liang, Madhusdana Shampur, Charles E Rupprecht, Shin Jae Chang
Current post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus infection has several limitations in terms of supply, cost, safety, and efficacy. Attempts to replace human or equine rabies immune globulins (HRIG or ERIG) have been made by several companies and institutes. We developed potent monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a broad spectrum of rabies viruses by screening hybridomas received from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Two kinds of chimeric human antibodies (chimeric #7 and #17) were constructed by cloning the variable regions from selected hybridomas and the constant region of a human antibody...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044227/accuracy-of-weight-estimation-by-the-broselow-tape-is-substantially-improved-by-including-a-visual-assessment-of-body-habitus
#17
Mike Wells, Lara Goldstein, Alison Bentley
BackgroundThe Broselow tape (BT) has been shown to estimate weight poorly primarily because of variations in body habitus. The manufacturers have suggested that a visual assessment of habitus may be used to increase its performance. This study evaluated the ability of habitus-modified models to improve the accuracy thereof.MethodsA post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data from four hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa, on a population of 1,085 children. Sixteen a priori models generated a modified weight estimation or drug dose based on the BT weight and a gestalt assessment of habitus...
October 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043910/intersections-of-girl-child-marriage-and-family-planning-beliefs-and-use-qualitative-findings-from-ethiopia-and-india
#18
Katherine A McClendon, Lotus McDougal, Sankari Ayyaluru, Yemeserach Belayneh, Anand Sinha, Jay G Silverman, Anita Raj
Child marriage and subsequent early first birth is a considerable social, economic and health concern, and a pervasive practice in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. This study explores barriers and facilitators to family planning among women and girls, and their marital decision-makers subsequent to receipt of child marriage prevention programmes in Ethiopia and India. In-depth interviews with 128 women and girls who were married as minors or who cancelled or postponed marriage as minors and their marital decision-makers were analysed using content analysis...
October 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043611/quantifying-anthropogenic-threats-to-orchids-using-the-iucn-red-list
#19
Jenna Wraith, Catherine Pickering
Orchids are diverse, occur in a wide range of habitats and dominate threatened species lists, but which orchids are threatened, where and by what? Using the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we assessed the range and diversity of threats to orchids globally including identifying four threat syndromes: (1) terrestrial orchids in forests that are endemic to a country and threatened by illegal collecting; (2) orchids threatened by climate change, pollution, transportation and disturbance/development for tourism, and recreation activities, often in East Asia; (3) epiphytic orchids in Sub-Saharan Africa including Madagascar with diverse threats; and (4) South and Southeast Asia orchids threatened by land clearing for shifting agriculture...
October 17, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043474/genetic-diversity-of-afrikaner-cattle-in-southern-africa
#20
Lené Pienaar, J Paul Grobler, Michiel M Scholtz, Hannelize Swart, Karen Ehlers, Munro Marx, Michael D MacNeil, Frederick W C Neser
The Afrikaner is an indigenous South African breed of "Sanga" type beef cattle along with breeds such as the Drakensberger and Nguni. Six composite breeds have been developed from crosses with the Afrikaner. Additionally, Afrikaner has been the base from which exotic breeds were established in South Africa through backcrossing. The study examined genetic diversity of Afrikaner cattle by genotyping 1257 animals from 27 herds in different geographic areas of South Africa and Namibia using 11 microsatellite markers...
October 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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