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Qiang Li, Bin Yu, Peng Yang
High mobility group box-B1 (HMGB1) is upregulated in tumors, inflammations, and other injuries. However, its extracellular role and signaling in wound healing remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the HMGB1 levels in hematoma samples in fractured bones and in human macrophagy U937 cells under hypoxia with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. Then we investigated the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling western blotting in osteoblast MG-63 cells under hypoxia, with or without HMGB1 treatment...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Harshad K Shete, Swati S Vyas, Vandana B Patravale, John I Disouza
Mortality associated with lung cancer and its metastasis has outnumbered those related to other forms of cancer. Despite being a directly accessible organ, conventional oncological strategies exhibiting prolific outcome in treatment and prevention of lung cancer is far from reality. This is attributed to numerous challenges posed by lung environment. The extracellular aura of lung comprises immensely complicated structures, ciliary escalators, omnipresence of mucus and alveolar fluid, and macrophagial uptake which presents an array of impediments to the arrival of therapeutic moiety at the tumor site...
September 2014: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Travis Monk, Michael G Paulin, Peter Green
The basic functional characteristics of spiking neurones are remarkably similar throughout the animal kingdom. Their core design and function features were presumably established very early in their evolutionary history. Identifying the selection pressures that drove animals to evolve spiking neurones could help us interpret their design and function today. This paper provides a quantitative argument, based on ecology, that animals evolved neurones after they started eating each other, about 550 million years ago...
December 2015: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Laxman S Meena
Tuberculosis has long been the scourge of humanity, claiming millions of lives. The family of PE_PGRS gene has been attributed to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis over the past few decades. The gene of PE_PGRS family proteins are most often clustered in a region of the genome often as overlapping genes and role in cell surface markers, adhesion and invasion of defense cells of the host (macrophage and dendritic cells). The proline-glutamic acid (PE) domain is responsible for the cellular localization of these proteins on bacterial cells...
March 2015: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Jean Vannier, Jianni Liu, Rudy Lerosey-Aubril, Jakob Vinther, Allison C Daley
Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods...
2014: Nature Communications
Kimberley M Mellor, Upasna Varma, David I Stapleton, Lea M D Delbridge
Disturbed systemic glycemic and insulinemic status elicits cardiomyocyte metabolic stress and altered glucose handling. In diabetes, pathological myocardial glycogen accumulation occurs. Recently, evidence of a specific myocardial autophagic degradation pathway for glycogen ("glycophagy") has been reported, differentiated from the more well-characterized protein "macrophagy" pathway. The goal of this study was to identify potential mechanisms involved in cardiac glycogen accumulation, glycophagy, and macrophagy regulation using cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs)...
April 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Ayman Al-Mariri
The replication of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the resident peritoneal macrophages of four mice strains (BALB/c, CD1, C57BL, and Swiss) has been investigated. Macrophagial bactericidal killing activity was estimated via studying their ability to internalize (gentamicin-protected) E. coli during 2, 4, 24, and 48 h assays. Host genetic background has been found to show no significant effect on the ability of resident peritoneal macrophages to kill E. coli O157:H7.
January 2008: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Xi Liu, Zhe Wang, Yili Wu, Jianping Wang, Weihong Song
Neuritic plaque is the pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-β protein (Aβ), the central component of neuritic plaques, is generated from amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase. β-site APP cleaving enzyme 2 (BACE2), a homolog of BACE1, functions differently from BACE1 in APP processing. BACE1 is the β-secretase essential for Aβ production, and BACE2, a θ-secretase, cleaves APP within the Aβ domain, preventing Aβ production. Elucidation of the mechanism underlying BACE2 degradation is important for defining its biological features and its potential role in Alzheimer's disease drug development...
June 2013: European Journal of Neuroscience
Robert W Boessenecker, Morgan Churchill
BACKGROUND: A number of aberrant walruses (Odobenidae) have been described from the Neogene of the North Pacific, including specialized suction-feeding and generalist fish-eating taxa. At least one of these fossil walruses has been hypothesized to have been a specialized predator of other marine mammals, the middle Miocene walrus Pelagiarctos thomasi from the Sharktooth Hill Bonebed of California (16.1-14.5 Ma). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new specimen of Pelagiarctos from the middle Miocene "Topanga" Formation of southern California (17...
2013: PloS One
Mark T Young, Stephen L Brusatte, Brian L Beatty, Marco Brandalise De Andrade, Julia B Desojo
Metriorhynchidae was a peculiar but long-lived group of marine Mesozoic crocodylomorphs adapted to a pelagic lifestyle. Recent discoveries show that metriorhynchids evolved a wide range of craniodental morphotypes and inferred feeding strategies. One genus, Dakosaurus, is arguably the most aberrant marine crocodylomorph due to its large, robust, ziphodont teeth; very low tooth count; and brevirostrine/oreinirostral snout. We here report an additional unusual feature of Dakosaurus that is unique among marine crocodylomorphs: tightly fitting tooth-to-tooth occlusion, whose inference is supported by reception pits along the upper and lower tooth rows, indicative of vertically orientated crowns that were in close contact during occlusion, and three distinct types of dental wear...
July 2012: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Maria E Solesio, Sara Saez-Atienzar, Joaquin Jordan, Maria F Galindo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative process associated with mitochondrial alterations. Inhibitors of the electron-transport channel complex II, such as 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), are used to study the molecular and cellular pathways involved in this disease. We studied the effect of 3NP on mitochondrial morphology and its involvement in macrophagy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Pharmacological and biochemical methods were used to characterize the effects of 3NP on autophagy and mitochondrial morphology...
January 2013: British Journal of Pharmacology
Eliza Hutter, Sebastien Boridy, Simon Labrecque, Melanie Lalancette-Hébert, Jasna Kriz, Françoise M Winnik, Dusica Maysinger
Given the emergence of nanotherapeutics and nanodiagnostics as key tools in today's medicine, it has become of critical importance to define precisely the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and to characterize the resulting cellular response. We report here the interactions of microglia and neurons with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of three morphologies, spheres, rods, and urchins, coated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, primarily involved in surveillance, macrophagy, and production of cytokines and trophic factors...
May 25, 2010: ACS Nano
Danijela Radojković, Slobodan Antić, Milica Pesić, Milan Radojković, Dijana Basić, Tatjana Radjenović-Petković, Sasa Radenković, Ivan Ilić
BACKGROUND/AIM: Nipple discharge syndrome is a clinical entity capable of presenting various disorders such is mammary infection (nonpuerperal and puerperal mastitis), intraductal papillomas, fibrodenoma, breast cancer and hyperprolactinemia syndrome. The aim of the study was to determine differences in cytological features of mammary secretion in patients with hyperprolactinemia and those with normal serum prolactin levels and to define the role of growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone in creating cellular profile of breast secretion...
January 2010: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
Gabriel Rivera, Alan H Savitzky, Jeffrey A Hinkley
The evolution of the ophidian feeding mechanism has involved substantial morphological restructuring associated with the ability to ingest relatively large prey. Previous studies examining the morphological consequences of macrophagy have concentrated on modifications of the skull and cephalic musculature. Although it is evident that macrophagy requires highly compliant skin, the mechanical properties of the ophidian integument have received limited attention, particularly in the context of feeding. We examined mechanical properties of skin along the body axis in Thamnophis sirtalis (Colubridae)...
August 2005: Journal of Experimental Biology
C Nogues, A Pfister, R Kaiser
Irradiations of rat's brain with heavy ionized particles (12/6C, 291 Mev/nucleon, 100 to 300 ions/mm2) have been carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Exposures were made with slowed ions which stopped within the brain as well as with more energetic particles which passed through. Histological examination of irradiated encephalons by optical microscopy showed zones of glial reaction and an increased number of darkly staining cells. By electron microscopy, intercellular edema, various alterations of nervous cells and macrophagy were observed, especially with stopped ions...
1978: Life Sciences and Space Research
J Gieche, J Mehlhase, A Licht, T Zacke, N Sitte, T Grune
Macrophages are stimulable cells able to increase the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species dramatically for a short period of time. Free radicals and other oxidants are able to oxidize the intracellular protein pool. These oxidized proteins are selectively recognized and degraded by the intracellular proteasomal system. We used the mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 to test whether macrophagial cells are able to increase their protein turnover after oxidative stress and whether this is accompanied by an increased protein oxidation...
April 23, 2001: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
I Căluşer, P Florescu, M Petrescu
About 50 cases of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis without granulocytic infiltration were published till now. The authors describe the case of a 19-year-old patient with the right ear and the right ring finger bitten by squirrel about 40-50 days before the appearance of an axillary homolateral painful lymphadenomegaly and fever. Histopathologic examination of excised lymph nodes showed areas of necrosis, necrobiosis and nodular histiocytosis. Histiocytes were dystrophic or showed evidence of macrophagy...
April 1984: Morphologie et Embryologie
A V Aznaurian, M Z Bakhvishnian
After antigenic stimulation (intraperitoneal administration of 6% emulsion of sheep erythrocytes) interaction of macrophages and lymphoid cells has been studied in non-inbred mice spleen, lymph nodes, lungs and skin. Histological, morphometrical and radiographic techniques demonstrate that dermal macrophages possess the least reactivity. In 15 days of the experiment activation of the macrophagial link of the spleen and lymph node coinsides with the most intensive transformation of lymphoid elements into the antibody-producing plasma cells...
February 1985: Arkhiv Anatomii, Gistologii i émbriologii
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