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GLP-1 AND hepatocyte

Yu Qin, Min Chen, Yan Yang, Xin-Rong Zhou, Shi-Ying Shao, Dao-Wen Wang, Gang Yuan
Liraglutide, a modified form of glucagon‑like peptide‑1 (GLP‑1), is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanism by which liraglutide improves liver insulin resistance remains to be elucidated. The proto‑oncogene Wnt (Wnt) signaling pathway has been reported to be associated with glucose and lipid metabolism. Using in vivo and in vitro models of diabetes and insulin resistance, it was investigated whether the beneficial effects of liraglutide on liver glucose metabolism are mediated by the Wnt signaling pathway...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Grace Y S Goh, Johnathan J Winter, Forum Bhanshali, Kelsie R S Doering, Regina Lai, Kayoung Lee, Elizabeth A Veal, Stefan Taubert
Endogenous and exogenous stresses elicit transcriptional responses that limit damage and promote cell/organismal survival. Like its mammalian counterparts, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), Caenorhabditis elegans NHR-49 is a well-established regulator of lipid metabolism. Here, we reveal that NHR-49 is essential to activate a transcriptional response common to organic peroxide and fasting, which includes the pro-longevity gene fmo-2/flavin-containing monooxygenase...
June 2018: Aging Cell
Yue Yao, Qiang Li, Ping Gao, Wei Wang, Lili Chen, Jinchao Zhang, Yi Xu
Abnormal regulation of lipid metabolism is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1 as a new treatment for T2DM, has unique effects in modulating cholesterol homeostasis. However, the mechanism of this effect is largely missing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GLP-1 on cholesterol-induced lipotoxicity in hepatocytes and examine the underlying mechanisms. The cell viability was determined, and caspase-3 was used to detect the effects of GLP-1 on cholesterol-induced apoptosis...
March 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Umakant Ashok Bahirat, Rekha Raghuveer Shenoy, Rashmi Talwar, Rajan Naresh Goel, Kumar V S Nemmani
Non-Alcoholic SteatoHepatitis (NASH) is the more severe form of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and is characterized by the presence of hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, hepatocyte injury with or without fibrosis. Recently, GPR119 receptor has emerged as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of APD668, a GPR119 agonist alone or in combination with linagliptin, a DPPIV inhibitor on the progression of steatohepatitis in mice fed on a high trans-fat diet...
January 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen
Towards the end of the 20th century, the number of subjects with diabetes and obesity rose exponentially. The discoveries of insulin- and appetite-modulating chemical signals, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted from the gastrointestinal system, led to development of a new group of drugs which now are being used for glucose-lowering therapy and weight loss. Understanding of the physiology of gut derived signals and their pathophysiologi-cal importance requires accurate measurements of their circulat-ing levels...
November 2017: Danish Medical Journal
Rituraj Khound, Jennifer Taher, Christopher Baker, Khosrow Adeli, Qiaozhu Su
OBJECTIVE: Perturbations in hepatic lipid and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and hepatic insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to delineate the mechanism of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in preventing obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. APPROACH AND RESULTS: By subjecting the complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomized mice to various nutritional conditions and investigating hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathway, we found that complete disruption of subdiaphragmatic vagal signaling resulted in a significant decrease of circulating VLDL-triglyceride compared with the mice obtained sham procedure...
December 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Christian Baumeier, Luisa Schlüter, Sophie Saussenthaler, Thomas Laeger, Maria Rödiger, Stella Amelie Alaze, Louise Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Robert Wolfgang Schwenk, Annette Schürmann
OBJECTIVE: Increased hepatic expression of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether this is causative for the development of NAFLD is not yet clarified. Here we investigate the effect of hepatic DPP4 overexpression on the development of liver steatosis in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Plasma DPP4 activity of subjects with or without NAFLD was analyzed. Wild-type (WT) and liver-specific Dpp4 transgenic mice (Dpp4-Liv-Tg) were fed a high-fat diet and characterized for body weight, body composition, hepatic fat content and insulin sensitivity...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
Alice Y Chen-Liaw, Gabrielle Hammel, George Gomez
Nonalcoholic fatty liver is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of triglycerides within hepatocytes, resulting in a steatotic liver. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and its analog exendin-4 can ameliorate certain aspects of this syndrome by inducing weight loss and reducing hepatic triglyceride accumulation, but it is unclear whether these effects result from the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on the pancreas, or from direct action on the liver. This study investigated the direct action and putative cellular mechanism of exendin-4 on steatotic hepatocytes in culture...
September 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Anders Ellekær Junker
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as hepatic steatosis exceeding 5% of hepatocytes with no other reason for hepatic fat accumulation. The association between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes is strong. Accordingly, up to 70% of obese patients with type 2 diabetes have NAFLD. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with variable degrees of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the end-stage of chronic liver disease and is characterised by diffuse fibrosis and nodular regeneration of hepatocytes...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
Leena Liljedahl, Jenny Norlin, James N McGuire, Peter James
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide disease that affects 9% of the adult world population and type 2 DM accounts for 90% of those. A common consequence of DM is kidney complications, which could lead to kidney failure. We studied the potential effects of treatment with insulin and the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist liraglutide on the diabetic kidney proteome through the use of the db/db mouse model system and mass spectrometry (MS). Multivariate analyses revealed distinct effects of insulin and liraglutide on the db/db kidney proteome, which was seen on the protein levels of, for example, pterin-4 α -carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 α (PCBD1), neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated-8 (NEDD8), transcription elongation factor-B polypeptide-1 (ELOC) and hepcidin (HEPC)...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
Won Young Lee
It is well known that both insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretory capacity are important factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition to genetic factors, obesity and lipotoxicity can increase the risk of T2DM. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are novel antidiabetic drugs with multiple effects. They can stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibit postprandial glucagon release, delay gastric emptying, and induce pancreatic β-cell proliferation...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism
S J Henderson, A Konkar, D C Hornigold, J L Trevaskis, R Jackson, M Fritsch Fredin, R Jansson-Löfmark, J Naylor, A Rossi, M A Bednarek, N Bhagroo, H Salari, S Will, S Oldham, G Hansen, M Feigh, T Klein, J Grimsby, S Maguire, L Jermutus, C M Rondinone, M P Coghlan
AIMS: To characterize the pharmacology of MEDI0382, a peptide dual agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDI0382 was evaluated in vitro for its ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in cell lines expressing transfected recombinant or endogenous GLP-1 or glucagon receptors, to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cell lines and stimulate hepatic glucose output (HGO) by primary hepatocytes...
December 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Khalidur Rahman, Yunshan Liu, Pradeep Kumar, Tekla Smith, Natalie E Thorn, Alton B Farris, Frank A Anania
The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), a major transcriptional regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis, is implicated in lipotoxicity-induced ER stress and hepatocyte apoptosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We have previously demonstrated that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist, liraglutide, protects steatotic hepatocytes from lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis by improved handling of free fatty acid (FFA)-induced ER stress. In the present study, we investigated whether CHOP is critical for GLP-1-mediated restoration of ER homeostasis and mitigation of hepatocyte apoptosis in a murine model of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis)...
August 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Qin He, Sha Sha, Lei Sun, Jing Zhang, Ming Dong
The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) keeps rising year by year, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide. Clinical studies have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, liraglutide (LRG), cannot only reduce glucose levels, but also improve hepatic lipase, especially in patients also with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, enhancing autophagy decreases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of LRG on hepatocyte steatosis and the possible role of autophagy...
August 5, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Eunüs S Ali, Jin Hua, Claire H Wilson, George A Tallis, Fiona H Zhou, Grigori Y Rychkov, Greg J Barritt
The release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequent replenishment of ER Ca(2+) by Ca(2+) entry through store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCE) play critical roles in the regulation of liver metabolism by adrenaline, glucagon and other hormones. Both ER Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) entry are severely inhibited in steatotic hepatocytes. Exendin-4, a slowly-metabolised glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, is known to reduce liver glucose output and liver lipid, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mark F McCarty
Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), produced mainly in hepatocytes and adipocytes, promotes leanness, insulin sensitivity, and vascular health while down-regulating hepatic IGF-I production. Transgenic mice overexpressing FGF21 enjoy a marked increase in median and maximal longevity comparable to that evoked by calorie restriction - but without a reduction in food intake. Transcriptional factors which promote hepatic FGF21 expression include PPARα, ATF4, STAT5, and FXR; hence, fibrate drugs, elevated lipolysis, moderate-protein vegan diets, growth hormone, and bile acids may have potential to increase FGF21 synthesis...
December 19, 2015: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Flavio Francini, María Laura Massa, Mónica Patricia Polo, Hernán Villagarcía, María Cecilia Castro, Juan José Gagliardino
We tested the exendin-4 and des-fluoro-sitagliptin effects on fructose-induced increase in liver glucokinase activity in rats with impaired glucose tolerance and the exendin-4 effect on glucokinase activity in HepG2 cells incubated with fructose in the presence/absence of exendin-9-39. After 3 weeks of in vivo fructose administration we measured: (1) serum glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels; (2) liver and HepG2 cells glucokinase activity and (3) liver glucokinase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase mRNA and protein levels...
December 2015: Peptides
Signe Harring Østoft
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) designates monogenic forms of non-autoimmune diabetes characterised by autosomal dominant inheritance, non-insulin dependent diabetes at onset and diagnosis often before 25 years of age. MODY constitutes genetically and clinically heterogeneous forms of diabetes. More than 8 different genes are known to cause MODY, among which hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A) (MODY3) and glucokinase (GCK) (MODY2) mutations are the most common. Both forms of MODY are characterised by specific beta cell dysfunction, with patients with HNF1A-diabetes having a reduced insulin secretory capacity, while patients with GCK-diabetes have a glucose-sensing defect, but preserved insulin secretory capacity...
September 2015: Danish Medical Journal
Chi Wang, Qiang Li, Wei Wang, Lin Guo, Chang Guo, Yiqiong Sun, Jinchao Zhang
GLP-1 can help to overcome problems of liver cells metabolism, not only pancreatic cell. But the explicit mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In recent years, microRNAs have received the attention of researchers and some microRNAs have important implications for diabetes. The mitochondrial protective gene PGC-1α is also closely related to diabetes, and UCP2 is related to anti-mitochondrial oxidative stress, but the mechanism of action of these genes is unclear. In this study, we used HepG2 cell line and used the cell counting kit (CCK) to measure the cell viability with GLP-1(7-36) and/or glucotoxicity...
October 9, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chao-Lin Li, Lu-Jie Zhao, Xin-Li Zhou, Hui-Xiao Wu, Jia-Jun Zhao
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease and it represents the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which includes type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidemia, central obesity and hypertension. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors were widely used to treat T2DM. These agents improve glycemic control, promote weight loss and improve lipid metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated that the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is present and functional in human and rat hepatocytes...
June 2015: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
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