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GLP-1 AND hepatocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115211/measurement-of-gastrointestinal-hormones
#1
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen
Towards the end of the 20th century, the number of subjects with diabetes and obesity rose exponentially. The discoveries of insulin- and appetite-modulating chemical signals, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted from the gastrointestinal system, led to development of a new group of drugs which now are being used for glucose-lowering therapy and weight loss. Understanding of the physiology of gut derived signals and their pathophysiologi-cal importance requires accurate measurements of their circulat-ing levels...
November 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074588/glp-1-elicits-an-intrinsic-gut-liver-metabolic-signal-to-ameliorate-diet-induced-vldl-overproduction-and-insulin-resistance
#2
Rituraj Khound, Jennifer Taher, Chris Baker, Khosrow Adeli, Qiaozhu Su
OBJECTIVE: Perturbations in hepatic lipid and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and hepatic insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to delineate the mechanism of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in preventing obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. APPROACH AND RESULTS: By subjecting the complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomized mice to various nutritional conditions and investigating hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathway, we found that complete disruption of subdiaphragmatic vagal signaling resulted in a significant decrease of circulating VLDL-triglyceride compared with the mice obtained sham procedure...
October 26, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031724/elevated-hepatic-dpp4-activity-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
Christian Baumeier, Luisa Schlüter, Sophie Saussenthaler, Thomas Laeger, Maria Rödiger, Stella Amelie Alaze, Louise Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Robert Wolfgang Schwenk, Annette Schürmann
OBJECTIVE: Increased hepatic expression of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether this is causative for the development of NAFLD is not yet clarified. Here we investigate the effect of hepatic DPP4 overexpression on the development of liver steatosis in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Plasma DPP4 activity of subjects with or without NAFLD was analyzed. Wild-type (WT) and liver-specific Dpp4 transgenic mice (Dpp4-Liv-Tg) were fed a high-fat diet and characterized for body weight, body composition, hepatic fat content and insulin sensitivity...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707223/inhibition-of-exendin-4-induced-steatosis-by-protein-kinase-a-in-cultured-hepg2-human-hepatoma-cells
#4
Alice Y Chen-Liaw, Gabrielle Hammel, George Gomez
Nonalcoholic fatty liver is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of triglycerides within hepatocytes, resulting in a steatotic liver. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and its analog exendin-4 can ameliorate certain aspects of this syndrome by inducing weight loss and reducing hepatic triglyceride accumulation, but it is unclear whether these effects result from the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on the pancreas, or from direct action on the liver. This study investigated the direct action and putative cellular mechanism of exendin-4 on steatotic hepatocytes in culture...
September 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552096/the-role-of-incretin-hormones-and-glucagon-in-patients-with-liver-disease
#5
Anders Ellekær Junker
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as hepatic steatosis exceeding 5% of hepatocytes with no other reason for hepatic fat accumulation. The association between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes is strong. Accordingly, up to 70% of obese patients with type 2 diabetes have NAFLD. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with variable degrees of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the end-stage of chronic liver disease and is characterised by diffuse fibrosis and nodular regeneration of hepatocytes...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330952/effects-of-insulin-and-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-on-the-kidney-proteome-in-db-db-mice
#6
Leena Liljedahl, Jenny Norlin, James N McGuire, Peter James
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide disease that affects 9% of the adult world population and type 2 DM accounts for 90% of those. A common consequence of DM is kidney complications, which could lead to kidney failure. We studied the potential effects of treatment with insulin and the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist liraglutide on the diabetic kidney proteome through the use of the db/db mouse model system and mass spectrometry (MS). Multivariate analyses revealed distinct effects of insulin and liraglutide on the db/db kidney proteome, which was seen on the protein levels of, for example, pterin-4 α-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (PCBD1), neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated-8 (NEDD8), transcription elongation factor-B polypeptide-1 (ELOC) and hepcidin (HEPC)...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181428/new-potential-targets-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-hepatocytes
#7
REVIEW
Won Young Lee
It is well known that both insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretory capacity are important factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition to genetic factors, obesity and lipotoxicity can increase the risk of T2DM. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are novel antidiabetic drugs with multiple effects. They can stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibit postprandial glucagon release, delay gastric emptying, and induce pancreatic β-cell proliferation...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377054/robust-anti-obesity-and-metabolic-effects-of-a-dual-glp-1-glucagon-receptor-peptide-agonist-in-rodents-and-non-human-primates
#8
S J Henderson, A Konkar, D C Hornigold, J L Trevaskis, R Jackson, M Fritsch Fredin, R Jansson-Löfmark, J Naylor, A Rossi, M A Bednarek, N Bhagroo, H Salari, S Will, S Oldham, G Hansen, M Feigh, T Klein, J Grimsby, S Maguire, L Jermutus, C M Rondinone, M P Coghlan
AIMS: To characterize the pharmacology of MEDI0382, a peptide dual agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDI0382 was evaluated in vitro for its ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in cell lines expressing transfected recombinant or endogenous GLP-1 or glucagon receptors, to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cell lines and stimulate hepatic glucose output (HGO) by primary hepatocytes...
December 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239734/c-ebp-homologous-protein-modulates-liraglutide-mediated-attenuation-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
Khalidur Rahman, Yunshan Liu, Pradeep Kumar, Tekla Smith, Natalie E Thorn, Alton B Farris, Frank A Anania
The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), a major transcriptional regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis, is implicated in lipotoxicity-induced ER stress and hepatocyte apoptosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We have previously demonstrated that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist, liraglutide, protects steatotic hepatocytes from lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis by improved handling of free fatty acid (FFA)-induced ER stress. In the present study, we investigated whether CHOP is critical for GLP-1-mediated restoration of ER homeostasis and mitigation of hepatocyte apoptosis in a murine model of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis)...
August 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208776/glp-1-analogue-improves-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-by-inducing-autophagy-via-ampk-mtor-pathway
#10
Qin He, Sha Sha, Lei Sun, Jing Zhang, Ming Dong
The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) keeps rising year by year, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide. Clinical studies have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, liraglutide (LRG), cannot only reduce glucose levels, but also improve hepatic lipase, especially in patients also with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, enhancing autophagy decreases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of LRG on hepatocyte steatosis and the possible role of autophagy...
August 5, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178543/the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogue-exendin-4-reverses-impaired-intracellular-ca-2-signalling-in-steatotic-hepatocytes
#11
Eunüs S Ali, Jin Hua, Claire H Wilson, George A Tallis, Fiona H Zhou, Grigori Y Rychkov, Greg J Barritt
The release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequent replenishment of ER Ca(2+) by Ca(2+) entry through store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCE) play critical roles in the regulation of liver metabolism by adrenaline, glucagon and other hormones. Both ER Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) entry are severely inhibited in steatotic hepatocytes. Exendin-4, a slowly-metabolised glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, is known to reduce liver glucose output and liver lipid, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26741352/practical-prospects-for-boosting-hepatic-production-of-the-pro-longevity-hormone-fgf21
#12
REVIEW
Mark F McCarty
Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), produced mainly in hepatocytes and adipocytes, promotes leanness, insulin sensitivity, and vascular health while down-regulating hepatic IGF-I production. Transgenic mice overexpressing FGF21 enjoy a marked increase in median and maximal longevity comparable to that evoked by calorie restriction - but without a reduction in food intake. Transcriptional factors which promote hepatic FGF21 expression include PPARα, ATF4, STAT5, and FXR; hence, fibrate drugs, elevated lipolysis, moderate-protein vegan diets, growth hormone, and bile acids may have potential to increase FGF21 synthesis...
December 19, 2015: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26524624/control-of-liver-glucokinase-activity-a-potential-new-target-for-incretin-hormones
#13
Flavio Francini, María Laura Massa, Mónica Patricia Polo, Hernán Villagarcía, María Cecilia Castro, Juan José Gagliardino
We tested the exendin-4 and des-fluoro-sitagliptin effects on fructose-induced increase in liver glucokinase activity in rats with impaired glucose tolerance and the exendin-4 effect on glucokinase activity in HepG2 cells incubated with fructose in the presence/absence of exendin-9-39. After 3 weeks of in vivo fructose administration we measured: (1) serum glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels; (2) liver and HepG2 cells glucokinase activity and (3) liver glucokinase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase mRNA and protein levels...
December 2015: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26324089/incretin-hormones-and-maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young-pathophysiological-implications-and-anti-diabetic-treatment-potential
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Signe Harring Østoft
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) designates monogenic forms of non-autoimmune diabetes characterised by autosomal dominant inheritance, non-insulin dependent diabetes at onset and diagnosis often before 25 years of age. MODY constitutes genetically and clinically heterogeneous forms of diabetes. More than 8 different genes are known to cause MODY, among which hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A) (MODY3) and glucokinase (GCK) (MODY2) mutations are the most common. Both forms of MODY are characterised by specific beta cell dysfunction, with patients with HNF1A-diabetes having a reduced insulin secretory capacity, while patients with GCK-diabetes have a glucose-sensing defect, but preserved insulin secretory capacity...
September 2015: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26315270/glp-1-contributes-to-increases-in-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-by-downregulating-mir-23a-to-reduce-apoptosis
#15
Chi Wang, Qiang Li, Wei Wang, Lin Guo, Chang Guo, Yiqiong Sun, Jinchao Zhang
GLP-1 can help to overcome problems of liver cells metabolism, not only pancreatic cell. But the explicit mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In recent years, microRNAs have received the attention of researchers and some microRNAs have important implications for diabetes. The mitochondrial protective gene PGC-1α is also closely related to diabetes, and UCP2 is related to anti-mitochondrial oxidative stress, but the mechanism of action of these genes is unclear. In this study, we used HepG2 cell line and used the cell counting kit (CCK) to measure the cell viability with GLP-1(7-36) and/or glucotoxicity...
October 9, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26072069/review-on-the-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
REVIEW
Chao-Lin Li, Lu-Jie Zhao, Xin-Li Zhou, Hui-Xiao Wu, Jia-Jun Zhao
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease and it represents the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which includes type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidemia, central obesity and hypertension. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors were widely used to treat T2DM. These agents improve glycemic control, promote weight loss and improve lipid metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated that the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is present and functional in human and rat hepatocytes...
June 2015: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25953829/postprandial-incretin-and-islet-hormone-responses-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-enzymatic-activity-in-patients-with-maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young
#17
Signe Harring Østoft, Jonatan Ising Bagger, Torben Hansen, Bolette Hartmann, Oluf Pedersen, Jens Juul Holst, Filip Krag Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
OBJECTIVE: The role of the incretin hormones in the pathophysiology of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is unclear. DESIGN: We studied the postprandial plasma responses of glucagon, incretin hormones (glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)) and dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) enzymatic activity in patients with glucokinase (GCK) diabetes (MODY2) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A) diabetes (MODY3) as well as in matched healthy individuals (CTRLs)...
August 2015: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25506548/glp-1-receptor-agonism-ameliorates-hepatic-vldl-overproduction-and-de-novo-lipogenesis-in-insulin-resistance
#18
Jennifer Taher, Christopher L Baker, Carmelle Cuizon, Hassan Masoudpour, Rianna Zhang, Sarah Farr, Mark Naples, Celine Bourdon, Zdenka Pausova, Khosrow Adeli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fasting dyslipidemia is commonly observed in insulin resistant states and mechanistically linked to hepatic overproduction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Recently, the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been implicated in ameliorating dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and reducing hepatic lipid stores. Given that hepatic VLDL production is a key determinant of circulating lipid levels, we investigated the role of both peripheral and central GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonism in regulation of VLDL production...
December 2014: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25280755/glucagon-like-peptide-2-improves-cholestasis-in-parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease
#19
David W Lim, Paul W Wales, Jessica K Josephson, Patrick N Nation, Pamela R Wizzard, Consolato M Sergi, Catherine J Field, David L Sigalet, Justine M Turner
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates with intestinal failure. Although glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is being advanced as therapy, the effect of GLP-2 treatment on PNALD is unknown. We aim to investigate the effect of exogenous GLP-2 administration on hepatic function in a neonatal piglet model of PNALD. METHODS: Neonatal piglets (aged 2-6 days) underwent jugular venous catheterization to receive isonitrogenous, isocaloric parenteral nutrition (PN)...
January 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25177166/exendin-4-improves-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-regulating-glucose-transporter-4-expression-in-ob-ob-mice
#20
Seok Kim, Jaehoon Jung, Hwajin Kim, Rok Won Heo, Chin-Ok Yi, Jung Eun Lee, Byeong Tak Jeon, Won-Ho Kim, Jong Ryeal Hahm, Gu Seob Roh
Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, has been known to reverse hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice. Although many studies have evaluated molecular targets of Ex-4, its mechanism of action on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis has not fully been determined. In the liver, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is mainly expressed in hepatocytes, endothelial cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In the present study, the effects of Ex-4 on GLUT4 expression were determined in the liver of ob/ob mice...
August 2014: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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