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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919654/american-brachytherapy-society-brachytherapy-treatment-recommendations-for-locally-advanced-cervix-cancer-for-low-income-and%C3%A2-middle-income-countries
#1
Gita Suneja, Derek Brown, Amy Chang, Beth Erickson, Elena Fidarova, Surbhi Grover, Umesh Mahantshetty, Subir Nag, Kailash Narayan, Memory Bvochora-Nsingo, Celia Viegas, Akila N Viswanathan, Ming Yin Lin, David Gaffney
PURPOSE: Most cervix cancer cases occur in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), and outcomes are suboptimal, even for early stage disease. Brachytherapy plays a central role in the treatment paradigm, improving both local control and overall survival. The American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) aims to provide guidelines for brachytherapy delivery in resource-limited settings. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A panel of clinicians and physicists with expertise in brachytherapy administration in LMIC was convened...
December 2, 2016: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917215/prevalence-of-asthma-among-school-children-in-gaborone-botswana
#2
Andrew Kiboneka, Michael Levin, Thembisile Mosalakatane, Ishmael Makone, Eric Wobudeya, Boikanyo Makubate, Russell Hopp, Loeto Mazhani, Shiang-Ju Kung
BACKGROUND: Asthma prevalence is high (>10%) in developed countries and although data is still missing for most of Africa, rates are increasing in developing regions as they become more westernized. We investigated the prevalence of asthma in school children in Gaborone, Botswana. METHODS: This was a cross sectional descriptive study. ISAAC methodology was used. A representative proportionate size random sample of two age groups of children (13-14 year olds and 6-7 year olds) was consecutively enrolled from 10 schools...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913453/movement-patterns-of-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-farmlands-in-botswana
#3
L K Van der Weyde, T Y Hubel, J Horgan, J Shotton, R McKenna, A M Wilson
Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas, bringing them into conflict with people. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method...
December 2, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893822/deciphering-multiplicity-of-hiv-1c-infection-transmission-of-closely-related-multiple-viral-lineages
#4
Vlad Novitsky, Sikhulile Moyo, Rui Wang, Simani Gaseitsiwe, M Essex
BACKGROUND: A single viral variant is transmitted in the majority of HIV infections. However, about 20% of heterosexually transmitted HIV infections are caused by multiple viral variants. Detection of transmitted HIV variants is not trivial, as it involves analysis of multiple viral sequences representing intra-host HIV-1 quasispecies. METHODOLOGY: We distinguish two types of multiple virus transmission in HIV infection: (1) HIV transmission from the same source, and (2) transmission from different sources...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888968/predictors-of-depression-among-seropositive-batswana-men-and-women-a-descriptive-correlational-study
#5
Christopher Lance Coleman
The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to describe predictors of depressive symptoms among N=70 seropositive Botswana men and women residing in Gaborne, Botswana. A demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, (CESD-D), and the SF-36 [Quality of life] were administered. The questionnaires were translated and back translated in Setswana and administered by Batswana men and women. The results of the regression analyses resulted in two calculated models. In the first Model energy/fatigue explained 46% of the variance in depressive symptoms (P=...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876649/memories-of-environmental-change-and-local-adaptations-among-molapo-farming-communities-in-the-okavango-delta-botswana-a-gender-perspective
#6
B N Ngwenya, O T Thakadu, L Magole, M J Chimbari
This paper focuses on ways in which three riparian communities (Xobe, Shorobe and Tubu) practising flood recession (molapo) farming along the fringes of the Okavango Delta in Ngamiland District in north-western Botswana, present memories of experiential impacts of and adaptation to key environmental and anthropogenic change events. Participatory methodological tools were used to capture local knowledge of people who had resided in the Okavango wetlands for many years. Findings indicate that key environmental change events were characterized by intergenerational experiences of severe and frequent droughts, floods, and recurrent outbreaks of human and animal disease...
November 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869604/molecular-spatial-and-field-epidemiology-suggesting-tb-transmission-in-community-not-hospital-gaborone-botswana
#7
Diya Surie, Othusitse Fane, Alyssa Finlay, Matsiri Ogopotse, James L Tobias, Eleanor S Click, Chawangwa Modongo, Nicola M Zetola, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann
During 2012-2015, 10 of 24 patients infected with matching genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis received care at the same hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Nosocomial transmission was initially suspected, but we discovered plausible sites of community transmission for 20 (95%) of 21 interviewed patients. Active case-finding at these sites could halt ongoing transmission.
March 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866372/input-behaviour-and-distribution-of-multiple-elements-in-abiotic-matrices-along-a-transect-within-the-okavango-delta-northern-botswana
#8
Jörg Schaller, Jonas Schoelynck, Mike Murray-Hudson, Patrick J Frings, Dimitri van Pelt, Tilo Hegewald, Keotshephile Mosimane, Mangaliso Gondwe, Piotr Wolski, Patrick Meire, Eric Struyf
Wetlands fed by rivers can be a sink for elements depending on elemental concentrations, wetland hydrology, geochemistry, vegetation and climate. In the case of the Okavango Delta, northern Botswana, the outflow discharge is a small fraction (2-5%) of the inflow. This has strong potential consequences for the Delta, as it strongly affects element cycling and storage within the Delta. We estimated the inputs, behaviour and distribution of multiple elements along a longitudinal transect within the Okavango Delta, to show potential effects of retention mechanisms of different elements...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850022/382-knowledge-accrual-after-a-pediatric-fundamental-critical-care-support-course-in-botswana
#9
Natasha Afonso, Megan Cox, Dave Kloeck, Loeto Mazhani, Tlamelo Daman, Mohan Mysore, Kevin Roy, Peter Meaney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844043/geostatistical-analysis-of-trace-elements-pxrf-dataset-of-near-surface-semi-arid-soils-from-central-botswana
#10
Peter N Eze, Valiant S Mosokomani, Theophilus K Udeigwe, Opeoluwa F Oyedele, Adeniyi F Fagbamigbe
Geospatial dataset of trace elements including manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), thorium (Th), Vanadium (V) and Zirconium (Zr) of near-surface soils in a Cu-Ni prospecting field at Airstrip North, Central Botswana were statistically analysed. Grid sampling method was used in the field data collection. The relatively new portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Delta Premium, 510890, USA) technology in a "soil" mode was used to measure the concentrations of trace elements in the soils...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843487/invasive-cervical-cancers-in-the-united-states-botswana-and-kenya-hpv-type-distribution-and-health-policy-implications
#11
Aaron Ermel, Brahim Qadadri, Yan Tong, Omenge Orang'o, Benson Macharia, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Nicola M Zetola, Darron R Brown
BACKGROUND: More deaths occur in African women from invasive cervical cancer (ICC) than from any other malignancy. ICC is caused by infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accelerates the natural history of ICC, and may influence the HPV type distribution. Because HPV vaccines are available, this malignancy is theoretically preventable, but the vaccines are largely type-specific in protection against infection...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834603/understanding-human-resource-management-practices-in-botswana-s-public-health-sector
#12
Onalenna Stannie Seitio-Kgokgwe, Robin Gauld, Philip C Hill, Pauline Barnett
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829720/an-encounter-with-enalapril-induced-resistant-life-threatening-angioedema-at-rural-health-center-in-botswana
#13
Nikhil Anish, Abiy Mulugeta Gabremedhin
Angioedema, a rare, potentially fatal and usually self-limiting adverse effect of therapy with enalapril, is always a challenging encounter for an intensive care specialist in a rural setup. Here, we present a 74-year-old female, who presented to the Emergency Department of Sekgoma Memorial Hospital, Serowe village, Botswana, with progressive swelling of her face, tongue and breathing difficulty just 2 days after starting tablet enalapril. She failed to respond to usual treatment with adrenaline, steroids, and H1-antihistaminic agent, but she responded well with intravenous fresh-frozen plasma infusion...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800524/slow-cd4-t-cell-recovery-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-b-virus-coinfected-patients-initiating-truvada-based-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-botswana
#14
Motswedi Anderson, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Sikhulile Moyo, Kerapetse P Thami, Terence Mohammed, Ditiro Setlhare, Theresa K Sebunya, Eleanor A Powell, Joseph Makhema, Jason T Blackard, Richard Marlink, Max Essex, Rosemary M Musonda
Background.  Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality. We determined the response to Truvada-based first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV/HBV-coinfected verus HIV-monoinfected patients in Botswana. Methods.  Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV e antigen (HBeAg), and HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) load were determined from baseline and follow-up visits in a longitudinal cART cohort of Truvada-based regimen...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800084/factors-influencing-health-care-workers-implementation-of-tuberculosis-contact-tracing-in-kweneng-botswana
#15
Lebapotswe Tlale, Rosemary Frasso, Onalenna Kgosiesele, Mpho Selemogo, Quirk Mothei, Dereje Habte, Andrew Steenhoff
INTRODUCTION: TB contact tracing rates remain low in high burden settings and reasons for this are not well known. We describe factors that influence health care workers' (HCW) implementation of TB contact tracing (CT) in a high TB burden district of Botswana. METHODS: Data were collected using questionnaires and in-depth interviews in 31 of the 52 health facilities in Kweneng East Health District. Responses were summarized using summary statistics and comparisons between HCW groups were done using parametric or non-parametric tests as per normality of the data distribution...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796117/new-family-medicine-residency-training-programme-residents-perspectives-from-the-university-of-botswana
#16
Deogratias O Mbuka, Stephane Tshitenge, Vincent Setlhare, Billy Tsima, Ganiyu Adewale, Luise Parsons
BACKGROUND: Family Medicine (FM) training is new in Botswana. No previous evaluation of the experiences and opinions of residents of the University of Botswana (UB) Family Medicine training programme has been reported. AIMS: This study explored and assessed residents' experiences and satisfaction with the FM training programme at the UB and solicited potential strategies for improvement from the residents. METHODS: A descriptive survey using a self-administered questionnaire based on a Likert-type scale and open-ended questions was used to collect data from FM residents at the UB...
August 31, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782966/benefits-of-continuous-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-may-outweigh-resistance-risks-in-a-declining-tuberculosis-hiv-coepidemic
#17
Amber Kunkel, Forrest W Crawford, James Shepherd, Ted Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Extending the duration of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) may improve its effectiveness at both individual and population levels, but could also increase selective pressure in favor of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (TB) strains. The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of these two effects. METHODS: Transmission dynamic model. DESIGN: We created a mathematical model of TB transmission incorporating HIV incidence and treatment, mixed strain latent TB infections, and four different phenotypes of TB drug resistance (pan-susceptible, isoniazid monoresistant, rifampicin monoresistant, and multidrug resistant)...
November 13, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782821/implementation-of-a-pragmatic-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-impact-of-botswana-s-xpert-mtb-rif-diagnostic-algorithm-on-tb-diagnostic-sensitivity-and-early-antiretroviral-therapy-mortality
#18
Andrew F Auld, Tefera Agizew, Sherri Pals, Alyssa Finlay, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Rosanna Boyd, Heather Alexander, Anikie Mathoma, Joyce Basotli, Sambayawo Gwebe-Nyirenda, James Shepherd, Tedd V Ellerbrock, Anand Date
BACKGROUND: In 2012, as a pilot for Botswana's national Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) rollout plans, intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding (ICF) activities were strengthened at 22 HIV treatment clinics prior to phased activation of 13 Xpert instruments. Together, the strengthened ICF intervention and Xpert activation are referred to as the "Xpert package". METHODS: The evaluation, called the Xpert Package Rollout Evaluation using a Stepped-wedge design (XPRES), has two key objectives: (1) to compare sensitivity of microscopy-based and Xpert-based pulmonary TB diagnostic algorithms in diagnosing sputum culture-positive TB; and (2) to evaluate impact of the "Xpert package" on all-cause, 6-month, adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775028/environmental-hydro-refugia-demonstrated-by-vegetation-vigour-in-the-okavango-delta-botswana
#19
S C Reynolds, C G Marston, H Hassani, G C P King, M R Bennett
Climate shifts at decadal scales can have environmental consequences, and therefore, identifying areas that act as environmental refugia is valuable in understanding future climate variability. Here we illustrate how, given appropriate geohydrology, a rift basin and its catchment can buffer vegetation response to climate signals on decadal time-scales, therefore exerting strong local environmental control. We use time-series data derived from Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) residuals that record vegetation vigour, extracted from a decadal span of MODIS images, to demonstrate hydrogeological buffering...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773596/early-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-access-and-equity-of-viral-load-testing-for-hiv-treatment-monitoring
#20
Trevor Peter, Dennis Ellenberger, Andrea A Kim, Debrah Boeras, Tsehaynesh Messele, Teri Roberts, Wendy Stevens, Ilesh Jani, Alash'le Abimiku, Nathan Ford, Zachary Katz, John N Nkengasong
Scaling up access to HIV viral load testing for individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy in low-resource settings is a global health priority, as emphasised by research showing the benefits of suppressed viral load for the individual and the whole population. Historically, large-scale diagnostic test implementation has been slow and incomplete because of service delivery and other challenges. Building on lessons from the past, in this Personal View we propose a new framework to accelerate viral load scale-up and ensure equitable access to this essential test...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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