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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136009/early-resumption-of-sexual-activity-following-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-in-botswana-a-qualitative-study
#1
Jenny H Ledikwe, Nankie M Ramabu, Lisa P Spees, Scott Barnhart, Conrad Ntsuape, Bazghina-Werq Semo, Kathleen E Wirth
Unprotected sexual intercourse after undergoing voluntary medical male circumcision but prior to complete wound healing can lead to major adverse events including HIV acquisition. To better understand perceptions related to early resumption of sex prior to wound healing, 27 focus group discussions were conducted among 238 adult men, women, and community leaders in Botswana. Median age among all participants was 31 years of whom 60% were male and 51% were either employed and receiving salary or self-employed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119726/cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis-was-associated-with-enteric-commensal-bacterial-resistance-among-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-botswana
#2
Kathleen M Powis, Sajini Souda, Shahin Lockman, Gbolahan Ajibola, Kara Bennett, Jean Leidner, Michael D Hughes, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Haruna B Jibril, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Roger L Shapiro
INTRODUCTION: Despite declining risk of vertical HIV transmission, prophylactic cotrimoxazole (CTX) remains widely used to reduce morbidity and mortality in the event of HIV infection among exposed infants, with an inherent risk of conferring commensal antimicrobial resistance. Using data from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of infant CTX prophylaxis, we sought to quantify emergence of antibiotic resistance. METHODS: HIV-exposed uninfected infants enrolled in the Botswana Mpepu study were randomized to prophylactic CTX or placebo between 14 and 34 days of life and continued through 15 months...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112959/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-safety-and-patient-satisfaction-of-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-in-botswana
#3
Kathleen E Wirth, Bazghina-Werq Semo, Lisa P Spees, Conrad Ntsuape, Scott Barnhart, Jenny H Ledikwe
Randomized trials have shown that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in men. However, the rate of complications associated with the surgical procedure varies from 0.7% to 37.4% in real-world settings. We assessed the frequency, type and severity of adverse events following VMMC among 427 adult men surgically circumcised in southeastern Botswana; 97% completed ≥1 follow-up visit within seven days post-circumcision. Thirty moderate AEs were observed in 28 men resulting in an overall AE rate of 6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112066/emulating-a-target-trial-of-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-started-before-conception-and-risk-of-adverse-birth-outcomes
#4
Ellen C Caniglia, Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Shahin Lockman, Jennifer Chen, Mompati Mmalane, Joseph Makhema, Miguel A Hernán, Roger L Shapiro
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of pre-conception initiation of zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine (ZDV/3TC/NVP) versus tenofovir, emtricitabine, efavirenz (TDF/FTC/EFV) on adverse birth outcomes. DESIGN: Emulation of a hypothetical (target) trial using a birth surveillance study in Botswana during an era of CD4-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: In women who initiated ART < 3 years from HIV diagnosis, conceived 0...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104616/consumption-based-conservation-targeting-linking-biodiversity-loss-to-upstream-demand-through-a-global-wildlife-footprint
#5
Justin Kitzes, Eric Berlow, Erin Conlisk, Karlheinz Erb, Katsunori Iha, Neo Martinez, Erica A Newman, Christoph Plutzar, Adam B Smith, John Harte
Although most conservation efforts address the direct, local causes of biodiversity loss, effective long-term conservation will require complementary efforts to reduce the upstream economic pressures, such as demands for food and forest products, which ultimately drive these downstream losses. Here, we present a wildlife footprint analysis that links global losses of wild birds to consumer purchases across 57 economic sectors in 129 regions. The United States, India, China, and Brazil have the largest regional wildlife footprints, while per-person footprints are highest in Mongolia, Australia, Botswana, and the United Arab Emirates...
September 2017: Conservation Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097418/prevalence-and-treatment-outcomes-of-routine-chlamydia-trachomatis-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-trichomonas-vaginalis-testing-during-antenatal-care-gaborone-botswana
#6
Adriane Wynn, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Ponatshego Gaolebale, Neo Moshashane, Ontiretse Sickboy, Sofia Duque, Elizabeth Williams, Klara Doherty, Jeffrey D Klausner, Chelsea Morroni
OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are curable, mostly asymptomatic, STIs that cause adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Most countries do not test for those infections during antenatal care. We implemented a CT, NG and TV testing and treatment programme in an antenatal clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in the antenatal clinic at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana...
November 2, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095954/pyrazinamide-clearance-is-impaired-among-hiv-tuberculosis-patients-with-high-levels-of-systemic-immune-activation
#7
Christopher Vinnard, Shruthi Ravimohan, Neo Tamuhla, Jotam Pasipanodya, Shashikant Srivastava, Chawangwa Modongo, Nicola M Zetola, Drew Weissman, Tawanda Gumbo, Gregory P Bisson
Pyrazinamide is the main driver of sterilizing effect in the standard regimen in adults and older children, and this effect is concentration-dependent. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk for poor tuberculosis treatment outcomes and adverse drug events. We sought to determine whether measures of systemic immune activation were related to pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics among HIV/tuberculosis patients. We conducted a prospective cohort study of pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics in HIV/tuberculosis patients in Gaborone, Botswana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094103/multidisciplinary-gynecologic-oncology-clinic-in-botswana-a-model-for-multidisciplinary-oncology-care-in-low-and-middle-income-settings
#8
Surbhi Grover, Sebathu Philip Chiyapo, Priya Puri, Mohan Narasimhamurthy, Babe Eunice Gaolebale, Neo Tapela, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Mukendi K A Kayembe, Thabo Moloi, Ponatshego Andrew Gaolebale
Purpose: Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the most common cancer diagnosed in women in Botswana. Most women present with locally advanced disease, requiring chemotherapy and radiation. Care co-ordination requires input from a multidisciplinary team (MDT) to deliver appropriate, timely treatment. However, there are limited published examples of MDT implementation in LMICs. Methods: In May 2015, a weekly MDT clinic for gynecologic cancer care was initiated at Botswana's national referral facility...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078791/lessons-from-the-field-the-conduct-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-botswana
#9
Janice M Bonsu, Rosemary Frasso, Allison E Curry
BACKGROUND: The conduct of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in low-resource settings may present unique financial, logistic, and process-related challenges. Middle-income countries that have comparable disease burdens to low-income countries, but greater availability of resources, may be conducive settings for RCTs. Indeed, the country of Botswana is experiencing a rapid increase in the conduct of RCTs. Our objective was to explore the experiences of individuals conducting RCTs in Botswana to gain an understanding of the challenges and adaptive strategies to their work...
October 27, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074060/risk-factors-for-cerebral-palsy-in-children-in-botswana
#10
Baphaleng Monokwane, Allison Johnson, Claudia Gambrah-Sampaney, Esha Khurana, James Baier, Esther Baranov, Kate D Westmoreland, Loeto Mazhani, Andrew P Steenhoff, David R Bearden
BACKGROUND: Although cerebral palsy is reported to have a higher prevalence in low-resource settings, there are few studies describing risk factors for cerebral palsy in these settings. A better understanding of the unique risk factors affecting children with cerebral palsy in low-resource settings could optimize both resource allocation and preventative strategies. METHODS: A case-control study comparing children with cerebral palsy at ages two to 18 years with age-matched healthy control subjects was conducted between 2013 and 2014 at a referral center in Gaborone, Botswana...
August 3, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073202/questionnaire-survey-of-the-pan-african-trade-in-lion-body-parts
#11
Vivienne L Williams, Andrew J Loveridge, David J Newton, David W Macdonald
The African lion is in decline across its range, and consumptive utilisation and trade of their body parts and skins has been postulated as a cause for concern. We undertook a pan-African questionnaire and literature survey to document informed opinion and evidence for the occurrence of domestic and international trade and consumption in African lion body parts across current and former range states. Sixty-five people from 18 countries participated in the online questionnaire survey (run from July 2014 to May 2015), with information provided for 28 countries (including 20 out of 24 countries believed to have extant populations)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066237/huntington-s-disease-like-2-with-an-expansion-mutation-of-the-junctophilin-3-gene-first-reported-case-from-botswana
#12
C Ocampo, R Daimari, A A Oyekunle
Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) is a rare autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder commonly seen in adults. It was first described in a large African-American family in the United States. HDL2 clinically resembles Huntington's disease (HD) and causes adult-onset relentlessly progressive movement, emotional and cognitive dysfunction. Onset is usually in the fourth decade with slow progression to death. We present a 47-year-old male Botswana native, with a four-year-history of chorea, slurred speech, mood instability, cognitive impairment and weight loss...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062862/high-rates-of-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-hiv-positive-individuals-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-in-botswana
#13
Kathleen Ryan, Motswedi Anderson, Ivayla Gyurova, Lilliam Ambroggio, Sikhulile Moyo, Teresa Sebunya, Joseph Makhema, Richard Marlink, Max Essex, Rosemary Musonda, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Jason T Blackard
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative but hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA-positive infection-known as occult hepatitis B infection (OBI)-occurs in 1% to >15% of HIV-positive individuals in the United States and South Africa, respectively. However, there are no data on OBI from Botswana, a country known to be hyperendemic for chronic HBV infection and to have a significant HIV burden. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-two adults enrolled in an HIV treatment study of tenofovir/emtricitabine as the nucleoside backbone who were previously determined to be HBsAg negative were tested for HBV DNA at baseline and 1 year after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018584/affordability-of-comprehensive-community-health-worker-programmes-in-rural-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Celia Taylor, Frances Griffiths, Richard Lilford
INTRODUCTION: Community health worker (CHW) programmes have low costs per person served and are central to achieving universal healthcare. However, their total cost is high and the target of one million CHWs for sub-Saharan Africa by 2015 was not met. We consider the affordability of rural CHW programmes by estimating total programme costs relative to national healthcare expenditure at different CHW salaries and resources available for healthcare. METHODS: We combine an existing source of rural CHW programme costs with World Bank data to estimate relative CHW programme costs in 37 countries...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991918/rapid-enteric-testing-to-permit-targeted-antimicrobial-therapy-with-and-without-lactobacillus-reuteri-probiotics-for-paediatric-acute-diarrhoeal-disease-in-botswana-a-pilot-randomized-factorial-controlled-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeffrey M Pernica, Andrew P Steenhoff, Margaret Mokomane, Banno Moorad, Kwana Lechiile, Marek Smieja, Loeto Mazhani, Ji Cheng, Matthew S Kelly, Mark Loeb, Ketil Stordal, David M Goldfarb
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985914/a-multinational-qualitative-investigation-of-the-perspectives-and-drivers-of-exercise-and-dietary-behaviors-in-people-living-with-hiv
#16
Allison R Webel, Joseph D Perazzo, Carol Dawson-Rose, Carolyn Smith, Patrice K Nicholas, Marta Rivero-Méndez, Solymar S Solís-Báez, Lucille Sanzero Eller, Mallory O Johnson, Inge B Corless, Teri Lindgren, William L Holzemer, Jeanne K Kemppainen, Paula Reid, Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe, Ella Matshediso, Kathleen Nokes, Carmen J Portillo
Globally, people living with HIV (PLWH) are at remarkably high risk for developing chronic comorbidities. While exercise and healthy eating reduce and mitigate chronic comorbidites, PLWH like many others, often fail to engage in recommended levels. We qualitatively examined the perspectives and contextual drivers of diet and exercise reported by PLWH and their health care providers. Two hundred and six participants across eight sites in the United States, Puerto Rico and Botswana described one overarching theme, Arranging Priorities, and four subthemes Defining Health, Perceived Importance of Diet and Exercise, Competing Needs, and Provider Influence...
October 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975820/orphans-perspectives-on-grief-and-loss-in-botswana
#17
Nthabiseng A Phaladze, Barbara N Ngwenya, Lesego Gabaitiri
This paper seeks to examine orphaned children's experiences on grief and loss in Botswana, and its impact on their well-being and make policy recommendations. A cross sectional design which utilized survey questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 11 districts (3 urban and 8 rural) among orphan children aged 10-18 years. Chi-squared test was used to identify variables believed to be associated with loss and grief. Unadjusted (simple) and adjusted multiple logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with loss...
October 4, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975456/effects-of-effluent-water-on-the-abundance-of-cowpea-insect-pests
#18
Bamphitlhi Tiroesele, Monametsi Sitwane, M Obopile, Muhammad Irfan Ullah, Sajjad Ali
Botswana experiences low and unreliable rainfall. Thus, the use of effluent water in agriculture is increasingly important. Insect damage is the major constraint for cowpea grain production in the most cowpea-producing lands. We investigated the effects of effluent water on insect pest abundance on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under field conditions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 100, 75, 50, and 25% of effluent water and 0% (control-clean tap water) treatments. Treatments with 100% effluent water resulted in a significant increase in insect pest populations as compared with the control...
October 3, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970153/the-croton-megalobotrys-m%C3%A3-ll-arg-traditional-medicine-in-hiv-aids-management-documentation-of-patient-use-in-vitro-activation-of-latent-hiv-1-provirus-and-isolation-of-active-phorbol-esters
#19
Ian Tietjen, Barbara N Ngwenya, Ghislain Fotso, David E Williams, Sundana Simonambango, Bonaventure T Ngadjui, Raymond J Andersen, Mark A Brockman, Zabrina L Brumme, Kerstin Andrae-Marobela
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Current HIV therapies do not act on latent cellular HIV reservoirs; hence they are not curative. While experimental latency reversal agents (LRAs) can promote HIV expression in these cells, thereby exposing them to immune recognition, existing LRAs exhibit limited clinical efficacy and high toxicity. We previously described a traditional 3-step medicinal plant regimen used for HIV/AIDS management in Northern Botswana that inhibits HIV replication in vitro...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966882/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-cellular-sms-reminders-on-consistency-of-antiretroviral-therapy-pharmacy-pickups-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-botswana-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Michael J A Reid, Andrew P Steenhoff, James Thompson, Lesego Gabaitiri, Mark S Cary, Katherine Steele, Susan Mayisela, Diana Dickinson, Peter Ehrenkranz, Harvey M Friedman, Darren R Linkin
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have demonstrated that cellular phone short message service (SMS) improve antiretroviral adherence for people living with HIV in Africa, although less data are available to support using SMS reminders to improve timeliness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) pharmacy pick up. This study tested the efficacy of SMS reminders on timeliness of ART pharmacy pickups at an urban clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. DESIGN: A randomized-controlled trial evaluating the effect of SMS reminders on ART collection for patients with HIV on treatment...
2017: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine
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