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S C Reynolds, C G Marston, H Hassani, G C P King, M R Bennett
Climate shifts at decadal scales can have environmental consequences, and therefore, identifying areas that act as environmental refugia is valuable in understanding future climate variability. Here we illustrate how, given appropriate geohydrology, a rift basin and its catchment can buffer vegetation response to climate signals on decadal time-scales, therefore exerting strong local environmental control. We use time-series data derived from Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) residuals that record vegetation vigour, extracted from a decadal span of MODIS images, to demonstrate hydrogeological buffering...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Trevor Peter, Dennis Ellenberger, Andrea A Kim, Debrah Boeras, Tsehaynesh Messele, Teri Roberts, Wendy Stevens, Ilesh Jani, Alash'le Abimiku, Nathan Ford, Zachary Katz, John N Nkengasong
Scaling up access to HIV viral load testing for individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy in low-resource settings is a global health priority, as emphasised by research showing the benefits of suppressed viral load for the individual and the whole population. Historically, large-scale diagnostic test implementation has been slow and incomplete because of service delivery and other challenges. Building on lessons from the past, in this Personal View we propose a new framework to accelerate viral load scale-up and ensure equitable access to this essential test...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Anne-Lise Chaber, Gabriele Cozzi, Femke Broekhuis, Robyn Hartley, John W McNutt
The recent increase in the creation of transboundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lends importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. One such initiative is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area of which Botswana's Okavango Delta constitutes a major contribution for wildlife and ecosystems. Between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ), four leopards ( Panthera pardus ), 19 spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ), and six cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Okavango...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
Accurate counts of animals are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. Past research, however, suggests that observers on aerial surveys may fail to detect all individuals of the target species present in the survey area. Such errors could bias population estimates low and confound trend estimation. We used two approaches to assess the accuracy of aerial surveys for African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) in northern Botswana. First, we used double-observer sampling, in which two observers make observations on the same herds, to estimate detectability of elephants and determine what variables affect it...
2016: PloS One
Bernard Omech, Julius Chacha Mwita, Jose-Gaby Tshikuka, Billy Tsima, Oathokwa Nkomazna, Kennedy Amone-P'Olak
This was a cross-sectional study designed to assess the validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for detecting undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among general medical outpatients in Botswana. Participants aged ≥20 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were screened by (1) an 8-item Finnish diabetes risk assessment questionnaire and (2) Haemoglobin A1c test. Data from 291 participants were analyzed (74.2% were females). The mean age of the participants was 50.1 (SD = ±11) years, and the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 42 (14...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Kathleen E Wirth, Melanie Prague, Kara Bennett, Molly Pretorius Holme, Lucy Mupfumi, Philemon Sebogodi, Natasha O Moraka, Corretah Boleo, Comfort N Maphorisa, Boitumelo Seraise, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Rosemary M Musonda, Erik van Widenfelt, Kathleen M Powis, Tendani Gaolathe, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Joseph M Makhema, Max Essex, Shahin Lockman, Vladimir Novitsky
BACKGROUND: Routine monitoring of HIV-1 RNA, or viral load (VL) in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important, but there are multiple impediments to VL testing in resource-constrained settings. An accurate point-of-care (POC) HIV-1 VL test could alleviate many of these challenges. METHODS: We compared the performance of the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 VL against the laboratory-based Abbott m2000sp/m2000rt assay (Abbot assay). ART-naïve individuals participating in the Botswana Combination Prevention Project in 20 communities provided EDTA blood specimens during household surveys...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Thamani T Gondo, Veronica C Obuseng, Lesego C Mmualefe, Harriet Okatch
HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS)...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
L A Enane, E D Lowenthal, T Arscott-Mills, M Matlhare, L S Smallcomb, B Kgwaadira, S E Coffin, A P Steenhoff
SETTING: Nine high-burden public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Gaborone, Botswana. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes among adolescents with TB and compare loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates with that among youth and adult cases. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of TB cases registered from 2012 to 2014. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared among adolescents (age 10-19 years), youth (20-24 years) and a systematic sample of adults (⩾25 years)...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
C H Stillson, H Okatch, R Frasso, L Mazhani, T David, T Arscott-Mills, M Matlhare, A P Steenhoff
SETTING: Government-funded public health clinics in and around Gaborone, Botswana. OBJECTIVE: To explore the challenges faced by care givers of children on treatment for tuberculosis (TB) to inform a more child-friendly approach to Botswana's National TB Programme (NTP) strategy. DESIGN: Qualitative study using 28 in-depth interviews with care givers of children receiving anti-tuberculosis treatment. RESULTS: Care givers identified five main challenges: long delays in their child's diagnosis, difficulty attending clinic for daily treatment, difficulty administering TB medications, stock-outs of TB medications leading to treatment interruptions, and inadequate TB education...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Ellen M H Mitchell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Mpho Keetile, Motsholathebe Bowelo
BACKGROUND: Safe male child circumcision has been recently adopted as a potential strategy to prevent HIV/AIDS transmission in later life in Botswana. METHODS: Data used was derived from a cross-sectional survey, the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS) IV, conducted in 2013. A total sample of 7984 respondents in ages 15-64 years who had successfully completed the individual questionnaire during the survey were selected and included for analysis. Both descriptive and multivariable analyses were used to explore factors associated with acceptability of child circumcision...
October 6, 2016: BMC Public Health
Julius Chacha Mwita, Matthew J Dewhurst, Mgaywa G Magafu, Monkgogi Goepamang, Bernard Omech, Koketso Lister Majuta, Marea Gaenamong, Tommy Baboloki Palai, Mosepele Mosepele, Yohana Mashalla
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation and therefore contributes to in-hospital outcomes such as mortality. In this study we describe patient characteristics and outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) in Botswana. METHODS: Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 193 consecutive patients admitted with AHF at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone between February 2014 and February 2015. The length of hospital stay and 30-, 90- and 180-day in-hospital mortality rates were assessed...
August 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Elizabeth Park, Tiny Masupe, Joseph Joseph, Ari Ho-Foster, Afton Chavez, Swetha Jammalamadugu, Andrew Marek, Ruth Arumala, Dineo Ketshogileng, Ryan Littman-Quinn, Carrie Kovarik
BACKGROUND: Since the UN Human Rights Council's recognition on the subject in 2011, the right to access the Internet and information is now considered one of the most basic human rights of global citizens [1,2]. Despite this, an information gap between developed and resource-limited countries remains, and there is scant research on actual information needs of workers themselves. The Republic of Botswana represents a fertile ground to address existing gaps in research, policy, and practice, due to its demonstrated gap in access to information and specialists among rural health care workers (HCWs), burgeoning mHealth capacity, and a timely offer from Orange Telecommunications to access Wikipedia for free on mobile platforms for Botswana subscribers...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Michelle Remme, Mariana Siapka, Olivier Sterck, Mthuli Ncube, Charlotte Watts, Anna Vassall
Despite optimism about the end of AIDS, the HIV response requires sustained financing into the future. Given flat-lining international aid, countries' willingness and ability to shoulder this responsibility will be central to access to HIV care. This paper examines the potential to expand public HIV financing, and the extent to which governments have been utilising these options. We develop and compare a normative and empirical approach. First, with data from the 14 most HIV-affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa, we estimate the potential increase in public HIV financing from economic growth, increased general revenue generation, greater health and HIV prioritisation, as well as from more unconventional and innovative sources, including borrowing, health-earmarked resources, efficiency gains, and complementary non-HIV investments...
September 19, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Moses John Chimbari
Ecohealth projects are designed to garner ownership among all stakeholders, such as researchers, communities, local leadership and policy makers. Ideally, designs should ensure that implementation goes smoothly and that findings from studies benefit the stakeholders, bringing changes particularly to the communities researched. Paradoxically, the process is fraught with challenges associated with implementation. Notwithstanding the challenges, evidence from projects implemented in southern Africa justify the need to invest in ecohealth...
September 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
David Bishai, Melissa Sherry, Claudia C Pereira, Sergio Chicumbe, Francisco Mbofana, Amy Boore, Monica Smith, Leonel Nhambi, Nagesh N Borse
INTRODUCTION: This study describes the development of a self-audit tool for public health and the associated methodology for implementing a district health system self-audit tool that can provide quantitative data on how district governments perceive their performance of the essential public health functions. METHODS: Development began with a consensus-building process to engage Ministry of Health and provincial health officers in Mozambique and Botswana. We then worked with lists of relevant public health functions as determined by these stakeholders to adapt a self-audit tool describing essential public health functions to each country's health system...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Thato Motshoge, Grace K Ababio, Larysa Aleksenko, John Read, Elias Peloewetse, Mazhani Loeto, Tjantilili Mosweunyane, Kentse Moakofhi, Davies S Ntebele, Simon Chihanga, Mpho Motlaleng, Anderson Chinorumba, Moses Vurayai, Jeffrey M Pernica, Giacomo M Paganotti, Isaac K Quaye
BACKGROUND: Botswana is one of eight SADC countries targeting malaria elimination by 2018. Through spirited upscaling of control activities and passive surveillance, significant reductions in case incidence of Plasmodium falciparum (0.96 - 0.01) was achieved between 2008 and 2012. As part of the elimination campaign, active detection of asymptomatic Plasmodium species by a highly sensitive method was deemed necessary. This study was carried out to determine asymptomatic Plasmodium species carriage by nested PCR in the country, in 2012...
September 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kimberly R McDermid, Andrei Snyman, Frederick J Verreynne, John P Carroll, Banie L Penzhorn, Michael J Yabsley
African lion ( Panthera leo ) numbers are decreasing rapidly and populations are becoming smaller and more fragmented. Infectious diseases are one of numerous issues threatening free-ranging lion populations, and low-density populations are particularly at risk. We collected data on the prevalence and diversity of viral and parasitic pathogens in a small lion population in eastern Botswana. During 2012 and 2014, blood samples were collected from 59% (n=13) of the adult-subadult lions in the Northern Tuli Game Reserve in eastern Botswana...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Yoonhee P Ha, Martha A Tesfalul, Ryan Littman-Quinn, Cynthia Antwi, Rebecca S Green, Tumelo O Mapila, Scarlett L Bellamy, Ronald T Ncube, Kenneth Mugisha, Ari R Ho-Foster, Anthony A Luberti, John H Holmes, Andrew P Steenhoff, Carrie L Kovarik
Tuberculosis (TB) contact tracing is typically conducted in resource-limited settings with paper forms, but this approach may be limited by inefficiencies in data collection, storage, and retrieval and poor data quality. In Botswana, we developed, piloted, and evaluated a mobile health (mHealth) approach to TB contact tracing that replaced the paper form-based approach for a period of six months. For both approaches, we compared the time required to complete TB contact tracing and the quality of data collected...
October 2016: Journal of Health Communication
Kimon L H Ioannides, Jennifer Chapman, Tafireyi Marukutira, Ontibile Tshume, Gabriel Anabwani, Robert Gross, Elizabeth D Lowenthal
We hypothesized that longer and more frequent dosing gaps among boys in Botswana taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to girls could account for previously seen gender-specific differences in outcomes. We monitored 154 male and 134 female adolescents for 2 years with medication event monitoring systems (MEMS). Median adherence was 95.6 % for males and 95.7 % for females (p = 0.40). There were no significant gender differences in the number of ≥7 day (p = 0...
September 8, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
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