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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339500/detecting-congenital-malformations-lessons-learned-from-the-mpepu-study-botswana
#1
Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Zash, Roger L Shapiro, Oganne Batlang, Kerapetse Botebele, Kara Bennett, Florence Chilisa, Erik von Widenfelt, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Lewis B Holmes, Kathleen M Powis
INTRODUCTION: A large and increasing number of HIV-infected women are conceiving on antiretroviral treatment (ART). While most antiretrovirals are considered safe in pregnancy, monitoring for rare pregnancy and infant adverse outcomes is warranted. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective secondary analysis nested within a clinical trial of infant cotrimoxazole vs. placebo prophylaxis in Botswana (the Mpepu Study). Infants were examined at birth, and at least every 3 months through 18 months of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327143/the-imperative-for-systems-thinking-to-promote-access-to-medicines-efficient-delivery-and-cost-effectiveness-when-implementing-health-financing-reforms-a-qualitative-study
#2
Tom Achoki, Abaleng Lesego
BACKGROUND: Health systems across Africa are faced with a multitude of competing priorities amidst pressing resource constraints. Expansion of health insurance coverage offers promise in the quest for sustainable healthcare financing for many of the health systems in the region. However, the broader policy implications of expanding health insurance coverage have not been fully investigated and contextualized to many African health systems. METHODS: We interviewed 37 key informants drawn from public, private and civil society organizations involved in health service delivery in Botswana...
March 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322728/phlebotomine-sandflies-of-botswana-a-taxonomic-review-and-a-faunistic-update-with-the-first-record-of-genus-phlebotomus
#3
Andreas Krüger
The first records of phlebotomine sandflies from Botswana have been published only recently, comprising of four species of genus Sergentomyia. This update presents the first record of genus Phlebotomus, namely Ph. (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini Parrot, which is also the first detection of a putative vector of leishmaniasis in Botswana. In addition, records of the Sergentomyia "bedfordi (Newstead) group" are reviewed, and the molecular taxonomy of all taxa known from Botswana is analysed based on three mitochondrial gene fragments (mtDNA)...
March 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297155/teledermatology-as-a-means-to-provide-multispecialty-care-a-case-of-global-specialty-collaboration
#4
Pamela N Madu, Aileen Y Chang, Mukendi K Kayembe, Carrie L Kovarik
Telemedicine can serve as a platform for specialty collaboration and potentially address the lack of specialized and subspecialized care globally. In this article we present a case in which the use of teledermatology facilitated global collaboration between multiple specialists and subspecialists, resulting in high-quality care of a child from a remote area of Botswana. We present the lessons learned and factors that should be considered when engaging in global specialty collaboration, especially between developed and developing countries...
March 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289262/uncertain-links-in-host-parasite-networks-lessons-for-parasite-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system
#5
Josephine G Walker, Michaela Plein, Eric R Morgan, Peter A Vesk
For many parasites, the full set of hosts that are susceptible to infection is not known, and this could lead to a bias in estimates of transmission. We used counts of individual adult parasites from historical parasitology studies in southern Africa to map a bipartite network of the nematode parasites of herbivore hosts that occur in Botswana. Bipartite networks are used in community ecology to represent interactions across trophic levels. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to predict the full set of host-parasite interactions from existing data on parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of wild and domestic ungulates given assumptions about the distribution of parasite counts within hosts, while accounting for the relative uncertainty of less sampled species...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283145/implementing-health-financing-reforms-in-africa-perspectives-of-health-system-stewards
#6
Tom Achoki, Abaleng Lesego
BACKGROUND: A majority of health systems in the sub-Saharan Africa region are faced with multiple competing priorities amid pressing resource constraints. Health financing reforms, characterized by expansion of health insurance coverage, have been proposed as promising in the quest to improve health sustainably. However, in many countries where these measures are being attempted, their broader implications have not been fully appreciated. METHODS: This study was based on perspectives of 37 health system stewards from Botswana who were interviewed in order to understand opportunities and challenges that would result in the quest to expand health insurance coverage in the country...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278033/status-of-waste-tyres-and-management-practice-in-botswana
#7
Daniel Mmereki, Bontle Machola, Kentlafetse Mokokwe
Waste tyres (WTs) are becoming a significant environmental, economical and technological challenge due to their high contents of combustible composition and potential for valuable materials and energy resources. Fewer studies in developing and even developed countries have been carried out to assess the challenges regarding waste tyres management, and suggested the best alternative solutions for managing this waste stream. While developed countries made progress in waste tyres management needs by implementing more efficient innovative recovery and recycling methods, and restrictive regulations regarding the management of used tyres, in many developing countries the management of waste tyres has not received adequate interest, and the processing, treatment and disposal of waste tyre is still nascent...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271855/prevalence-of-foodborne-pathogens-in-food-from-selected-african-countries-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Narayan Paudyal, Victor Anihouvi, Joseph Hounhouigan, Maitshwarelo Ignatius Matsheka, Bonno Sekwati-Monang, Wisdom Amoa-Awua, Amy Atter, Nina Bernice Ackah, Samuel Mbugua, Agnes Asagbra, Warda Abdelgadir, Jesca Nakavuma, Mogens Jakobsen, Weihuan Fang
Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in seven African countries (Benin, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda) from papers in regional or international journals published between January 2000 and December 2015...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270213/preliminary-survey-on-anopheles-species-distribution-in-botswana-shows-the-presence-of-anopheles-gambiae-and-anopheles-funestus-complexes
#9
Leabaneng Tawe, Pleasure Ramatlho, Kelebogile Waniwa, Charles W Muthoga, Ntebaleng Makate, Davis S Ntebela, Isaac K Quaye, Marco Pombi, Giacomo Maria Paganotti
BACKGROUND: Botswana is one of the four front line malaria elimination countries in Southern Africa, with malaria control activities that include routine vector control. Past and recent studies have shown that Anopheles arabiensis is the only known vector of Plasmodium parasites in the country. This report presents a preliminary evaluation on Anopheles species composition in seven districts of Botswana with some inferences on their vectorial role. RESULTS: Overall, 404 Anopheles mosquito females were collected, of which 196 were larvae collected from several breeding sites, and 208 were adults obtained from indoor pyrethrum spray catches (PSC)...
March 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264332/description-of-a-new-species-of-i-neoromicia-i-chiroptera-vespertilionidae-%C3%A2-from-southern-africa-a-name-for-i-n-cf-melckorum-i
#10
Steven M Goodman, Teresa Kearney, Malalatiana Michèle Ratsimbazafy, Alexandre Hassanin
The taxonomy of sub-Saharan small insectivore bats of the family Vespertilionidae is unresolved and currently five named species of the genus Neoromicia are recognized from southern Africa, with N. melckorum considered a synonym of N. capensis. Since several years, the name "N. cf. melckorum" has been used in the literature to designate an apparently undescribed and moderately large bodied vespertilionid bat known from different localities in southern and southeastern Africa. Using new data from molecular genetics, bacular morphology, and cranio-dental characters, we conclude that N...
February 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256486/the-prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-associated-factors-among-patients-admitted-at-princess-marina-hospital-gaborone-botswana
#11
G M Rwegerera, M Bayani, E K Taolo, D Habte
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem worldwide. Due to the asymptomatic nature of CKD during earlier stages, patients tend to present late, missing opportunities for prevention. AIMS: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the risk factors associated with CKD in patients admitted at Princes Marina Hospital. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Hospital inpatient setting. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A case-matched comparison study was done involving 86 cases and 86 matches by gender and age (± 5 years) from March 21, 2014, to May 31, 2014...
March 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203275/diagnostic-profiles-and-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-among-children-and-adolescents-attending-a-national-psychiatric-hospital-in-botswana
#12
Anthony A Olashore, Bechedza Frank-Hatitchki, Olorunfemi Ogunwobi
BACKGROUND: Attention is currently being drawn to child psychiatric care, most especially in the developed countries. This type of care is still rudimentary in the developing countries. Botswana is one of the African countries with good health care services but mental illness is given the low priority. Child and adolescent mental health care (CAMHC) is almost non-existent likely due to the dearth of research which would drive a policy change in this direction. Hence the need for this research as a step towards establishing a well-structured CAMHC...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194371/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-in-south-african-wildlife-neglected-pathogens-and-potential-impediments-for-bovine-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#13
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Tiny M Hlokwe
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178146/pairwise-diversity-and-tmrca-as-potential-markers-for-hiv-infection-recency
#14
Sikhulile Moyo, Eduan Wilkinson, Alain Vandormael, Rui Wang, Jia Weng, Kenanao P Kotokwe, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Rosemary Musonda, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Susan Engelbrecht, Tulio de Oliveira, Vladimir Novitsky
Intrahost human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 diversity increases linearly over time. We assessed the extent to which mean pairwise distances and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) inferred from intrahost HIV-1C env sequences were associated with the estimated time of HIV infection. Data from a primary HIV-1C infection study in Botswana were used for this analysis (N = 42). A total of 2540 HIV-1C env gp120 variable loop region 1 to conserved region 5 (V1C5) of the HIV-1 envelope gp120 viral sequences were generated by single genome amplification and sequencing, with an average of 61 viral sequences per participant and 11 sequences per time point per participant...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167588/prevalence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-uninfected-children-in-botswana-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#15
Michael J A Reid, Rebecca S B Fischer, Naledi Mannathoko, Charles Muthoga, Erin McHugh, Heather Essigmann, Eric L Brown, Andrew P Steenhoff
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A major risk factor for staphylococcal infection is S. aureus colonization of the anterior nares. We sought to define risk factors for S. aureus carriage and characterize antimicrobial resistance patterns in children in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two clinical sites in southern Botswana. Patients under 18 years of age underwent two nasal swabs and brief interviews, 4 weeks apart...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166698/partner-notification-and-treatment-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-pregnant-women-in-gaborone-botswana
#16
Ogechukwu A Offorjebe, Adriane Wynn, Neo Moshashane, Dvora Joseph Davey, Kaitlin Arena, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Ponatshego Gaolebale, Chelsea Morroni, Jeffrey D Klausner
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with adverse birth outcomes. Untreated partners contribute to high rates of STI reinfection; thus, partner notification and treatment remain important components of STI care and control. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 300 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal clinic at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana who enrolled in an STI screening study...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155288/association-between-depression-in-carers-and-malnutrition-in-children-aged-6-months-to-5-years
#17
Keneilwe Motlhatlhedi, Vincent Setlhare, Adewale Ganiyu, Jacqueline Firth
BACKGROUND:  Childhood malnutrition is an important risk factor for child mortality and underlies close to 50% of child deaths worldwide. Previous studies have found an association between maternal depression and child malnutrition, but it is not known whether this association exists in Botswana. In addition, previous studies excluded non-maternal primary caregivers (PCGs). It is unclear whether the association between primary caregiver depression and child malnutrition remains when non-maternal PCGs are included...
January 30, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132517/genome-wide-analyses-reveal-gene-influence-on-hiv-disease-progression-and-hiv-1c-acquisition-in-southern-africa
#18
Wen Xie, Denis Agniel, Andrey Shevchenko, Sergey V Malov, Anton Svitin, Nikolay Cherkasov, Marianna K Baum, Adriana Campa, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Hermann Bussmann, Joseph Makhema, Richard G Marlink, Vladimir Novitsky, Tun-Hou Lee, Tianxi Cai, Stephen J O'Brien, M Essex
Sub-Saharan Africans infected with HIV-1C make up the largest AIDS-patient population in the world and exhibit large heterogeneity in disease progression before initiating antiretroviral therapy. To identify host variants associated with HIV disease progression, we performed GWAS on a total of 556treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in Botswana. We characterized the pattern of HIV disease progression using a novel functional principal component analysis (fPCA) which can better capture longitudinal CD4 and viral load (VL)trajectories...
January 28, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127988/staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-botswana-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#19
Michael J A Reid, Andrew P Steenhoff, Naledi Mannathoko, Charles Muthoga, Erin McHugh, Eric L Brown, Rebecca S B Fischer
We sought to determine the clinical and epidemiologic determinants of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in HIV-infected individuals at two outpatient centers in southern Botswana. Standard microbiologic techniques were used to identify S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In a sample of 404 HIV-infected adults, prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 36.9% (n = 152) and was associated with domestic overcrowding and lower CD4 cell count. MRSA prevalence was low (n = 13, 3.2%), but more common among individuals with asthma and eczema...
January 27, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060817/high-levels-of-post-abortion-complication-in-a-setting-where-abortion-service-is-not-legalized
#20
Tadele Melese, Dereje Habte, Billy M Tsima, Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe, Kesegofetse Chabaesele, Goabaone Rankgoane, Tshiamo R Keakabetse, Mabole Masweu, Mosidi Mokotedi, Mpho Motana, Badani Moreri-Ntshabele
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. METHODS: A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay...
2017: PloS One
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