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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314658/comparative-assessment-of-five-trials-of-universal-hiv-testing-and-treatment-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
REVIEW
Delphine Perriat, Laura Balzer, Richard Hayes, Shahin Lockman, Fiona Walsh, Helen Ayles, Sian Floyd, Diane Havlir, Moses Kamya, Refeletswe Lebelonyane, Lisa A Mills, Velephi Okello, Maya Petersen, Deenan Pillay, Kalpana Sabapathy, Kathleen Wirth, Joanna Orne-Gliemann, François Dabis
DESIGN: Universal voluntary HIV counselling and testing followed by prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all those diagnosed HIV-infected (universal test and treat, UTT) is now a global health standard. However, its population-level impact, feasibility and cost remain unknown. Five community-based trials have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa to measure the effects of various UTT strategies at population level: BCPP/YaTsie in Botswana, MaxART in Swaziland, HPTN 071 (PopART) in South Africa and Zambia, SEARCH in Uganda and Kenya and ANRS 12249 TasP in South Africa...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296100/modifying-the-health-system-to-maximize-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-uptake-a-qualitative-study-in-botswana
#2
Bazghina-Werq Semo, Kathleen E Wirth, Conrad Ntsuape, Scott Barnhart, Nora J Kleinman, Nankie Ramabu, Jessica Broz, Jenny H Ledikwe
Background: In 2007, the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an add-on HIV-prevention strategy. Similar to many other sub-Saharan countries, VMMC uptake in Botswana has been low; as of February 2016, only 42.7% of the program target had been achieved. Previous work has examined how individual-level factors, such as knowledge and attitudes, influence the update of VMMC. This paper examines how factors related to the health system can be leveraged to maximize uptake of circumcision services, with a focus on demand creation, access to services, and service delivery...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277161/household-access-to-traditional-and-indigenous-foods-positively-associated-with-food-security-and-dietary-diversity-in-botswana
#3
Salome Nduku Kasimba, Boitumelo Stokie Motswagole, Namukolo Margaret Covic, Nicole Claasen
OBJECTIVE: To determine access to traditional and indigenous foods (TIF) and the association with household food security, dietary diversity and women's BMI in low socio-economic households. DESIGN: Sequential explanatory mixed-methods design, including a random household cross-sectional survey on household food insecurity access (HFIA), household dietary diversity (HDD) and women's BMI, followed by focus group discussions. SETTING: Two rural and two urban areas of Botswana...
December 26, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258402/pathology-of-the-emerging-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-pathogen-mycobacterium-mungi-in-the-banded-mongoose-mungos-mungo
#4
Kathleen A Alexander, Peter N Laver, Mark C Williams, Claire E Sanderson, Carly Kanipe, Mitchell V Palmer
Wild banded mongooses ( Mungos mungo) in northeastern Botswana and northwest Zimbabwe are infected with a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) pathogen, Mycobacterium mungi. We evaluated gross and histologic lesions in 62 infected mongooses (1999-2017). Many tissues contained multifocal irregular, lymphohistiocytic to granulomatous infiltrates and/or multifocal or coalescing noncaseating to caseating granulomas with variable numbers of intralesional acid-fast bacilli. Over one-third of nasal turbinates examined had submucosal lymphohistiocytic to granulomatous infiltrates, erosion and ulceration of the nasal mucosa, bony remodeling, and nasal distortion...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258394/quality-of-anticoagulation-with-warfarin-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-botswana
#5
Julius C Mwita, Joel M Francis, Anthony A Oyekunle, Marea Gaenamong, Monkgogi Goepamang, Mgaywa G M D Magafu
Warfarin treatment requires regular and proper monitoring to avoid overanticoagulation and at the same time to prevent thromboembolic complications. This study assessed the quality of warfarin anticoagulation at Princess Marina Hospital in Botswana. This cross-sectional study consecutively enrolled patients who were on warfarin for at least 3 months in the outpatient medical clinic. The level of anticoagulation was determined by the time in therapeutic range (TTR) using the Rosendaal method that calculates the percentage of days when the international normalized ratio is in the therapeutic range (2...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250465/the-distribution-and-numbers-of-cheetah-acinonyx-jubatus-in-southern-africa
#6
Florian J Weise, Varsha Vijay, Andrew P Jacobson, Rebecca F Schoonover, Rosemary J Groom, Jane Horgan, Derek Keeping, Rebecca Klein, Kelly Marnewick, Glyn Maude, Jörg Melzheimer, Gus Mills, Vincent van der Merwe, Esther van der Meer, Rudie J van Vuuren, Bettina Wachter, Stuart L Pimm
Assessing the numbers and distribution of threatened species is a central challenge in conservation, often made difficult because the species of concern are rare and elusive. For some predators, this may be compounded by their being sparsely distributed over large areas. Such is the case with the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus. The IUCN Red List process solicits comments, is democratic, transparent, widely-used, and has recently assessed the species. Here, we present additional methods to that process and provide quantitative approaches that may afford greater detail and a benchmark against which to compare future assessments...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227137/corrigendum-the-effectiveness-of-the-south-african-triage-tool-use-in-mahalapye-district-hospital-emergency-department-botswana
#7
Stephane T Tshitenge, Gboyega A Ogunbanjo, Deogratias O Mbuka
No abstract available.
December 1, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214845/high-hiv-1-rna-among-newly-diagnosed-people-in-botswana
#8
Vladimir Novitsky, Melanie Prague, Sikhulile Moyo, Tendani Gaolathe, Mompati Mmalane, Etienne Kadima Yankinda, Unoda Chakalisa, Refeletswe Lebelonyane, Nealia Khan, Kathleen M Powis, Erik Widenfelt, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Scott L Dryden-Peterson, Molly Pretorius Holme, Victor De Gruttola, Pam Bachanas, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, M Essex
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 RNA level is strongly associated with HIV transmission risk. We sought to determine whether HIV-1 RNA level was associated with prior knowledge of HIV status among treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals in Botswana, a country with high rates of antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. This information may be helpful in targeting HIV diagnosis and treatment efforts in similar high-HIV-prevalence settings. DESIGN: Population-based survey. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals were identified during a household survey performed in 30 communities across Botswana...
December 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189612/evaluation-of-the-influence-of-gastrointestinal-co-infections-on-rotavirus-vaccine-effectiveness-in-botswana
#9
Margaret Mokomane, Jacqueline E Tate, Andrew P Steenhoff, Mathew D Esona, Michael D Bowen, Kwana Lechiile, Jeffrey M Pernica, Ishmael Kasvosve, Umesh D Parashar, David M Goldfarb
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated reduced rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in resource-limited settings. Enteropathogen co-infections in rotavirus cases have been hypothesized to contribute to the lower vaccine effectiveness in such settings. We sought to determine if co-infections affect rotavirus VE in Botswana. METHODS: Between June 2013 and April 2015, children <60 months old, presenting with severe gastroenteritis at four hospitals as part of a national rotavirus surveillance were enrolled...
November 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187783/the-effect-of-micronutrient-supplementation-on-active-tb-incidence-early-in-hiv-infection-in-botswana
#10
Adriana Campa, Marianna K Baum, Hermann Bussmann, Sabrina Sales Martinez, Mansour Farahani, Erik van Widenfelt, Sikhulile Moyo, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Richard Marlink
Background: Coinfection with active tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death in people living with HIV (PLWH) in Africa. This investigation explores the role of micronutrient supplementation in preventing active TB in PLWH. Methods: A randomized trial of nutritional supplementation was conducted among antiretroviral- naïve (without previous antiretroviral treatment [ART]) HIV-infected people in Botswana between 2004 and 2009. The study had a factorial design with four arms: the selenium (Se) alone arm, the multivitamins (MVT) alone arm that contained vitamin B complex and vitamins C and E, the combined Se+MVT group and the placebo group...
2017: Nutrition and Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185018/evaluation-of-resources-necessary-for-provision-of-trauma-care-in-botswana-an-initiative-for-a-local-system
#11
Michael B Mwandri, Timothy C Hardcastle
BACKGROUND: Developing countries face the highest incidence of trauma, and on the other hand, they do not have resources for mitigating the scourge of these injuries. The World Health Organization through the Essential Trauma Care (ETC) project provides recommendations for improving management of the injured and building up of systems that are effective in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). This study uses ETC project recommendations and other trauma-care guidelines to evaluate the current status of the resources and organizational structures necessary for optimal trauma care in Botswana; an African country with relatively good health facilities network, subsidized public hospital care and a functioning Motor Vehicle Accident fund covering road traffic collision victims...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179872/improving-skills-and-institutional-capacity-to-strengthen-adolescent-immunisation-programmes-and-health-systems-in-african-countries-through-hpv-vaccine-introduction
#12
Carine Dochez, Rosemary J Burnett, Symplice Mbola Mbassi, Fred Were, Andrew Musyoki, Daisy Trovoada, M Jeffrey Mphahlele
Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based), socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination...
December 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178840/prevalence-of-oncogenic-human-papillomavirus-genotypes-in-patients-diagnosed-with-anogenital-malignancies-in-botswana
#13
Patricia S Rantshabeng, Sikhulile Moyo, Natasha O Moraka, Andrew Ndlovu, Iain J MacLeod, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Ishmael Kasvosve
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) associated malignancies are the leading cause of cancer death in Botswana. We sought to determine causative HPV types in patients with anogenital malignancies in Botswana to inform vaccine strategy. METHODS: We used formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks from patients diagnosed with anal, penile and vulvar squamous cell carcinomas between the years, 2014 and 2016. Presence of HPV 16, 18, or other high-risk (HR) types was detected using Abbott m2000 real-time PCR platform...
November 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178350/assessment-of-prescribing-practices-at-the-primary-healthcare-facilities-in-botswana-with-an-emphasis-on-antibiotics-findings-and-implications
#14
Yohana Mashalla, Vincent Setlhare, Amos Massele, Enoch Sepako, Celda Tiroyakgosi, Joyce Kgatlwane, Mpo Chuma, Brian Godman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inappropriate drug prescribing has increased especially in developing countries where systems for monitoring medicine use are not well developed. This increases the rate of antimicrobial resistance. The study aim was to assess the prescribing patterns among urban primary health facilities in Botswana to provide future guidance including developing future quality indicators. METHODS: Retrospective data from patients' records between January and December 2013 in 19 clinics were collected in a cross-sectional study...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178267/tracing-the-origins-of-genotype-viih-newcastle-disease-in-southern-africa
#15
C Abolnik, C Mubamba, D B R Wandrag, R Horner, B Gummow, G Dautu, S P R Bisschop
It is widely accepted that Newcastle disease is endemic in most African countries, but little attention has been afforded to establishing the sources and frequency of the introductions of exotic strains. Newcastle disease outbreaks have a high cost in Africa, particularly on rural livelihoods. Genotype VIIh emerged in South-East Asia and has since caused serious outbreaks in poultry in Malaysia, Indonesia, southern China, Vietnam and Cambodia. Genotype VIIh reached the African continent in 2011, with the first outbreaks reported in Mozambique...
November 26, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165579/investigating-mediators-of-the-poor-pneumonia-outcomes-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-but-uninfected-children
#16
Matthew S Kelly, Jiayin Zheng, Sefelani Boiditswe, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Boitshepe Seme, Bakgaki Ratshaa, Ikanyeng Rulaganyang, Mohamed Z Patel, Savarra Mantzor, Samir S Shah, Coleen K Cunningham
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected (HIV-EU) children have a higher mortality rate than the children of HIV-negative mothers (HIV-unexposed). Causal mediators of the poor health outcomes of HIV-EU children remain poorly defined. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based prospective cohort study of children aged 1 to 23 months with clinically defined pneumonia. The children were recruited at a referral hospital in Gaborone, Botswana, between April 2012 and June 2016...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136009/early-resumption-of-sexual-activity-following-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-in-botswana-a-qualitative-study
#17
Jenny H Ledikwe, Nankie M Ramabu, Lisa P Spees, Scott Barnhart, Conrad Ntsuape, Bazghina-Werq Semo, Kathleen E Wirth
Unprotected sexual intercourse after undergoing voluntary medical male circumcision but prior to complete wound healing can lead to major adverse events including HIV acquisition. To better understand perceptions related to early resumption of sex prior to wound healing, 27 focus group discussions were conducted among 238 adult men, women, and community leaders in Botswana. Median age among all participants was 31 years of whom 60% were male and 51% were either employed and receiving salary or self-employed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119726/cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis-was-associated-with-enteric-commensal-bacterial-resistance-among-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-botswana
#18
Kathleen M Powis, Sajini Souda, Shahin Lockman, Gbolahan Ajibola, Kara Bennett, Jean Leidner, Michael D Hughes, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Haruna B Jibril, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Roger L Shapiro
INTRODUCTION: Despite declining risk of vertical HIV transmission, prophylactic cotrimoxazole (CTX) remains widely used to reduce morbidity and mortality in the event of HIV infection among exposed infants, with an inherent risk of conferring commensal antimicrobial resistance. Using data from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of infant CTX prophylaxis, we sought to quantify emergence of antibiotic resistance. METHODS: HIV-exposed uninfected infants enrolled in the Botswana Mpepu study were randomized to prophylactic CTX or placebo between 14 and 34 days of life and continued through 15 months...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112959/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-safety-and-patient-satisfaction-of-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-in-botswana
#19
Kathleen E Wirth, Bazghina-Werq Semo, Lisa P Spees, Conrad Ntsuape, Scott Barnhart, Jenny H Ledikwe
Randomized trials have shown that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in men. However, the rate of complications associated with the surgical procedure varies from 0.7% to 37.4% in real-world settings. We assessed the frequency, type and severity of adverse events following VMMC among 427 adult men surgically circumcised in southeastern Botswana; 97% completed ≥1 follow-up visit within seven days post-circumcision. Thirty moderate AEs were observed in 28 men resulting in an overall AE rate of 6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112066/emulating-a-target-trial-of-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-started-before-conception-and-risk-of-adverse-birth-outcomes
#20
Ellen C Caniglia, Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Shahin Lockman, Jennifer Chen, Mompati Mmalane, Joseph Makhema, Miguel A Hernán, Roger L Shapiro
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of pre-conception initiation of zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine (ZDV/3TC/NVP) versus tenofovir, emtricitabine, efavirenz (TDF/FTC/EFV) on adverse birth outcomes. DESIGN: Emulation of a hypothetical (target) trial using a birth surveillance study in Botswana during an era of CD4-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: In women who initiated ART < 3 years from HIV diagnosis, conceived 0...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
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