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Yellow fever

Jin-Na Wang, Feng Ling
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to the Dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. Since the explosive outbreaks of ZIKV in Latin America in 2015, a sudden increase in the number of microcephaly cases has been observed in infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. The severity of this condition raises grave concerns, and extensive studies on the possible link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly have been conducted. There is substantial evidence suggesting that there is a causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly, however, future studies are warranted to solidify this association...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nandan S Gokhale, Alexa B R McIntyre, Michael J McFadden, Allison E Roder, Edward M Kennedy, Jorge A Gandara, Sharon E Hopcraft, Kendra M Quicke, Christine Vazquez, Jason Willer, Olga R Ilkayeva, Brittany A Law, Christopher L Holley, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Matthew J Evans, Mehul S Suthar, Shelton S Bradrick, Christopher E Mason, Stacy M Horner
The RNA modification N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) post-transcriptionally regulates RNA function. The cellular machinery that controls m(6)A includes methyltransferases and demethylases that add or remove this modification, as well as m(6)A-binding YTHDF proteins that promote the translation or degradation of m(6)A-modified mRNA. We demonstrate that m(6)A modulates infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Depletion of m(6)A methyltransferases or an m(6)A demethylase, respectively, increases or decreases infectious HCV particle production...
October 18, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
A Bonhomme, E Fréling, M Reigneau, C Poreaux, A Valois, F Truchetet, A Barbaud, J-L Schmutz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the vaccine coverage of psoriasis patients prior to initiating or changing immunosuppressant therapy, and to verify that the prescribed vaccines have been administered. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a bi-centre, observational, cross-sectional study over 9 months. Psoriasis patients in whom immunosuppressant therapy (comprising cyclosporine, methotrexate, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab or ustekinumab) was indicated were included. Medical history, previous treatments, vaccination status, viral serology results (for hepatitis B, measles, and chickenpox), and reasons for non-vaccination were assessed via questionnaire...
October 19, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Marie Louise Landry, Kirsten St George
CONTEXT: -The rapid and accurate diagnosis of Zika virus infection is an international priority. OBJECTIVE: -To review current recommendations, methods, limitations, and priorities for Zika virus testing. DATA SOURCES: -Sources include published literature, public health recommendations, laboratory procedures, and testing experience. CONCLUSIONS: -Until recently, the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection was confined to public health or research laboratories that prepared their own reagents, and test capacity has been limited...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Loiy E Ahmed Hassan, Saad S Dahham, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Abdelhafeez M A Mohammed, Nagla M Eltayeb, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Aman Shah Abdul Majid
BACKGROUND: Balanite aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, is a plant with extensive medicinal properties. Its stem bark is traditionally known for its spasmolytic and antiepileptic properties and used to treat yellow fever, jaundice and syphilis. Angiogenesis (sprouting of new blood vessels) is crucial for tumor growth and metastasis. The goal of this study is investigate the antiangiogenic, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity as well as antitumor in vivo properties of B. aegyptiaca stem bark extracts...
October 19, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Qanta A Ahmed, Ziad A Memish
Hajj is among the world's largest mass gatherings, drawing between 2 and 3.5 million Muslims from 183 nations annually to perform pilgrimage in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Infectious disease outbreaks can be imported both into the Hajj population and exported internationally by returning pilgrims. The domestic Saudi population can also be at risk of outbreaks traveling amid this mass migration. With yellow fever reported for the first time in China following the infection of expatriate Chinese workers in Angola and a full blown outbreak underway in wider West Africa, the prospect of yellow fever outbreaks in Asia threatens to impact Saudi Arabia, both during and beyond the Hajj season...
October 17, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Sean Ekins, John Liebler, Bruno J Neves, Warren G Lewis, Megan Coffee, Rachelle Bienstock, Christopher Southan, Carolina H Andrade
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo...
2016: F1000Research
Letícia B Smith, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes are vectors of important human disease viruses, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes, especially during disease outbreaks. Herein, we review the status of pyrethroid resistance in A. aegypti and A. albopictus, mechanisms of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance alleles and provide suggestions for future research. The widespread use of pyrethroids has given rise to many populations with varying levels of resistance worldwide, albeit with substantial geographical variation...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Fadila Amraoui, Marie Vazeille, Anna Bella Failloux
We assessed the ability of a French population of Aedes albopictus to transmit yellow fever virus (YFV). Batches of 30 to 40 female mosquitoes were analysed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-exposure (dpe). Bodies, heads and saliva were screened for YFV. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies and heads at 7, 14 and 21 dpe whereas the virus was found in saliva only from 14 dpe. Our results showed that Ae. albopictus can potentially transmit YFV.
September 29, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Jolanta Florczak-Wyspiańska, Ewa Nawotczyńska, Wojciech Kozubski
Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, which is a serious and potentially fatal disease with no specific antiviral treatment that can be effectively prevented by an attenuated vaccine (YEL). Despite the long history of safe and efficacious YF vaccination, sporadic case reports of serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported, including yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). YEL-AND usually appears within one month of YF vaccination, manifesting as meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)...
September 22, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Richard Hoyos-López, Juan Suaza-Vasco, Guillermo Rúa-Uribe, Sandra Uribe, Juan Carlos Gallego-Gómez
Arboviruses belonging to the genera Flavivirus and Alphavirus were detected in mosquitoes in a rural area of San Bernardo del Viento (Córdoba, Colombia). A total of 22,180 mosquitoes were collected, sorted into 2,102 pools, and tested by generic/nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, and Culex flavivirus were detected and identified by sequencing. The detection of arboviral pathogens in this zone represents possible circulation and indicates a human health risk, demonstrating the importance of virological surveillance activities...
October 3, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease, tick-borne encephalitis, or Zika disease. This viral genus groups >50 viral species of small enveloped plus strand RNA virus that are phylogenetically closely related to hepatitis C virus. Importantly, the flavivirus life cycle is intimately associated to host cell lipids. Along this line, flaviviruses rearrange intracellular membranes from the endoplasmic-reticulum of the infected cells to develop adequate platforms for viral replication and particle biogenesis...
October 1, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Maimuna S Majumder, Colleen M Nguyen, Sumiko R Mekaru, John S Brownstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Julien B Z Zahouli, Jürg Utzinger, Maurice A Adja, Pie Müller, David Malone, Yao Tano, Benjamin G Koudou
BACKGROUND: Aedes mosquito-transmitted outbreaks of dengue and yellow fever have been reported from rural and urban parts of Côte d'Ivoire. The present study aimed at assessing Aedes spp. oviposition ecology in variously urbanized settings within arbovirus foci in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: Aedes spp. eggs were sampled using a standard ovitrap method from January 2013 to April 2014 in different ecosystems of rural, suburban and urban areas. Emerged larvae were reared until the adult stage for species identification...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Ryoga Hamura, Koichiro Haruki, Jun Tsutsumi, Sumio Takayama, Hiroaki Shiba, Katsuhiko Yanaga
Spontaneous biliary peritonitis is rare in adults. We herein report a case of spontaneous biliary peritonitis. An 84-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain for 5 days. He developed fever, jaundice, and abdominal rigidity. Computed tomography (CT) revealed massive ascites in the omental bursa and around the liver. The ascites obtained by diagnostic paracentesis was dark yellow-green in color, which implied bile leakage. With a diagnosis of bile peritonitis, the patient underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
Tulin Demir, Mumtaz Dadali
Sphingomonas paucimobilis is an aerobic, oxidase-positive, yellow-pigmented, non-fermentative, Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that rarely causes infections in humans. It is commonly found in nosocomial environments and, despite its low clinical virulence, it can be responsible for several different infections especially among patients with underlying disease. Here we describe a clinical case of a 46-year-old male paraplegic patient with a history of neurogenic bladder due to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and renal failure who was admitted to the urology clinic of a university hospital in Kirsehir, Turkey, with the complaints of urinary tract infection (UTI) including fever, chills, dysuria, abdominal and back pain...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Engin Burak Selcuk, Uner Kayabas, Hulisi Binbasioglu, Baris Otlu, Yasar Bayindir, Bulent Bozdogan, Mehmet Karatas
BACKGROUND: The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. METHOD: A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013...
September 20, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Nicksy Gumede, Sheick Oumar Coulibaly, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Jean-Bosco Ndihokubwayo, Peter Nsubuga, Joseph Okeibunor, Annick Dosseh, Mbaye Salla, Richard Mihigo, Pascal Mkanda, Charles Byabamazima
BACKGROUND: The laboratory has always played a very critical role in diagnosis of the diseases. The success of any disease programme is based on a functional laboratory network. Health laboratory services are an integral component of the health system. Efficiency and effectiveness of both clinical and public health functions including surveillance, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, research and health promotion are influenced by reliable laboratory services. The establishment of the African Regional polio laboratory for the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has contributed in supporting countries in their efforts to strengthen laboratory capacity...
October 10, 2016: Vaccine
Kuan Rong Chan, Xiaohui Wang, Wilfried A A Saron, Esther Shuyi Gan, Hwee Cheng Tan, Darren Z L Mok, Summer Li-Xin Zhang, Yie Hou Lee, Cui Liang, Limin Wijaya, Sujoy Ghosh, Yin Bun Cheung, Steven R Tannenbaum, Soman N Abraham, Ashley L St John, Jenny G H Low, Eng Eong Ooi
Vaccination has achieved remarkable successes in the control of childhood viral diseases. To control emerging infections, however, vaccines will need to be delivered to older individuals who, unlike infants, probably have had prior infection or vaccination with related viruses and thus have cross-reactive antibodies against the vaccines. Whether and how these cross-reactive antibodies impact live attenuated vaccination efficacy is unclear. Using an open-label randomized trial design, we show that subjects with a specific range of cross-reactive antibody titres from a prior inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccination enhanced yellow fever (YF) immunogenicity upon YF vaccination...
2016: Nature Microbiology
John Payne Woodall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
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