keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

acetylcholine intestine

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469181/expression-and-distribution-of-the-transient-receptor-potential-cationic-channel-a1-trpa1-in-the-human-clitoris-comparison-to-male-penile-erectile-tissue
#1
S Ückert, K Albrecht, A Bannowsky, M Sohn, M A Kuczyk, P Hedlund
The transient receptor potential cationic channel ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a channel protein assumed to act in various human tissues as mechano- and pain sensor and play a role in neurotransmission. The expression of TRPA has already been investigated in the human prostate and urethra, however, only very few studies have addressed the expression and distribution in the male and female genital tract. The present study aimed to investigate by means of immunohistochemistry (double-labeling technique, laser fluorescence microscopy) in the human clitoris and penile erectile tissue the localization of TRPA1 in relation to nNOS, the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465562/activation-of-the-ileal-neuroendocrine-tumor-cell-line-p-sts-by-acetylcholine-is-amplified-by-histamine-role-of-h3r-and-h4r
#2
Beatrix Pfanzagl, Diana Mechtcheriakova, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Stephan W Aberle, Roswitha Pfragner, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
Neuroendocrine tumors may present with pseudoallergic reactions like diarrhea and idiopathic anaphylaxis. Here we present the P-STS human ileal neuroendocrine cell line as a model cell line for these tumors. Neuroendocrine markers and changes in cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in response to several possible activators of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release were analyzed. P-STS cells still expressed chromogranin A and synaptophysin after 2 years of culture. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 mRNA and a low amount of 5-HT were also detected...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432022/a-crosstalk-between-muscarinic-and-crf2-receptors-regulates-cellular-adhesion-properties-of-human-colon-cancer-cells
#3
M Pelissier-Rota, N T Chartier, B Bonaz, M R Jacquier-Sarlin
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation that favor the development of colitis associated cancer. An alteration of the epithelial intestinal barrier function observed in IBD is supposed to be a consequence of stress. It has been proposed that corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor (CRF2), one of the two receptors of CRF, the principal neuromediator of stress, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce stress-mediated epithelial barrier dysfunction...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392893/traditional-persian-topical-medications-for-gastrointestinal-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Laleh Dehghani Tafti, Seyyed Mahyar Shariatpanahi, Mahmoud Mahdavi Damghani, Behjat Javadi
Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359586/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-participate-in-small-intestinal-mucosal-homeostasis
#5
Chasen J Greig, Robert A Cowles
BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucosal homeostasis is controlled by multiple factors and an intact, functional mucosa is essential for survival. Maintenance of the epithelium begins with crypt base stem cells which eventually give rise to all epithelial cell types. Evidence suggests an important role of the enteric cholinergic nervous system in these processes. We hypothesized that mice with altered muscarinic signaling would exhibit differences in mucosal morphometric and proliferative parameters compared to wild-type mice...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323272/constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-females-have-normal-colonic-barrier-and-secretory-function
#6
Stephanie A Peters, Shoko Edogawa, Wendy J Sundt, Roy B Dyer, Daniel A Dalenberg, Amelia Mazzone, Ravinder J Singh, Natalie Moses, Thomas C Smyrk, Christopher Weber, David R Linden, Wallace K MacNaughton, Jerrold R Turner, Michael Camilleri, David A Katzka, Gianrico Farrugia, Madhusudan Grover
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) is associated with changes in intestinal barrier and secretory function. METHODS: A total of 19 IBS-C patients and 18 healthy volunteers (all females) underwent saccharide excretion assay (0.1 g (13)C mannitol and 1 g lactulose), measurements of duodenal and colonic mucosal barrier (transmucosal resistance (TMR), macromolecular and Escherichia coli Bio-Particle translocation), mucosal secretion (basal and acetylcholine (Ach)-evoked short-circuit current (Isc)), in vivo duodenal mucosal impedance, circulating endotoxins, and colonic tight junction gene expression...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314177/gintonin-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-in-mice
#7
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Ra Mi Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer extracts have been used to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression. However, little is known about the extracts' active ingredients and the molecular mechanisms underlying their reported anti-depressive effects. METHODS: Gintonin is an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand isolated from P. ginseng. BON cells, an enterochromaffin cell line, and C57BL/6 mice were used to investigate whether gintonin stimulates serotonin release...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296078/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-b-uses-a-distinct-entry-pathway-mediated-by-cdc42-into-intestinal-cells-versus-neuronal-cells
#8
Chloé Connan, Marie Voillequin, Carolina Varela Chavez, Christelle Mazuet, Christian Leveque, Sandrine Vitry, Alain Vandewalle, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT type B (BoNT/B) most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonisation such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. We previously showed that BoNT/B translocates through mouse intestinal barrier by an endocytosis-dependent mechanism and subsequently targets neuronal cells, mainly cholinergic neurons, in the intestinal mucosa and musculosa...
March 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239845/stimulation-of-na-k-pump-currents-by-epithelial-nicotinic-receptors-in-rat-colon
#9
Sandra Bader, Lena Lottig, Martin Diener
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acetylcholine-induced epithelial Cl(-) secretion is generally thought to be mediated by epithelial muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors on secretomotor neurons. However, recent data have shown expression of nicotinic receptors by intestinal epithelium and the stimulation of Cl(-) secretion by nicotine, in the presence of the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin. Here, we aimed to identify the transporters activated by epithelial nicotinic receptors and to clarify their role in cholinergic regulation of intestinal ion transport...
May 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204957/insights-into-the-role-of-opioid-receptors-in-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#10
James J Galligan, Catia Sternini
Opioid drugs are prescribed extensively for pain treatment but when used chronically they induce constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Opioid drugs interact with three classes of opioid receptors: mu opioid receptors (MORs), delta opioid receptors (DOR), and kappa opioid receptors (KORs), but opioid drugs mostly target the MORs. Upon stimulation, opioid receptors couple to inhibitory Gi/Go proteins that activate or inhibit downstream effector proteins. MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and to activation of K(+) channels resulting in reduced neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172675/dop090-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-gts-21-attenuate-dss-induced-colitis-by-improving-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function
#11
H Zhang, Y Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122499/uridine-stimulate-laxative-effect-in-the-loperamide-induced-constipation-of-sd-rats-through-regulation-of-the-machrs-signaling-pathway-and-mucin-secretion
#12
Ji Eun Kim, Jun Go, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Woo Bin Yun, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
BACKGROUND: Uridine (Urd), which has been reported as a major component of RNA, plays an important role in various biological process including neuroprotection, biochemical modulation and glycolysis, although its role in constipation has yet to be established. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the laxative effects of Urd on chronic constipation. METHODS: The constipation phenotypes and their related mechanisms were investigated in the transverse colons of SD rats with loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation after treatment with 100 mg/kg of Urd...
January 26, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115022/gut-microbial-degradation-of-organophosphate-insecticides-induces-glucose-intolerance-via-gluconeogenesis
#13
Ganesan Velmurugan, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Krishnan Swaminathan, Gilles Mithieux, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran, Mani Dhivakar, Ayothi Parthasarathy, D D Venkatesh Babu, Leishman John Thumburaj, Allen J Freddy, Vasudevan Dinakaran, Shanavas Syed Mohamed Puhari, Balakrishnan Rekha, Yacob Jenifer Christy, Sivakumar Anusha, Ganesan Divya, Kannan Suganya, Boominathan Meganathan, Narayanan Kalyanaraman, Varadaraj Vasudevan, Raju Kamaraj, Maruthan Karthik, Balakrishnan Jeyakumar, Albert Abhishek, Eldho Paul, Muthuirulan Pushpanathan, Rajamani Koushick Rajmohan, Kumaravel Velayutham, Alexander R Lyon, Subbiah Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Organophosphates are the most frequently and largely applied insecticide in the world due to their biodegradable nature. Gut microbes were shown to degrade organophosphates and cause intestinal dysfunction. The diabetogenic nature of organophosphates was recently reported but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. We aimed to understand the role of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia and to unravel the molecular mechanism behind this process. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate a high prevalence of diabetes among people directly exposed to organophosphates in rural India (n = 3080)...
January 24, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112735/nicotine-reverses-hypofrontality-in-animal-models-of-addiction-and-schizophrenia
#14
Fani Koukouli, Marie Rooy, Dimitrios Tziotis, Kurt A Sailor, Heidi C O'Neill, Josien Levenga, Mirko Witte, Michael Nilges, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Charles A Hoeffer, Jerry A Stitzel, Boris S Gutkin, David A DiGregorio, Uwe Maskos
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlies higher cognitive processes that are modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation by cholinergic inputs. PFC spontaneous default activity is altered in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia-a disorder that can be accompanied by heavy smoking. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CHRNA5 gene, encoding the α5 nAChR subunit, that increase the risks for both smoking and schizophrenia...
March 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069927/impact-of-altered-cholinergic-tones-on-the-neurovascular-coupling-response-to-whisker-stimulation
#15
Clotilde Lecrux, Claire H Sandoe, Sujaya Neupane, Pascal Kropf, Xavier Toussay, Xin-Kang Tong, María Lacalle-Aurioles, Amir Shmuel, Edith Hamel
Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity rely on the coupling between electrophysiology and hemodynamics, a phenomenon referred to as "neurovascular coupling" (NVC). It is unknown whether this relationship remains reliable under altered brain states associated with acetylcholine (ACh) levels, such as attention and arousal and in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. We therefore assessed the effects of varying ACh tone on whisker-evoked NVC responses in rat barrel cortex, measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurophysiological recordings (local field potentials, LFPs)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068390/effect-of-inulin-on-proteome-changes-induced-by-pathogenic-lipopolysaccharide-in-human-colon
#16
Michele Pier Luca Guarino, Annamaria Altomare, Simone Barera, Vittoria Locato, Silvia Cocca, Cinzia Franchin, Giorgio Arrigoni, Candida Vannini, Sarah Grossi, Paola Campomenosi, Valentina Pasqualetti, Marcella Bracale, Rossana Alloni, Laura De Gara, Michele Cicala
In the present study, the protective role of inulin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress was evaluated on human colonic mucosa using a proteomic approach. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa were sealed between two chambers, with the luminal side facing upwards and overlaid with Krebs (control), LPS or LPS+ inulin IQ solution. The solutions on the submucosal side (undernatants) were collected following 30 min of mucosal exposure. iTRAQ based analysis was used to analyze the total soluble proteomes from human colonic mucosa and submucosa treated with different undernatants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054012/localization-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-2-to-the-intestinal-crypt-stem-cell-compartment
#17
Eleanor D Muise, Neeru Gandotra, John J Tackett, Michaela C Bamdad, Robert A Cowles
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the murine small intestine" (E.D. Muise, N. Gandotra, J.J. Tackett, M.C. Bamdad, R.A. Cowles, 2016) [1]. We recently demonstrated that neuronal serotonin stimulates intestinal crypt cell division, and induces villus growth and crypt depth (E.R. Gross, M.D. Gershon, K.G. Margolis, Z.V. Gertsberg, Z. Li, R.A. Cowles, 2012; M.D. Gershon, 2013) [2], [3]. Scopolamine, a nonspecific muscarinic receptor antagonist, inhibited serotonin-induced intestinal mucosal growth [2]...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977009/downregulated-expression-of-microrna-124-in-pediatric-intestinal-failure-patients-modulates-macrophages-activation-by-inhibiting-stat3-and-ache
#18
Yong-Tao Xiao, Jun Wang, Wei Lu, Yi Cao, Wei Cai
Intestinal inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of intestinal failure (IF). The macrophages are essential to maintain the intestinal homeostasis. However, the underlying mechanisms of intestinal macrophages activation remain poorly understood. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) have pivotal roles in regulation of immune responses, here we aimed to investigate the role of miR-124 in the activation of intestinal macrophages. In this study, we showed that the intestinal macrophages increased in pediatric IF patients and resulted in the induction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
December 15, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866962/distribution-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-the-murine-small-intestine
#19
Eleanor D Muise, Neeru Gandotra, John J Tackett, Michaela C Bamdad, Robert A Cowles
AIMS: Serotonin stimulates enterocyte turnover in the small intestine and studies suggest this is mediated by neuronal signaling via a cholinergic pathway. Distribution of the five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (mAChRs) in the small intestine has not been fully studied, and their role in intestinal growth is unknown. We hypothesized that mAChRs have distinct anatomic distributions within the bowel, and that mAChRs present within intestinal crypts mediate the effects of acetylcholine on the small intestinal mucosa...
January 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846263/nicotine-induced-effects-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachrs-ca2-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-stc-1-cells
#20
Jie Qian, Shobha K Mummalaneni, Reem M Alkahtani, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S Murthy, John R Grider, Vijay Lyall
In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells...
2016: PloS One
keyword
keyword
26006
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"