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acetylcholine intestine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775454/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies-of-cry5b-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-anthelmintics-reveal-a-powerful-and-unique-combination-therapy-against-intestinal-nematode-parasites
#1
Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K Nielsen, Raffi V Aroian
BACKGROUND: The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768179/intestinal-epithelial-wnt-signaling-mediates-acetylcholine-triggered-host-defense-against-infection
#2
Sid Ahmed Labed, Khursheed A Wani, Sakthimala Jagadeesan, Abdul Hakkim, Mehran Najibi, Javier Elbio Irazoqui
Regulated antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal epithelium is key to defense against infection and to microbiota homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate such expression is necessary for understanding immune homeostasis and inflammatory disease and for developing safe and effective therapies. We used Caenorhabditis elegans in a preclinical approach to discover mechanisms of antimicrobial gene expression control in the intestinal epithelium. We found an unexpected role for the cholinergic nervous system...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766276/anti-ganglionic-achr-antibodies-in-japanese-patients-with-motility-disorders
#3
Akihiro Mukaino, Hitomi Minami, Hajime Isomoto, Hitomi Hamamoto, Eikichi Ihara, Yasuhiro Maeda, Osamu Higuchi, Tohru Okanishi, Yohei Kokudo, Kazushi Deguchi, Fumisato Sasaki, Toshihito Ueki, Ken-Ya Murata, Takeshi Yoshida, Mistuyo Kinjo, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Akio Ido, Hidenori Matsuo, Kazuhiko Nakao, Shunya Nakane
BACKGROUND: The existence of several autoantibodies suggests an autoimmune basis for gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility. Whether GI motility disorders are features of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) or are related to circulating anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR) antibodies (Abs) is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between autonomic dysfunction, anti-gAChR Abs, and clinical features in patients with GI motility disorders including achalasia and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741535/amanita-muscaria-fly-agaric-from-a-shamanistic-hallucinogen-to-the-search-for-acetylcholine
#4
M R Lee, E Dukan, I Milne
The mushroom Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) is widely distributed throughout continental Europe and the UK. Its common name suggests that it had been used to kill flies, until superseded by arsenic. The bioactive compounds occurring in the mushroom remained a mystery for long periods of time, but eventually four hallucinogens were isolated from the fungus: muscarine, muscimol, muscazone and ibotenic acid. The shamans of Eastern Siberia used the mushroom as an inebriant and a hallucinogen. In 1912, Henry Dale suggested that muscarine (or a closely related substance) was the transmitter at the parasympathetic nerve endings, where it would produce lacrimation, salivation, sweating, bronchoconstriction and increased intestinal motility...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741434/effects-of-oxaliplatin-treatment-on-the-myenteric-plexus-innervation-and-glia-in-the-murine-distal-colon
#5
Vanesa Stojanovska, Rachel M McQuade, Sarah Miller, Kulmira Nurgali
Oxaliplatin (platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent) is a first-line treatment of colorectal malignancies; its use associates with peripheral neuropathies and gastrointestinal side effects. These gastrointestinal dysfunctions might be due to toxic effects of oxaliplatin on the intestinal innervation and glia. Male Balb/c mice received intraperitoneal injections of sterile water or oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg/d) triweekly for 2 weeks. Colon tissues were collected for immunohistochemical assessment at day 14. The density of sensory, adrenergic, and cholinergic nerve fibers labeled with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), respectively, was assessed within the myenteric plexus of the distal colon...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716863/analysis-of-the-main-constituents-of-changshu-tablet-and-its-spasmolysis-effect-against-contraction-induced-by-acetylcholine-in-the-rat-isolated-intestinal-smooth-muscle
#6
Ying An, Guangming Song, Dailin Liu, Tianyi Mao, Yanmin Zhao, Wenli Xie
The Changshu tablet (CST), one kind of Chinese patent medicine with astringent to the intestine and relieving diarrhea, was made by the root of Rose odorata Sweet var. gigantean (Coll.et Hemsl.) Rehd.et Wils. Although CST has a long history of clinical application, but the research of its chemical composition is less. So the objective of this study was to investigate the main constituents and preliminarily research its effect of the contraction of isolated intestine in vitro. The contents of total polyphenols (126...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709304/galanin-decreases-spontaneous-resting-contractions-and-potentiates-acetyl-choline-induced-contractions-of-goldfish-gut
#7
Elsie Tachie Mensah, Ayelen Melisa Blanco, Andrew Donini, Suraj Unniappan
Galanin (GAL) is a 29 amino acid peptide, first identified from the porcine intestine and widely distributed within the brain and peripheral tissues. Among GAL biological functions, its role as a potent appetite-stimulating peptide is probably the most studied. With galanin's established role in the modulation of food intake in fish, this study aims to evaluate the effects of GAL on the intestinal motility of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using an organ bath system. Our results found that application of GAL to the organ bath causes a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of goldfish gut...
April 24, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672286/activated-%C3%AE-7nachr-improves-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-intestinal-injury-induced-by-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-rats-inhibition-of-the-proinflammatory-response-through-the-th17-immune-response
#8
Keyan Chen, YingJie Sun, Wanwei Dong, Tiezheng Zhang, Nan Zhou, Weiwei Yu, Yugang Diao, Shanbin Guo, Yue Tian
Backgrund/Aims: To investigate the effects of activated α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and intestinal injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and its relationship with the Th17 response in order to provide a theoretical basis for organ protection and targeted drug therapy during the perioperative period. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rat models of CPB were established. Rat intestinal and brain injuries were observed after CPB using hematoxylin and eosin staining...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660616/intestinal-damage-neurotoxicity-and-biochemical-responses-caused-by-tris-2-chloroethyl-phosphate-and-tricresyl-phosphate-on-earthworm
#9
Yang Yang, Yao Xiao, Yeqian Chang, Yibin Cui, Göran Klobučar, Mei Li
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) draw growing concern about characterizing the potential risk on environmental health due to its wide usage and distribution. Two typical types of organophosphate esters (OPEs): tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tricresyl phosphate (TCP) were selected to evaluate toxicity of OPEs to the soil organism like earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Histopathological examination (H&E), oxidative stress, DNA damage and RT-qPCR was used to identify the effects and potential mechanism of their toxicity...
August 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621360/the-combination-of-cassia-obtusifolia-l-and-foeniculum-vulgare-m-exhibits-a-laxative-effect-on-loperamide-induced-constipation-of-rats
#10
Seung Hee Jang, Dong Kwon Yang
Chronic constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disease that is detrimental to the quality of patient life. Cassia obtusifolia L. (CO) and Foeniculum vulgare M. (FV) are commonly used as medicinal foods in many countries. We aimed to examine the laxative effect and their underlying mechanism of CO and FV mixture on loperamide (lop)-induced constipated rats. To determine the laxative effects of these compounds, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: the control, lop-induced constipated (2mg/kg), and three doses (100, 300, and 500mg/kg) of CO and FV mixture-, and Bisacodyl (bis, 3...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616040/cholinergic-activation-enhances-resistance-to-oral-salmonella-infection-by-modulating-innate-immune-defense-mechanisms-at-the-intestinal-barrier
#11
Ray M Al-Barazie, Ghada Hassan Bashir, Mohammed M Qureshi, Yassir A Mohamed, Ashraf Al-Sbiei, Saeed Tariq, Wim J Lammers, Basel K Al-Ramadi, Maria J Fernandez-Cabezudo
Inflammation is a crucial defense mechanism that protects the body from the devastating effects of invading pathogens. However, an unrestrained inflammatory reaction may result in systemic manifestations with dire consequences to the host. The extent of activation of the inflammatory response is tightly regulated through immunological and neural pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation confers enhanced protection in experimental animals orally infected with virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577965/bisphenol-a-induced-changes-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-duodenum
#12
Kamila Szymanska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound from the phenolic group commonly used for the production of plastics. The use of BPA in food and drinking water containers carries a significant risk to human health since BPA can be washed out and enter consumables. BPA entering the human body with food shows a multi-directional effect and causes disorders in the functioning of many systems and organs. There is no current knowledge about the effects of BPA on the enteric nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to verify the influence of BPA on tolerable daily intake (TDI) dose (0...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570391/deletion-of-choline-acetyltransferase-in-enteric-neurons-results-in-postnatal-intestinal-dysmotility-and-dysbiosis
#13
Carl D Johnson, Amanda J Barlow-Anacker, Joseph F Pierre, Ketrija Touw, Christopher S Erickson, John B Furness, Miles L Epstein, Ankush Gosain
Acetylcholine (ACh)-synthesizing neurons are major components of the enteric nervous system (ENS). They release ACh and peptidergic neurotransmitters onto enteric neurons and muscle. However, pharmacological interrogation has proven inadequate to demonstrate an essential role for ACh. Our objective was to determine whether elimination of ACh synthesis during embryogenesis alters prenatal viability, intestinal function, the neurotransmitter complement, and the microbiome. Conditional deletion of choline acetyltransferase ( ChAT), the ACh synthetic enzyme, in neural crest-derived neurons ( ChAT-Null) was performed...
March 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558425/the-influence-of-high-and-low-doses-of-bisphenol-a-bpa-on-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-ileum
#14
Kamila Szymanska, Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day) and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), was studied by the double immunofluorescence method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510587/the-coordinated-activities-of-nachr-and-wnt-signaling-regulate-intestinal-stem-cell-function-in-mice
#15
Toshio Takahashi, Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata
Cholinergic signaling, which modulates cell activities via nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (n- and mAChRs) in response to internal or external stimuli, has been demonstrated in mammalian non-neuronal cells that synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). One of the major pathways of excitatory transmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is mediated by cholinergic transmission, with the transmitter ACh producing excitatory potentials in postsynaptic effector cells. In addition to ACh-synthesizing and ACh-metabolizing elements in the ENS, the presence of non-neuronal ACh machinery has been reported in epithelial cells of the small and large intestines of rats and humans...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473027/morphology-and-function-of-the-lamb-ileum-following-preterm-birth
#16
Tracey J Flores, Vivian B Nguyen, Robert E Widdop, Megan R Sutherland, Graeme R Polglase, Helen E Abud, Mary Jane Black
Background: For infants born moderately/late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation), immaturity of the intestine has the potential to impact both short- and long-term gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study conducted in sheep was to compare the morphology and smooth muscle contractility of the ileum in term and late preterm lambs. Materials and methods: Lambs delivered preterm (132 days gestation; n  = 7) or term (147 days gestation; n  = 9) were milk-fed after birth and euthanased at 2 days of age...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439512/the-influence-of-inflammation-and-nerve-damage-on-the-neurochemical-characterization-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#17
Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS), localized in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, regulates the functions of the intestine using a wide range of neuronally-active substances. One of them is the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whose participation in pathological states in the large intestine remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inflammation and nerve damage using a double immunofluorescence technique to neurochemically characterize CGRP-positive enteric nervous structures in the porcine descending colon...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325915/in-vivo-nonspecific-immunomodulatory-and-antispasmodic-effects-of-common-purslane-portulaca-oleracea-linn-leaf-extracts-in-icr-mice
#18
Elena S Catap, Markyn Jared L Kho, Maria Rexie R Jimenez
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Portulaca oleracea (common purslane) is used in traditional medicine to cure various illnesses. However, its immune-protective properties and antispasmodic effects still need more pharmacological data if the plant will be utilized in herbal and drug formulations. Therefore, the present study determined the capacity of this plant species to modulate nonspecific immune responses and to confirm its antispasmodic activity in vivo in ICR mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage, splenic lymphocyte proliferation and plasma lysozyme levels were measured in mice that were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide and treated with the ethyl acetate extract of Portulaca oleracea...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305058/altered-gastrointestinal-motility-in-an-animal-model-of-lesch-nyhan-disease
#19
Maria G Zizzo, Monica Frinchi, Domenico Nuzzo, Hyder A Jinnah, Giuseppa Mudò, Daniele F Condorelli, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio, Flavia Mulè, Natale Belluardo, Rosa Serio
Mutations in the HGPRT1 gene, which encodes hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), housekeeping enzyme responsible for recycling purines, lead to Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). Clinical expression of LND indicates that HGprt deficiency has adverse effects on gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate intestinal motility in HGprt knockout mice (HGprt¯). Spontaneous and neurally evoked mechanical activity was recorded in vitro as changes in isometric tension in circular muscle strips of distal colon...
March 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299689/segmental-differences-in-the-non-neuronal-cholinergic-system-in-rat-caecum
#20
Sandra Bader, Martin Diener
Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter but is also produced by several non-neuronal cell types with barrier or defence function. One of the non-neuronal tissues with expression of the key enzyme for production of acetylcholine, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), is the colonic surface epithelium, which releases acetylcholine after contact with the short-chain fatty acid propionate produced physiologically in the colonic lumen during the microbial fermentation of carbohydrates. Despite the fact that the caecum is the largest fermentation chamber in non-ruminant mammals, nothing is known about the expression and function of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in this part of the large intestine, which was addressed in the present study...
April 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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