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acetylcholine intestine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866962/distribution-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-the-murine-small-intestine
#1
Eleanor D Muise, Neeru Gandotra, John J Tackett, Michaela C Bamdad, Robert A Cowles
AIMS: Serotonin stimulates enterocyte turnover in the small intestine and studies suggest this is mediated by neuronal signaling via a cholinergic pathway. Distribution of the five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (mAChRs) in the small intestine has not been fully studied, and their role in intestinal growth is unknown. We hypothesized that mAChRs have distinct anatomic distributions within the bowel, and that mAChRs present within intestinal crypts mediate the effects of acetylcholine on the small intestinal mucosa...
November 17, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846263/nicotine-induced-effects-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachrs-ca2-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-stc-1-cells
#2
Jie Qian, Shobha K Mummalaneni, Reem M Alkahtani, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S Murthy, John R Grider, Vijay Lyall
In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796869/zinc-transporter-3-znt3-as-an-active-substance-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-esophagus
#3
Joanna Wojtkiewicz, Krystyna Makowska, Ewa Bejer-Olenska, Sławomir Gonkowski
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), a member of the SLC 30 zinc transporter family, is involved in the transport of zinc ions from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles or intracellular organelles. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time the percentage of ZnT3-like immunoreactive (ZnT3-LI) neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the porcine esophagus and denotation of their neurochemical coding. Routine double- and triple-immunofluorescence labeling of cervical, thoracic, and abdominal fragments of esophagus for ZnT3 with protein gene product (PGP 9...
October 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784876/diversity-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-differently-affects-non-neuronal-and-atropine-sensitive-ileal-contractile-responses-to-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-mice
#4
Masako Yajima, Shin-Ichiro Karaki, Takeshi Tsuruta, Shunsuke Kimura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Takaji Yajima
Non-neuronal and atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are detected in the neonatal stage, and change with age or inflammatory conditions. However, the roles of luminal SCFAs in developmental changes have not yet been elucidated. We examined ileal contractile responses to SCFAs in mice colonized with different SCFA-producing intestinal microbiota under normal and inflammatory conditions. Using conventional (Conv), germ-free (GF), and gnotobiotic mice infected with Bifidobacterium (GB-bif), Propionibacterium (GB-prop), or Lactobacillus (GB-lact), ileal contractions were measured in 1-day-old neonates and 7-week-old mice using an isotonic transducer...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720920/antispasmodic-effect-of-selected-citrus-flavonoids-on-rat-isolated-jejunum-specimens
#5
Marta Mendel, Magdalena Chłopecka, Natalia Dziekan, Wojciech Karlik
Citrus flavonoids are acknowledged for numerous pharmacological activities, including the myorelaxant effect on various smooth muscles. However, there is no data on their effect on jejunum contractility. Therefore, the aim of the study at hand was to evaluate the impact of hesperetin and diosmetin along with their glycosides on the motoric activity of intestine and to verify the possible mechanism of hesperetin-induced effect. The experiments were performed on rat isolated jejunum strips and were conducted under isometric conditions...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664582/nerve-growth-factor-induced-plasticity-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-interneurons-of-aged-wistar-rats
#6
Pedro A Pereira, Tiago Millner, Manuel Vilela, Sérgio Sousa, Armando Cardoso, M Dulce Madeira
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been identified as a critical center for working and long-term memory. In this study, we have examined the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in mPFC interneurons and the density of the mPFC cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation in cognitively-impaired aged Wistar rats. We also tested the possibility that the potential age-related changes might rely on insufficient neurotrophic support. The total number of NPY- and VIP-immunoreactive neurons and the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive varicosities were estimated using stereological methods...
September 21, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639096/sex-differences-and-drug-dose-influence-the-role-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-the-mouse-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-model
#7
Shakir D Alsharari, Deniz Bagdas, Hamid I Akbarali, Patraic A Lichtman, Erinn S Raborn, Guy A Cabral, F Ivy Carroll, Elizabeth A McGee, M Imad Damaj
INTRODUCTION: α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to assess the role of α7 nAChRs in DSS-induced colitis in male and female mouse. We first compared disease activity and pathogenesis of colitis in α7 knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. We then evaluated the effect of several α7 direct and indirect agonists on the severity of disease in the DSS (dextran sodium sulfate)-induced colitis...
September 17, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619727/supernatants-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-mucosal-biopsies-impair-human-colonic-smooth-muscle-contractility
#8
M P Guarino, G Barbara, A Cicenia, A Altomare, M R Barbaro, S Cocca, A Scirocco, C Cremon, S Emerenziani, V Stanghellini, M Cicala, C Severi
BACKGROUND: Changes in intestinal motility are likely to contribute to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of IBS mucosal supernatants on human colonic muscle contractility. METHODS: Supernatants were obtained from biopsies of 18 IBS patients-nine with constipation (IBS-C) and nine with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D)-and nine asymptomatic subjects, used as controls. Colonic circular smooth muscle strips or isolated cells (SMC) were exposed to control or IBS supernatants...
September 12, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578144/propofol-inhibits-carbachol-induced-chloride-secretion-by-directly-targeting-the-basolateral-k-channel-in-rat-ileum-epithelium
#9
S-H Tang, H-Y Wang, H Sun, N An, L Xiao, Q Sun, D-B Zhao
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a widely used intravenous general anesthetic. Acetylcholine (ACh) is critical in controlling epithelial ion transport. This study was to investigate the effects of propofol on ACh-evoked secretion in rat ileum epithelium. METHODS: The Ussing chamber technique was used to investigate the effects of propofol on carbachol (CCh)-evoked short-circuit currents (Isc). KEY RESULTS: Propofol (10(-2) -10(-6)  mol/L) attenuated CCh-evoked Isc of rat ileum mucosa in a dose-dependent manner...
August 30, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539456/new-trends-and-perspectives-in-the-function-of-non-neuronal-acetylcholine-in-crypt-villus-organoids-in-mice
#10
Toshio Takahashi
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter that is present in central, parasympathetic, and neuromuscular synapses of mammals. However, non-neuronal ACh is also predicted to function as a local cell signaling molecule. The physiological significance of the presence of non-neuronal ACh in the intestine remains unclear. Here, experiments using cultured crypt-villus organoids that lack nerve and immune cells led us to suggest that endogenous ACh is synthesized in the intestinal epithelium to evoke growth and differentiation of the organoids through activation of muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs)...
August 19, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522721/-modern-prokinetics-and-their-role-in-the-treatment-of-gastroenterological-pathology
#11
REVIEW
A A Sheptulin, I B Belousova
The importance of prokinetics (drugs stimulating motor function of the gastrointestinal tract) arises from the high prevalence of gastroenterological pathology associated with primary or secondary disturbances of this function in esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The main groups of prokinetics are beta-blockers of dopamine receptors, inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase (or their combination with dopamine receptor blockers), 5-HT4-receptor agonists. They find wide application for the treatment of gastroesophgeal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia and constipation, obstipational form of irritable bowel syndrome, and other conditions accompanied by motor function disorders of the gastrointestinal tract...
2016: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515213/vitamin-d-deficiency-changes-the-intestinal-microbiome-reducing-b-vitamin-production-in-the-gut-the-resulting-lack-of-pantothenic-acid-adversely-affects-the-immune-system-producing-a-pro-inflammatory-state-associated-with-atherosclerosis-and-autoimmunity
#12
S C Gominak
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D blood levels of 60-80ng/ml promote normal sleep. The present study was undertaken to explore why this beneficial effect waned after 2years as arthritic pain increased. Pantothenic acid becomes coenzyme A, a cofactor necessary for cortisol and acetylcholine production. 1950s experiments suggested a connection between pantothenic acid deficiency, autoimmune arthritis and insomnia. The B vitamins have been shown to have an intestinal bacterial source and a food source, suggesting that the normal intestinal microbiome may have always been the primary source of B vitamins...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514477/acetylcholine-producing-t-cells-in-the-intestine-affect-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-and-microbial-diversity
#13
Shobhit Dhawan, Giada De Palma, Rose A Willemze, Francisca Hilbers, Caroline Verseijden, Misha Luyer, Sabine Nuding, Jan Wehkamp, Yuri Souwer, Esther C de Jong, Jurgen Seppen, Rene Mjgj van den Wijngaard, Sven Wehner, Elena F Verdu, Premysl Bercik, Wouter J de Jonge
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduces systemic TNF via acetylcholine producing memory T-cells in the spleen. These choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expressing T-cells are also found in the intestine, where their function is unclear. We aimed to characterize these cells in mouse and human intestine and delineate their function. We made use of the ChAT-eGFP reporter mice. CD4Cre mice were crossed to ChATfl/fl mice to achieve specific deletion of ChAT in CD4+ T-cells. We observed that the majority of ChAT expressing T-cells in the human and mouse intestine have characteristics of Th17 cells, and co-express IL17A, IL22 and RORC...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27425465/cardiopulmonary-protective-effects-of-the-selective-fxr-agonist-obeticholic-acid-in-the-rat-model-of-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#14
Linda Vignozzi, Annamaria Morelli, Ilaria Cellai, Sandra Filippi, Paolo Comeglio, Erica Sarchielli, Elena Maneschi, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Luciano Adorini, Mario Maggi
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation by obeticholic acid (OCA) has been demonstrated to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis development and even induce fibrosis regression in liver, kidney and intestine in multiple disease models. OCA also inhibits liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients. FXR activation has also been demonstrated to suppress the inflammatory response and to promote lung repair after lung injury. This study investigated the effects of OCA treatment (3, 10 or 30mg/kg, daily for 5days a week, for 7 and/or 28 days) on inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis in the monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rat model...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423041/epithelial-propionyl-and-butyrylcholine-as-novel-regulators-of-colonic-ion-transport
#15
Sarah Moreno, Stefanie Gerbig, Sabine Schulz, Bernhard Spengler, Martin Diener, Sandra Bader
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The colonic surface epithelium produces acetylcholine, released after the binding of propionate to GPCRs for this short-chain fatty acid (SCFA). This epithelial acetylcholine then induces anion secretion via stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. The key enzyme responsible for acetylcholine synthesis, choline acetyltransferase, is known to be unselective as regards the fatty acid used for esterification of choline. As the colonic epithelium is permanently exposed to high concentrations of different SCFAs produced by bacterial fermentation, we investigated whether choline esters other than acetylcholine, propionylcholine and butyrylcholine, are produced by the colonic epithelium, too, and whether these 'atypical' esters are able to stimulate the acetylcholine receptors involved in the regulation of colonic ion transport...
September 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353745/chemical-coding-of-sensory-neurons-supplying-the-hip-joint-capsule-in-the-sheep
#16
A Dudek, W Sienkiewicz, A Chrószcz, M Janeczek, J Kaleczyc
Immunohistochemical properties of nerve fibres supplying the joint capsule were previously described in many mammalian species, but the localization of sensory neurons supplying this structure was studied only in laboratory animals, the rat and rabbit. However, there is no comprehensive data on the chemical coding of sensory neurons projecting to the hip joint capsule (HJC). The aim of this study was to establish immunohistochemical properties of sensory neurons supplying HJC in the sheep. The study was carried out on 10 sheep, weighing about 30-40 kg...
June 28, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342415/immunohistochemical-properties-of-the-peripheral-neurons-projecting-to-the-pig-bulbospongiosus-muscle
#17
Maddalena Botti, Luisa Ragionieri, Antonio Cacchioli, Rino Panu, Ferdinando Gazza
Retrograde neuronal tracing and single labelling immunofluorescence methods were used to define the neurochemical content of the peripheral autonomic and sensitive neurons projecting to the male pig striated bulbospongiosus muscle (BSM). The retrograde fluorescent neuronal tracer Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the left bulbospongiosus muscle of four intact impuberal pigs. After a 10-day survival time, the ipsilateral sacral sympathetic trunk ganglia (STGs), the caudal mesenteric ganglion (CMG), and the sacral spinal ganglia (SGs) were collected from each animal...
September 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323436/-effects-of-electroaupuncture-stimulation-of-xiajuxu-st-39-etc-on-duodenal-mucosal-injury-serum-pro-inflammatory-factors-levels-and-duodenal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-alpha-7-expression-in-duodenal-ulcer-rats
#18
Xi Ling, Hong Zhang, Xi-qin Yi, Jin-feng Wu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the relatively specific effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Xiajuxu" (ST 39, the lower hesea paint of the small intestine), etc. on the level of serum TNF-alpha, lnterleukin-1 P (IL-1 P) and high mobility group protein B 1 (HMGB 1) contents, and duodenum a7 nicotinic acetyicholine receptor (nAchR) expression in duodenal ulcer rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improving duodenal ulcer. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control, model, Xiajuxu (ST 39), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37) and Yanglingquan (GB 34)...
April 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322954/denervation-of-nasal-mucosa-induced-by-posterior-nasal-neurectomy-suppresses-nasal-secretion-not-hypersensitivity-in-an-allergic-rhinitis-rat-model
#19
Hironobu Nishijima, Kenji Kondo, Makiko Toma-Hirano, Shinichi Iwasaki, Shu Kikuta, Chisato Fujimoto, Rumi Ueha, Ryoji Kagoya, Tatsuya Yamasoba
The posterior nasal nerve is the dominant source of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory fibers that innervate the nasal respiratory mucosa. Therefore, a posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) is thought to induce denervation of the nasal mucosa and relieve the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic action of PNN remain unknown. To investigate the impact of PNN-induced denervation of the nasal mucosa on allergic rhinitis, we developed a rat model of PNN and examined the effects of PNN on allergic rhinitis in ovalbumin-sensitized rats...
September 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27304975/hormonal-responses-to-cholinergic-input-are-different-in-humans-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Sara Chowdhury, Songyan Wang, Judit Dunai, Rachel Kilpatrick, Lauren Z Oestricker, Michael J Wallendorf, Bruce W Patterson, Dominic N Reeds, Burton M Wice
UNLABELLED: Peripheral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors regulate insulin and glucagon release in rodents but their importance for similar roles in humans is unclear. Bethanechol, an acetylcholine analogue that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, was used to examine the role of peripheral muscarinic signaling on glucose homeostasis in humans with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 10), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 11), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 9). Subjects received four liquid meal tolerance tests, each with a different dose of oral bethanechol (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg) given 60 min before a meal containing acetaminophen...
2016: PloS One
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