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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314177/gintonin-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-in-mice
#1
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Ra Mi Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer extracts have been used to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression. However, little is known about the extracts' active ingredients and the molecular mechanisms underlying their reported anti-depressive effects. METHODS: Gintonin is an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand isolated from P. ginseng. BON cells, an enterochromaffin cell line, and C57BL/6 mice were used to investigate whether gintonin stimulates serotonin release...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296078/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-b-uses-a-distinct-entry-pathway-mediated-by-cdc42-into-intestinal-cells-versus-neuronal-cells
#2
Chloé Connan, Marie Voillequin, Carolina Varela Chavez, Christelle Mazuet, Christian Leveque, Sandrine Vitry, Alain Vandewalle, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT/B most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonization such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. We previously showed that BoNT/B translocates through mouse intestinal barrier by an endocytosis-dependent mechanism and subsequently targets neuronal cells, mainly cholinergic neurons, in the intestinal mucosa and musculosa...
March 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239845/stimulation-of-na-k-pump-currents-by-epithelial-nicotinic-receptors-in-rat-colon
#3
Sandra Bader, Lena Lottig, Martin Diener
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acetylcholine-induced epithelial Cl(-) secretion is generally thought to be mediated by epithelial muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors on secretomotor neurons. However, recent data showed the expression of nicotinic receptors by intestinal epithelium and the stimulation of Cl(-) secretion by nicotine in the presence of the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin. In the present study, we aimed to identify the transporters activated by epithelial nicotinic receptors and to clarify their role in cholinergic regulation of intestinal ion transport...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204957/insights-into-the-role-of-opioid-receptors-in-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#4
James J Galligan, Catia Sternini
Opioid drugs are prescribed extensively for pain treatment but when used chronically they induce constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Opioid drugs interact with three classes of opioid receptors: mu opioid receptors (MORs), delta opioid receptors (DOR), and kappa opioid receptors (KORs), but opioid drugs mostly target the MORs. Upon stimulation, opioid receptors couple to inhibitory Gi/Go proteins that activate or inhibit downstream effector proteins. MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and to activation of K(+) channels resulting in reduced neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release...
February 16, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172675/dop090-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-gts-21-attenuate-dss-induced-colitis-by-improving-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function
#5
H Zhang, Y Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122499/uridine-stimulate-laxative-effect-in-the-loperamide-induced-constipation-of-sd-rats-through-regulation-of-the-machrs-signaling-pathway-and-mucin-secretion
#6
Ji Eun Kim, Jun Go, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Woo Bin Yun, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
BACKGROUND: Uridine (Urd), which has been reported as a major component of RNA, plays an important role in various biological process including neuroprotection, biochemical modulation and glycolysis, although its role in constipation has yet to be established. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the laxative effects of Urd on chronic constipation. METHODS: The constipation phenotypes and their related mechanisms were investigated in the transverse colons of SD rats with loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation after treatment with 100 mg/kg of Urd...
January 26, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115022/gut-microbial-degradation-of-organophosphate-insecticides-induces-glucose-intolerance-via-gluconeogenesis
#7
Ganesan Velmurugan, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Krishnan Swaminathan, Gilles Mithieux, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran, Mani Dhivakar, Ayothi Parthasarathy, D D Venkatesh Babu, Leishman John Thumburaj, Allen J Freddy, Vasudevan Dinakaran, Shanavas Syed Mohamed Puhari, Balakrishnan Rekha, Yacob Jenifer Christy, Sivakumar Anusha, Ganesan Divya, Kannan Suganya, Boominathan Meganathan, Narayanan Kalyanaraman, Varadaraj Vasudevan, Raju Kamaraj, Maruthan Karthik, Balakrishnan Jeyakumar, Albert Abhishek, Eldho Paul, Muthuirulan Pushpanathan, Rajamani Koushick Rajmohan, Kumaravel Velayutham, Alexander R Lyon, Subbiah Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Organophosphates are the most frequently and largely applied insecticide in the world due to their biodegradable nature. Gut microbes were shown to degrade organophosphates and cause intestinal dysfunction. The diabetogenic nature of organophosphates was recently reported but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. We aimed to understand the role of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia and to unravel the molecular mechanism behind this process. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate a high prevalence of diabetes among people directly exposed to organophosphates in rural India (n = 3080)...
January 24, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112735/nicotine-reverses-hypofrontality-in-animal-models-of-addiction-and-schizophrenia
#8
Fani Koukouli, Marie Rooy, Dimitrios Tziotis, Kurt A Sailor, Heidi C O'Neill, Josien Levenga, Mirko Witte, Michael Nilges, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Charles A Hoeffer, Jerry A Stitzel, Boris S Gutkin, David A DiGregorio, Uwe Maskos
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlies higher cognitive processes that are modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation by cholinergic inputs. PFC spontaneous default activity is altered in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia-a disorder that can be accompanied by heavy smoking. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CHRNA5 gene, encoding the α5 nAChR subunit, that increase the risks for both smoking and schizophrenia...
March 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069927/impact-of-altered-cholinergic-tones-on-the-neurovascular-coupling-response-to-whisker-stimulation
#9
Clotilde Lecrux, Claire H Sandoe, Sujaya Neupane, Pascal Kropf, Xavier Toussay, Xin-Kang Tong, María Lacalle-Aurioles, Amir Shmuel, Edith Hamel
Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity rely on the coupling between electrophysiology and hemodynamics, a phenomenon referred to as "neurovascular coupling" (NVC). It is unknown whether this relationship remains reliable under altered brain states associated with acetylcholine (ACh) levels, such as attention and arousal and in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. We therefore assessed the effects of varying ACh tone on whisker-evoked NVC responses in rat barrel cortex, measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurophysiological recordings (local field potentials, LFPs)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068390/effect-of-inulin-on-proteome-changes-induced-by-pathogenic-lipopolysaccharide-in-human-colon
#10
Michele Pier Luca Guarino, Annamaria Altomare, Simone Barera, Vittoria Locato, Silvia Cocca, Cinzia Franchin, Giorgio Arrigoni, Candida Vannini, Sarah Grossi, Paola Campomenosi, Valentina Pasqualetti, Marcella Bracale, Rossana Alloni, Laura De Gara, Michele Cicala
In the present study, the protective role of inulin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress was evaluated on human colonic mucosa using a proteomic approach. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa were sealed between two chambers, with the luminal side facing upwards and overlaid with Krebs (control), LPS or LPS+ inulin IQ solution. The solutions on the submucosal side (undernatants) were collected following 30 min of mucosal exposure. iTRAQ based analysis was used to analyze the total soluble proteomes from human colonic mucosa and submucosa treated with different undernatants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054012/localization-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-2-to-the-intestinal-crypt-stem-cell-compartment
#11
Eleanor D Muise, Neeru Gandotra, John J Tackett, Michaela C Bamdad, Robert A Cowles
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the murine small intestine" (E.D. Muise, N. Gandotra, J.J. Tackett, M.C. Bamdad, R.A. Cowles, 2016) [1]. We recently demonstrated that neuronal serotonin stimulates intestinal crypt cell division, and induces villus growth and crypt depth (E.R. Gross, M.D. Gershon, K.G. Margolis, Z.V. Gertsberg, Z. Li, R.A. Cowles, 2012; M.D. Gershon, 2013) [2], [3]. Scopolamine, a nonspecific muscarinic receptor antagonist, inhibited serotonin-induced intestinal mucosal growth [2]...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977009/downregulated-expression-of-microrna-124-in-pediatric-intestinal-failure-patients-modulates-macrophages-activation-by-inhibiting-stat3-and-ache
#12
Yong-Tao Xiao, Jun Wang, Wei Lu, Yi Cao, Wei Cai
Intestinal inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of intestinal failure (IF). The macrophages are essential to maintain the intestinal homeostasis. However, the underlying mechanisms of intestinal macrophages activation remain poorly understood. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) have pivotal roles in regulation of immune responses, here we aimed to investigate the role of miR-124 in the activation of intestinal macrophages. In this study, we showed that the intestinal macrophages increased in pediatric IF patients and resulted in the induction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
December 15, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866962/distribution-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-the-murine-small-intestine
#13
Eleanor D Muise, Neeru Gandotra, John J Tackett, Michaela C Bamdad, Robert A Cowles
AIMS: Serotonin stimulates enterocyte turnover in the small intestine and studies suggest this is mediated by neuronal signaling via a cholinergic pathway. Distribution of the five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (mAChRs) in the small intestine has not been fully studied, and their role in intestinal growth is unknown. We hypothesized that mAChRs have distinct anatomic distributions within the bowel, and that mAChRs present within intestinal crypts mediate the effects of acetylcholine on the small intestinal mucosa...
January 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846263/nicotine-induced-effects-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachrs-ca2-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-stc-1-cells
#14
Jie Qian, Shobha K Mummalaneni, Reem M Alkahtani, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S Murthy, John R Grider, Vijay Lyall
In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796869/zinc-transporter-3-znt3-as-an-active-substance-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-esophagus
#15
Joanna Wojtkiewicz, Krystyna Makowska, Ewa Bejer-Olenska, Sławomir Gonkowski
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), a member of the SLC 30 zinc transporter family, is involved in the transport of zinc ions from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles or intracellular organelles. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time the percentage of ZnT3-like immunoreactive (ZnT3-LI) neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the porcine esophagus and denotation of their neurochemical coding. Routine double- and triple-immunofluorescence labeling of cervical, thoracic, and abdominal fragments of esophagus for ZnT3 with protein gene product (PGP 9...
March 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784876/diversity-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-differently-affects-non-neuronal-and-atropine-sensitive-ileal-contractile-responses-to-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-mice
#16
Masako Yajima, Shin-Ichiro Karaki, Takeshi Tsuruta, Shunsuke Kimura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Takaji Yajima
Non-neuronal and atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are detected in the neonatal stage, and change with age or inflammatory conditions. However, the roles of luminal SCFAs in developmental changes have not yet been elucidated. We examined ileal contractile responses to SCFAs in mice colonized with different SCFA-producing intestinal microbiota under normal and inflammatory conditions. Using conventional (Conv), germ-free (GF), and gnotobiotic mice infected with Bifidobacterium (GB-bif), Propionibacterium (GB-prop), or Lactobacillus (GB-lact), ileal contractions were measured in 1-day-old neonates and 7-week-old mice using an isotonic transducer...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720920/antispasmodic-effect-of-selected-citrus-flavonoids-on-rat-isolated-jejunum-specimens
#17
Marta Mendel, Magdalena Chłopecka, Natalia Dziekan, Wojciech Karlik
Citrus flavonoids are acknowledged for numerous pharmacological activities, including the myorelaxant effect on various smooth muscles. However, there is no data on their effect on jejunum contractility. Therefore, the aim of the study at hand was to evaluate the impact of hesperetin and diosmetin along with their glycosides on the motoric activity of intestine and to verify the possible mechanism of hesperetin-induced effect. The experiments were performed on rat isolated jejunum strips and were conducted under isometric conditions...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664582/nerve-growth-factor-induced-plasticity-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-interneurons-of-aged-wistar-rats
#18
Pedro A Pereira, Tiago Millner, Manuel Vilela, Sérgio Sousa, Armando Cardoso, M Dulce Madeira
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been identified as a critical center for working and long-term memory. In this study, we have examined the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in mPFC interneurons and the density of the mPFC cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation in cognitively-impaired aged Wistar rats. We also tested the possibility that the potential age-related changes might rely on insufficient neurotrophic support. The total number of NPY- and VIP-immunoreactive neurons and the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive varicosities were estimated using stereological methods...
September 21, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639096/sex-differences-and-drug-dose-influence-the-role-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-the-mouse-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-model
#19
Shakir D Alsharari, Deniz Bagdas, Hamid I Akbarali, Patraic A Lichtman, Erinn S Raborn, Guy A Cabral, F Ivy Carroll, Elizabeth A McGee, M Imad Damaj
INTRODUCTION: α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to assess the role of α7 nAChRs in DSS-induced colitis in male and female mouse. We first compared disease activity and pathogenesis of colitis in α7 knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. We then evaluated the effect of several α7 direct and indirect agonists on the severity of disease in the DSS (dextran sodium sulfate)-induced colitis...
September 17, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619727/supernatants-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-mucosal-biopsies-impair-human-colonic-smooth-muscle-contractility
#20
M P Guarino, G Barbara, A Cicenia, A Altomare, M R Barbaro, S Cocca, A Scirocco, C Cremon, S Emerenziani, V Stanghellini, M Cicala, C Severi
BACKGROUND: Changes in intestinal motility are likely to contribute to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of IBS mucosal supernatants on human colonic muscle contractility. METHODS: Supernatants were obtained from biopsies of 18 IBS patients-nine with constipation (IBS-C) and nine with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D)-and nine asymptomatic subjects, used as controls. Colonic circular smooth muscle strips or isolated cells (SMC) were exposed to control or IBS supernatants...
February 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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