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acetylcholine intestine

Marta Mendel, Magdalena Chłopecka, Natalia Dziekan, Wojciech Karlik
Citrus flavonoids are acknowledged for numerous pharmacological activities, including the myorelaxant effect on various smooth muscles. However, there is no data on their effect on jejunum contractility. Therefore, the aim of the study at hand was to evaluate the impact of hesperetin and diosmetin along with their glycosides on the motoric activity of intestine and to verify the possible mechanism of hesperetin-induced effect. The experiments were performed on rat isolated jejunum strips and were conducted under isometric conditions...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Pedro A Pereira, Tiago Millner, Manuel Vilela, Sérgio Sousa, Armando Cardoso, M Dulce Madeira
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been identified as a critical center for working and long-term memory. In this study, we have examined the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in mPFC interneurons and the density of the mPFC cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation in cognitively-impaired aged Wistar rats. We also tested the possibility that the potential age-related changes might rely on insufficient neurotrophic support. The total number of NPY- and VIP-immunoreactive neurons and the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive varicosities were estimated using stereological methods...
September 21, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Shakir D Alsharari, Deniz Bagdas, Hamid I Akbarali, Patraic A Lichtman, Erinn S Raborn, Guy A Cabral, F Ivy Carroll, Elizabeth A McGee, M Imad Damaj
INTRODUCTION: α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to assess the role of α7 nAChRs in DSS-induced colitis in male and female mouse. We first compared disease activity and pathogenesis of colitis in α7 knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. We then evaluated the effect of several α7 direct and indirect agonists on the severity of disease in the DSS (dextran sodium sulfate)-induced colitis...
September 17, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
M P Guarino, G Barbara, A Cicenia, A Altomare, M R Barbaro, S Cocca, A Scirocco, C Cremon, S Emerenziani, V Stanghellini, M Cicala, C Severi
BACKGROUND: Changes in intestinal motility are likely to contribute to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of IBS mucosal supernatants on human colonic muscle contractility. METHODS: Supernatants were obtained from biopsies of 18 IBS patients-nine with constipation (IBS-C) and nine with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D)-and nine asymptomatic subjects, used as controls. Colonic circular smooth muscle strips or isolated cells (SMC) were exposed to control or IBS supernatants...
September 12, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
S-H Tang, H-Y Wang, H Sun, N An, L Xiao, Q Sun, D-B Zhao
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a widely used intravenous general anesthetic. Acetylcholine (ACh) is critical in controlling epithelial ion transport. This study was to investigate the effects of propofol on ACh-evoked secretion in rat ileum epithelium. METHODS: The Ussing chamber technique was used to investigate the effects of propofol on carbachol (CCh)-evoked short-circuit currents (Isc). KEY RESULTS: Propofol (10(-2) -10(-6)  mol/L) attenuated CCh-evoked Isc of rat ileum mucosa in a dose-dependent manner...
August 30, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Toshio Takahashi
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter that is present in central, parasympathetic, and neuromuscular synapses of mammals. However, non-neuronal ACh is also predicted to function as a local cell signaling molecule. The physiological significance of the presence of non-neuronal ACh in the intestine remains unclear. Here, experiments using cultured crypt-villus organoids that lack nerve and immune cells led us to suggest that endogenous ACh is synthesized in the intestinal epithelium to evoke growth and differentiation of the organoids through activation of muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs)...
August 19, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
A A Sheptulin, I B Belousova
The importance of prokinetics (drugs stimulating motor function of the gastrointestinal tract) arises from the high prevalence of gastroenterological pathology associated with primary or secondary disturbances of this function in esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The main groups of prokinetics are beta-blockers of dopamine receptors, inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase (or their combination with dopamine receptor blockers), 5-HT4-receptor agonists. They find wide application for the treatment of gastroesophgeal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia and constipation, obstipational form of irritable bowel syndrome, and other conditions accompanied by motor function disorders of the gastrointestinal tract...
2016: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
S C Gominak
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D blood levels of 60-80ng/ml promote normal sleep. The present study was undertaken to explore why this beneficial effect waned after 2years as arthritic pain increased. Pantothenic acid becomes coenzyme A, a cofactor necessary for cortisol and acetylcholine production. 1950s experiments suggested a connection between pantothenic acid deficiency, autoimmune arthritis and insomnia. The B vitamins have been shown to have an intestinal bacterial source and a food source, suggesting that the normal intestinal microbiome may have always been the primary source of B vitamins...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Shobhit Dhawan, Giada De Palma, Rose A Willemze, Francisca Hilbers, Caroline Verseijden, Misha Luyer, Sabine Nuding, Jan Wehkamp, Yuri Souwer, Esther C de Jong, Jurgen Seppen, Rene Mjgj van den Wijngaard, Sven Wehner, Elena F Verdu, Premysl Bercik, Wouter J de Jonge
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduces systemic TNF via acetylcholine producing memory T-cells in the spleen. These choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expressing T-cells are also found in the intestine, where their function is unclear. We aimed to characterize these cells in mouse and human intestine and delineate their function. We made use of the ChAT-eGFP reporter mice. CD4Cre mice were crossed to ChATfl/fl mice to achieve specific deletion of ChAT in CD4+ T-cells. We observed that the majority of ChAT expressing T-cells in the human and mouse intestine have characteristics of Th17 cells, and co-express IL17A, IL22 and RORC...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Linda Vignozzi, Annamaria Morelli, Ilaria Cellai, Sandra Filippi, Paolo Comeglio, Erica Sarchielli, Elena Maneschi, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Luciano Adorini, Mario Maggi
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation by obeticholic acid (OCA) has been demonstrated to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis development and even induce fibrosis regression in liver, kidney and intestine in multiple disease models. OCA also inhibits liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients. FXR activation has also been demonstrated to suppress the inflammatory response and to promote lung repair after lung injury. This study investigated the effects of OCA treatment (3, 10 or 30mg/kg, daily for 5days a week, for 7 and/or 28 days) on inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis in the monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rat model...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sarah Moreno, Stefanie Gerbig, Sabine Schulz, Bernhard Spengler, Martin Diener, Sandra Bader
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The colonic surface epithelium produces acetylcholine, released after the binding of propionate to GPCRs for this short-chain fatty acid (SCFA). This epithelial acetylcholine then induces anion secretion via stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. The key enzyme responsible for acetylcholine synthesis, choline acetyltransferase, is known to be unselective as regards the fatty acid used for esterification of choline. As the colonic epithelium is permanently exposed to high concentrations of different SCFAs produced by bacterial fermentation, we investigated whether choline esters other than acetylcholine, propionylcholine and butyrylcholine, are produced by the colonic epithelium, too, and whether these 'atypical' esters are able to stimulate the acetylcholine receptors involved in the regulation of colonic ion transport...
September 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
A Dudek, W Sienkiewicz, A Chrószcz, M Janeczek, J Kaleczyc
Immunohistochemical properties of nerve fibres supplying the joint capsule were previously described in many mammalian species, but the localization of sensory neurons supplying this structure was studied only in laboratory animals, the rat and rabbit. However, there is no comprehensive data on the chemical coding of sensory neurons projecting to the hip joint capsule (HJC). The aim of this study was to establish immunohistochemical properties of sensory neurons supplying HJC in the sheep. The study was carried out on 10 sheep, weighing about 30-40 kg...
June 28, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Maddalena Botti, Luisa Ragionieri, Antonio Cacchioli, Rino Panu, Ferdinando Gazza
Retrograde neuronal tracing and single labelling immunofluorescence methods were used to define the neurochemical content of the peripheral autonomic and sensitive neurons projecting to the male pig striated bulbospongiosus muscle (BSM). The retrograde fluorescent neuronal tracer Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the left bulbospongiosus muscle of four intact impuberal pigs. After a 10-day survival time, the ipsilateral sacral sympathetic trunk ganglia (STGs), the caudal mesenteric ganglion (CMG), and the sacral spinal ganglia (SGs) were collected from each animal...
September 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Xi Ling, Hong Zhang, Xi-qin Yi, Jin-feng Wu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the relatively specific effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Xiajuxu" (ST 39, the lower hesea paint of the small intestine), etc. on the level of serum TNF-alpha, lnterleukin-1 P (IL-1 P) and high mobility group protein B 1 (HMGB 1) contents, and duodenum a7 nicotinic acetyicholine receptor (nAchR) expression in duodenal ulcer rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improving duodenal ulcer. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control, model, Xiajuxu (ST 39), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37) and Yanglingquan (GB 34)...
April 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Hironobu Nishijima, Kenji Kondo, Makiko Toma-Hirano, Shinichi Iwasaki, Shu Kikuta, Chisato Fujimoto, Rumi Ueha, Ryoji Kagoya, Tatsuya Yamasoba
The posterior nasal nerve is the dominant source of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory fibers that innervate the nasal respiratory mucosa. Therefore, a posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) is thought to induce denervation of the nasal mucosa and relieve the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic action of PNN remain unknown. To investigate the impact of PNN-induced denervation of the nasal mucosa on allergic rhinitis, we developed a rat model of PNN and examined the effects of PNN on allergic rhinitis in ovalbumin-sensitized rats...
September 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Sara Chowdhury, Songyan Wang, Judit Dunai, Rachel Kilpatrick, Lauren Z Oestricker, Michael J Wallendorf, Bruce W Patterson, Dominic N Reeds, Burton M Wice
UNLABELLED: Peripheral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors regulate insulin and glucagon release in rodents but their importance for similar roles in humans is unclear. Bethanechol, an acetylcholine analogue that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, was used to examine the role of peripheral muscarinic signaling on glucose homeostasis in humans with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 10), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 11), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 9). Subjects received four liquid meal tolerance tests, each with a different dose of oral bethanechol (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg) given 60 min before a meal containing acetaminophen...
2016: PloS One
Melanie Abongwa, Samuel K Buxton, Elise Courtot, Claude L Charvet, Cédric Neveu, Ciaran J McCoy, Saurabh Verma, Alan P Robertson, Richard J Martin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Control of nematode parasite infections relies largely on anthelmintic drugs, several of which act on nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), and there are concerns about the development of resistance. There is an urgent need for development of new compounds to overcome resistance and novel anthelmintic drug targets. We describe the functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a homomeric nAChR, ACR-16, from a nematode parasite. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using RT-PCR, molecular cloning and two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology, we localized acr-16 mRNA in Ascaris suum (Asu) and then cloned and expressed acr-16 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes...
August 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Katharina Neumaier, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Timo Wille
Bispyridinium non-oximes seem to be promising candidates for the generic treatment of nerve agent poisoning as they interact with nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The lead compound MB327 showed therapeutic effectiveness in vitro and in vivo but was toxic at higher doses. In the present study, the effect of various bispyridinium non-oximes on isolated heart and small intestine function was investigated. Bispyridinium non-oximes and oximes were tested in at least seven different concentrations in rat jejunum preparations pre-treated with carbachol...
September 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
S Di Tommaso, C Cavallotti, A Malvasi, D Vergara, A Rizzello, F De Nuccio, A Tinelli
Human female reproductive system is closely dependent by hormonal stimulation. Anyway it is now commonly stated that autonomic innervation system regulates, along with hormonal stimulation, the uterine physiology. Cholinergic and adrenergic innervations have a critical role in mediating input to the uterus, but other neurotransmitters and neuropeptides exist that influence uterine physiology, as well. In the present investigation, we analyzed the uterine distribution of a large set of neurotransmitters, focusing on adrenergic, noradredenergic, acetylcholine (AChE) positive, dopaminergic, serotoninergic and peptidergic neurofibers; among these latter, we focused on those releasing prolattine, enkephalines (ENKs), Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP), substance P (SP) and oxytocine...
March 29, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Masako Yajima, Shunsuke Kimura, Shinichiro Karaki, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Takeshi Tsuruta, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Takaji Yajima, Toshihiko Iwanaga
Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice...
April 2016: Physiological Reports
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