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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672286/activated-%C3%AE-7nachr-improves-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-intestinal-injury-induced-by-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-rats-inhibition-of-the-proinflammatory-response-through-the-th17-immune-response
#1
Keyan Chen, YingJie Sun, Wanwei Dong, Tiezheng Zhang, Nan Zhou, Weiwei Yu, Yugang Diao, Shanbin Guo, Yue Tian
Backgrund/Aims: To investigate the effects of activated α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and intestinal injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and its relationship with the Th17 response in order to provide a theoretical basis for organ protection and targeted drug therapy during the perioperative period. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rat models of CPB were established. Rat intestinal and brain injuries were observed after CPB using hematoxylin and eosin staining...
April 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660616/intestinal-damage-neurotoxicity-and-biochemical-responses-caused-by-tris-2-chloroethyl-phosphate-and-tricresyl-phosphate-on-earthworm
#2
Yang Yang, Yao Xiao, Yeqian Chang, Yibin Cui, Göran Klobučar, Mei Li
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) draw growing concern about characterizing the potential risk on environmental health due to its wide usage and distribution. Two typical types of organophosphate esters (OPEs): tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tricresyl phosphate (TCP) were selected to evaluate toxicity of OPEs to the soil organism like earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Histopathological examination (H&E), oxidative stress, DNA damage and RT-qPCR was used to identify the effects and potential mechanism of their toxicity...
April 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621360/the-combination-of-cassia-obtusifolia-l-and-foeniculum-vulgare-m-exhibits-a-laxative-effect-on-loperamide-induced-constipation-of-rats
#3
Seung Hee Jang, Dong Kwon Yang
Chronic constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disease that is detrimental to the quality of patient life. Cassia obtusifolia L. (CO) and Foeniculum vulgare M. (FV) are commonly used as medicinal foods in many countries. We aimed to examine the laxative effect and their underlying mechanism of CO and FV mixture on loperamide (lop)-induced constipated rats. To determine the laxative effects of these compounds, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: the control, lop-induced constipated (2mg/kg), and three doses (100, 300, and 500mg/kg) of CO and FV mixture-, and Bisacodyl (bis, 3...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616040/cholinergic-activation-enhances-resistance-to-oral-salmonella-infection-by-modulating-innate-immune-defense-mechanisms-at-the-intestinal-barrier
#4
Ray M Al-Barazie, Ghada Hassan Bashir, Mohammed M Qureshi, Yassir A Mohamed, Ashraf Al-Sbiei, Saeed Tariq, Wim J Lammers, Basel K Al-Ramadi, Maria J Fernandez-Cabezudo
Inflammation is a crucial defense mechanism that protects the body from the devastating effects of invading pathogens. However, an unrestrained inflammatory reaction may result in systemic manifestations with dire consequences to the host. The extent of activation of the inflammatory response is tightly regulated through immunological and neural pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation confers enhanced protection in experimental animals orally infected with virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577965/bisphenol-a-induced-changes-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-duodenum
#5
Kamila Szymanska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound from the phenolic group commonly used for the production of plastics. The use of BPA in food and drinking water containers carries a significant risk to human health since BPA can be washed out and enter consumables. BPA entering the human body with food shows a multi-directional effect and causes disorders in the functioning of many systems and organs. There is no current knowledge about the effects of BPA on the enteric nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to verify the influence of BPA on tolerable daily intake (TDI) dose (0...
March 22, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570391/deletion-of-choline-acetyltransferase-in-enteric-neurons-results-in-postnatal-intestinal-dysmotility-and-dysbiosis
#6
Carl D Johnson, Amanda J Barlow-Anacker, Joseph F Pierre, Ketrija Touw, Christopher S Erickson, John B Furness, Miles L Epstein, Ankush Gosain
Acetylcholine (ACh)-synthesizing neurons are major components of the enteric nervous system (ENS). They release ACh and peptidergic neurotransmitters onto enteric neurons and muscle. However, pharmacological interrogation has proven inadequate to demonstrate an essential role for ACh. Our objective was to determine whether elimination of ACh synthesis during embryogenesis alters prenatal viability, intestinal function, the neurotransmitter complement, and the microbiome. Conditional deletion of choline acetyltransferase ( ChAT), the ACh synthetic enzyme, in neural crest-derived neurons ( ChAT-Null) was performed...
March 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558425/the-influence-of-high-and-low-doses-of-bisphenol-a-bpa-on-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-ileum
#7
Kamila Szymanska, Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day) and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), was studied by the double immunofluorescence method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510587/the-coordinated-activities-of-nachr-and-wnt-signaling-regulate-intestinal-stem-cell-function-in-mice
#8
Toshio Takahashi, Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata
Cholinergic signaling, which modulates cell activities via nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (n- and mAChRs) in response to internal or external stimuli, has been demonstrated in mammalian non-neuronal cells that synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). One of the major pathways of excitatory transmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is mediated by cholinergic transmission, with the transmitter ACh producing excitatory potentials in postsynaptic effector cells. In addition to ACh-synthesizing and ACh-metabolizing elements in the ENS, the presence of non-neuronal ACh machinery has been reported in epithelial cells of the small and large intestines of rats and humans...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473027/morphology-and-function-of-the-lamb-ileum-following-preterm-birth
#9
Tracey J Flores, Vivian B Nguyen, Robert E Widdop, Megan R Sutherland, Graeme R Polglase, Helen E Abud, Mary Jane Black
Background: For infants born moderately/late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation), immaturity of the intestine has the potential to impact both short- and long-term gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study conducted in sheep was to compare the morphology and smooth muscle contractility of the ileum in term and late preterm lambs. Materials and methods: Lambs delivered preterm (132 days gestation; n  = 7) or term (147 days gestation; n  = 9) were milk-fed after birth and euthanased at 2 days of age...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439512/the-influence-of-inflammation-and-nerve-damage-on-the-neurochemical-characterization-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#10
Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS), localized in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, regulates the functions of the intestine using a wide range of neuronally-active substances. One of them is the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whose participation in pathological states in the large intestine remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inflammation and nerve damage using a double immunofluorescence technique to neurochemically characterize CGRP-positive enteric nervous structures in the porcine descending colon...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325915/in-vivo-nonspecific-immunomodulatory-and-antispasmodic-effects-of-common-purslane-portulaca-oleracea-linn-leaf-extracts-in-icr-mice
#11
Elena S Catap, Markyn Jared L Kho, Maria Rexie R Jimenez
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Portulaca oleracea (common purslane) is used in traditional medicine to cure various illnesses. However, its immune-protective properties and antispasmodic effects still need more pharmacological data if the plant will be utilized in herbal and drug formulations. Therefore, the present study determined the capacity of this plant species to modulate nonspecific immune responses and to confirm its antispasmodic activity in vivo in ICR mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage, splenic lymphocyte proliferation and plasma lysozyme levels were measured in mice that were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide and treated with the ethyl acetate extract of Portulaca oleracea...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305058/altered-gastrointestinal-motility-in-an-animal-model-of-lesch-nyhan-disease
#12
Maria G Zizzo, Monica Frinchi, Domenico Nuzzo, Hyder A Jinnah, Giuseppa Mudò, Daniele F Condorelli, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio, Flavia Mulè, Natale Belluardo, Rosa Serio
Mutations in the HGPRT1 gene, which encodes hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), housekeeping enzyme responsible for recycling purines, lead to Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). Clinical expression of LND indicates that HGprt deficiency has adverse effects on gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate intestinal motility in HGprt knockout mice (HGprt¯). Spontaneous and neurally evoked mechanical activity was recorded in vitro as changes in isometric tension in circular muscle strips of distal colon...
March 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299689/segmental-differences-in-the-non-neuronal-cholinergic-system-in-rat-caecum
#13
Sandra Bader, Martin Diener
Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter but is also produced by several non-neuronal cell types with barrier or defence function. One of the non-neuronal tissues with expression of the key enzyme for production of acetylcholine, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), is the colonic surface epithelium, which releases acetylcholine after contact with the short-chain fatty acid propionate produced physiologically in the colonic lumen during the microbial fermentation of carbohydrates. Despite the fact that the caecum is the largest fermentation chamber in non-ruminant mammals, nothing is known about the expression and function of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in this part of the large intestine, which was addressed in the present study...
April 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288022/variable-expression-of-gfp-in-different-populations-of-peripheral-cholinergic-neurons-of-chat-bac-egfp-transgenic-mice
#14
T Christopher Brown, Cherie E Bond, Donald B Hoover
Immunohistochemistry is used widely to identify cholinergic neurons, but this approach has some limitations. To address these problems, investigators developed transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) directed by the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme. Although, it was reported that these mice express GFP in all cholinergic neurons and non-neuronal cholinergic cells, we could not detect GFP in cardiac cholinergic nerves in preliminary experiments...
March 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251668/perioperative-fluid-accumulation-impairs-intestinal-contractility-to-a-smilar-extent-as-peritonitis-and-endotoxemia
#15
José Gorrasi, Stephan M Jakob, Luis Tovar, Bruno Balsiger, Sebastian Brandt, Lukas E Bruegger, Hendrik Bracht, Jukka Takala
BACKGROUND: Perioperative resuscitation with large amounts of fluid may cause tissue edema, especially in the gut, and thereby impair its functions. This is especially relevant in sepsis where capillaries become leaky and fluid rapidly escapes to the pericapillary tissue. We assessed the effects of endotoxemia and peritonitis, and the use of high and moderate volume fluid resuscitation on jejunal contractility. We hypothesized that both endotoxemia and peritonitis impair jejunum contractility and relaxation, and that this effect is aggravated in peritonitis and with high fluid administration...
December 14, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243034/application-of-pyridostigmine-in-pediatric-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-a-case-series
#16
Mhd Louai Manini, Michael Camilleri, Rayna Grothe, Carlo Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are common in children. Treatment is challenging with limited medical and surgical options. Pyridostigmine, an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor, increases acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction promoting intestinal contractions. Little is known about the role and dosing of pyridostigmine in pediatric GI motility disorders. METHODS: We present a case series of children with GI dysmotility managed with oral pyridostigmine...
April 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242169/c-60-fullerenes-disrupt-cellular-signalling-leading-to-trpc4-and-trpc6-channels-opening-by-the-activation-of-muscarinic-receptors-and-g-proteins-in-small-intestinal-smooth-muscles
#17
Dariia O Dryn, Mariia I Melnyk, Lina T Al Kury, Yuriy I Prylutskyy, Uwe Ritter, Alexander V Zholos
The effect of water-soluble pristine C60 fullerene nanoparticles (C60 NPs) on receptor-operated cation channels formed by TRPC4/C6 proteins in ileal smooth muscle cells was investigated for the first time. Activation of these channels subsequent to acetylcholine binding to the expressed in these cells M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors represents the key event in the parasympathetic control of gastrointestinal smooth muscle motility and cholinergic excitation-contraction coupling. Experiments were performed on single collagenase-dispersed mouse ileal myocytes using patch-clamp techniques with symmetrical 125mM Cs+ solutions and [Ca2+ ]i 'clamped' at 100nM in order to isolate the muscarinic cation current (mICAT )...
March 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198958/inhalation-anaesthetic-isoflurane-inhibits-the-muscarinic-cation-current-and-carbachol-induced-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-contractions
#18
Dariia Dryn, Jialie Luo, Mariia Melnyk, Alexander Zholos, Hongzhen Hu
Gastrointestinal tract motility may be demoted significantly after surgery operations at least in part due to anaesthetic agents, but there is no comprehensive explanation of the molecular mechanism(s) of such adverse effects. Anesthetics are known to interact with various receptors and ion channels including several subtypes of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Two members of the canonical subfamily of TRP channels (TRPC), TRPC4 and TRPC6 are Ca2+ -permeable cation channels involved in visceral smooth muscle contractility induced by acetylcholine, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the gut...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193823/striated-perineal-muscles-location-of-somatic-and-autonomic-neurons-projecting-to-the-male-pig-ischiocavernous-muscle-neurochemical-features-of-the-sympathetic-subset
#19
Maddalena Botti, Luisa Ragionieri, Antonio Cacchioli, Rino Panu, Ferdinando Gazza
The location, number and size of the central and peripheral neurons innervating the ischiocavernous muscle (ICM) were studied in male pigs by means of Fast Blue (FB) retrograde neuronal tracing. Moreover the immunohistochemical properties of the sympathetic ganglia were investigated combining the double immunolabeling method. After injection of FB into the left ICM, a mean number of 245.3 ± 134.9 labeled neurons were found in the ipsilateral ventral horn of the S1-S3 segments of the spinal cord (SC), 129...
November 29, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074396/translocation-and-dissemination-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-from-the-intestinal-tract
#20
Yukako Fujinaga, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent toxins which induce flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. They associate with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs or NAPs) to form complexes of various sizes which are resistant to acidic pH and protease degradation. BoNT trafficking from the digestive tract to the target neurons is still a matter of debate. BoNTs use different strategies to pass through the intestinal barrier including passage of BoNT complexes containing hemagglutinins (HAs) via M cells, HA-dependent perturbation of E-cadherin intercellular junctions between enterocytes and paracellular passage of BoNT complexes, and transcytosis of BoNT free of NAPs through certain intestinal epithelial cells...
October 23, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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