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Occupational science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728349/occupational-risk-factors-among-iranian-farmworkers-a-review-of-the-available-evidence
#1
Mahin Ghafari, Zahra Cheraghi, Amin Doosti-Irani
Objectives: Farming is one of the most important components of most economies. There is not a comprehensive picture of the health status and work-related hazards among Iranian farmers. We aimed to determine the gaps in the current knowledge regarding the occupational health of Iranian farmworkers. Methods: Electronic databases including Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase, as well as national databases including the Scientific Information Database, MagIran, and Barakat Knowledge System, were searched for articles published until March 2017...
July 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726028/should-we-all-be-scientists-re-thinking-laboratory-research-as-a-calling
#2
Louise Bezuidenhout, Nathaniel A Warne
In recent years there have been major shifts in how the role of science-and scientists-are understood. The critical examination of scientific expertise within the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) are increasingly eroding notions of the "otherness" of scientists. It would seem to suggest that anyone can be a scientist-when provided with the appropriate training and access to data. In contrast, however, ethnographic evidence from the scientific community tells a different story. Scientists are quick to recognize that not everyone can-or should-be a scientist...
July 19, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721691/occupational-therapy-for-adults-with-problems-in-activities-of-daily-living-after-stroke
#3
REVIEW
Lynn A Legg, Sharon R Lewis, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Avril Drummond, Peter Langhorne
BACKGROUND: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Activities of daily living (ADL) are daily home-based activities that people carry out to maintain health and well-being. ADLs include the ability to: eat and drink unassisted, move, go to the toilet, carry out personal hygiene tasks, dress unassisted, and groom. Stroke causes impairment-related functional limitations that may result in difficulties participating in ADLs independent of supervision, direction, or physical assistance...
July 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717334/osteoporosis-knowledge-among-future-healthcare-practitioners-findings-from-a-malaysian-public-university
#4
Mohamed Hassan Elnaem, Shazia Qasim Jamshed, Ramadan Mohamed Elkalmi, Muhammad Farhan Baharuddin, Muhammad Afif Johari, Nur Ashikin Binti Ab Aziz, Siti Farhanah Binti Ahmad Sabri, Nur Akmal Binti Ismail
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Students in relevant health-care academic programs are the future professionals who should play an active role in increasing community awareness regarding chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. This research aimed to evaluate the knowledge of osteoporosis, one of the growing health-care burdens in Malaysia, among students belong to three different health occupations programs in a Malaysian University. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess the level of knowledge on osteoporosis and to explore the potential association between the study program and osteoporosis-related knowledge among medicine, pharmacy, and allied health sciences students in a Malaysian University...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713295/women-s-reasons-for-leaving-the-engineering-field
#5
Nadya A Fouad, Wen-Hsin Chang, Min Wan, Romila Singh
Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711721/-supporting-nursing-midwifery-and-allied-health-professional-students-to-raise-concerns-with-the-quality-of-care-a-review-of-the-research-literature
#6
REVIEW
Frank Milligan, Mark Wareing, Michael Preston-Shoot, Yannis Pappas, Gurch Randhawa, Janine Bhandol
BACKGROUND: This article reports aspects of a systematic literature review commissioned by the UK Council of Deans of Health. The review collated and analysed UK and international literature on pre-registration healthcare students raising concerns with poor quality care. The research found in that review is summarised here. OBJECTIVE: To review research on healthcare students raising concerns with regard to the quality of practice published from 2009 to the present...
June 23, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710211/occupational-risk-for-legionella-infection-among-dental-healthcare-workers-meta-analysis-in-occupational-epidemiology
#7
Stefano Petti, Matteo Vitali
OBJECTIVE: The occupational risk for Legionella infection among dental healthcare workers (DHCWs) is conjectured because of the risk of routine inhalation of potentially contaminated aerosols produced by the dental instruments. Nevertheless, occupational epidemiology studies are contrasting. This meta-analysis assessed the level of scientific evidence regarding the relative occupational risk for Legionella infection among DHCWs. METHODS: Literature search was performed without time and language restrictions, using broad data banks (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, GOOGLE Scholar) and generic keywords ('legionella' AND 'dent*')...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705295/strength-training-for-women-as-a-vehicle-for-health-promotion-at-work
#8
Kai Nestler, Alexander Witzki, Ulrich Rohde, Thomas Rüther, Kim Alexander Tofaute, Dieter Leyk
BACKGROUND: Women, on average, have less muscle strength than men. This anthropometric-physiological trait may make them more vulnerable to ex - cessive physical strain, injury, and inability to work. Strength training is used for preventive health maintenance and to lessen musculoskeletal symptoms. In this context, we studied whether the degree of muscle strength has any effect on women's health in everyday working life, and also the effects of strength training for women on their health in the workplace...
June 30, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693406/assessment-of-the-road-safety-performance-of-four-roundabouts-in-kumasi-ghana
#9
Shaibu Bawa, James Damsere-Derry
Upgrade of the Ejisu-Kumasi section of the N6 saw the construction of roundabouts at selected intersections. Their use appears challenging particularly for vehicles with elevated Centre-of-Gravity. The objective of this study was to establish the relative risk of traffic accident deaths or hospitalized injuries at the roundabouts. Five-year crash data covering a 100 m stretch upstream and downstream of the roundabouts were analysed. A total of 119 crashes occurred with 18% casualty hospitalization and 12%fatalities...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685503/interventions-to-prevent-occupational-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#10
REVIEW
Christina Tikka, Jos H Verbeek, Erik Kateman, Thais C Morata, Wouter A Dreschler, Silvia Ferrite
BACKGROUND: This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or occupational hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions...
July 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685368/community-based-participatory-research-for-the-study-of-air-pollution-a-review-of-motivations-approaches-and-outcomes
#11
Adwoa Commodore, Sacoby Wilson, Omar Muhammad, Erik Svendsen, John Pearce
Neighborhood level air pollution represents a long-standing issue for many communities that, until recently, has been difficult to address due to the cost of equipment and lack of related expertise. Changes in available technology and subsequent increases in community-based participatory research (CBPR) have drastically improved the ability to address this issue. However, much still needs to be learned as these types of studies are expected to increase in the future. To assist, we review the literature in an effort to improve understanding of the motivations, approaches, and outcomes of air monitoring studies that incorporate CBPR and citizen science (CS) principles...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670410/a-multidisciplinary-workplace-intervention-for-chronic-low-back-pain-among-nursing-assistants-in-iran
#12
Sarallah Shojaei, Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian, Ahmad Reza Jamshidi, Joan Wagner
STUDY DESIGN: Interventional research with a 6-month follow-up period. PURPOSE: We aimed to establish the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary workplace intervention on reduction of work-related low back pain (WRLBP), using ergonomic posture training coupled with an educational program based on social cognitive theory. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: WRLBP is a major occupational problem among healthcare workers, who are often required to lift heavy loads...
June 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666814/national-incidence-of-traumatic-fractures-in-china-a-retrospective-survey-of-512%C3%A2-187-individuals
#13
Wei Chen, Hongzhi Lv, Song Liu, Bo Liu, Yanbin Zhu, Xiao Chen, Guang Yang, Lei Liu, Tao Zhang, Haili Wang, Bing Yin, Jialiang Guo, Xiaolin Zhang, Yichong Li, Derek Smith, Pan Hu, Jiayuan Sun, Yingze Zhang
BACKGROUND: Traumatic fractures place a substantial burden on health-care systems worldwide. Although detailed information about incidence, distribution, and risk factors for traumatic fractures is vital for planning and prevention, in China, national data are unavailable. We aimed to do an up-to-date national survey on the population-weighted incidence of traumatic fractures in China. METHODS: The China National Fracture Study (CNFS) was a retrospective epidemiological study that recruited a nationally representative sample from eight provinces, 24 urban cities, and 24 rural counties in China using stratified random sampling and the probability proportional to size method...
June 27, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662748/institutional-oversight-of-occupational-health-and-safety-for-research-programs-involving-biohazards
#14
Melissa C Dyson, Calvin B Carpenter, Lesley A Colby
Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The field of microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take appropriate steps to mitigate the risks of working with these biologic hazards...
June 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659025/respite-in-dementia-an-evolutionary-concept-analysis
#15
Emma O' Shea, Suzanne Timmons, Eamon O' Shea, Siobhan Fox, Kate Irving
Aim There is a lack of conceptual clarity around 'respite' as it relates to people with dementia and their carers. This study provides clarification on the use and meaning of the term and considers the concept in relation to the dominant care paradigm in dementia, i.e. person-centred care. Methods Rodgers' (1989) evolutionary framework was employed. A systematic search was conducted on the Pubmed/MedLine, Embase, Cinahl, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane databases (1980-2016, English) with fixed search terms relating to 'respite' and 'dementia'...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658854/marital-intimacy-and-predictive-factors-among-infertile-women-in-northern-iran
#16
Hajar Pasha, Zahra Basirat, Sedigheh Esmailzadeh, Mahbobeh Faramarzi, Hajar Adibrad
INTRODUCTION: Infertility is a stressful state that may decrease attachment between spouses. Marital intimacy is a real need in infertile women. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate marital intimacy and predictive factors among infertile women in Northern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Center of Babol Medical Sciences University in 2014. A total of 221 infertile women participated in this study...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656731/occupational-skin-diseases-actual-state-analysis-of-patient-management-pathways-in-28-european-countries
#17
V Mahler, K Aalto-Korte, J H Alfonso, J G Bakker, A Bauer, L Bensefa-Colas, A Boman, J Bourke, M Bubaš, P Bulat, J Chaloupka, L Constandt, T E Danielsen, R Darlenski, A Dugonik, K Ettler, A Gimenez-Arnau, M Gonçalo, J D Johansen, S M John, M Kiec-Swierczynska, P Koch, V Kohánka, B Krecisz, F Larese Filon, S Ljubojević, J Macan, B Marinović, M Matura, P W Mihatsch, D Mijakoski, J Minov, J Pace, M Pesonen, J M Ramada Rodilla, H Rast, V Reljic, C Salavastru, C Schuster, M L Schuttelaar, D Simon, R Spiewak, R Jurakic Tončić, S Urbanček, S Valiukevičienė, P Weinert, M Wilkinson, W Uter
BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation in different European countries...
June 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652913/evaluation-of-immunization-coverage-and-its-associated-factors-among-children-12-23-months-of-age-in-techiman-municipality-ghana-2016
#18
Martin Nyaaba Adokiya, Benjamin Baguune, Joyce Aputere Ndago
BACKGROUND: In Ghana, Expanded Programme on Immunization administrative coverages are usually high while childhood immunization status remains low. Majority of children do not receive all the recommended 7 vaccines in 15 doses before 1 year of age. Surveys to validate administrative coverages and identify predictors of immunization status are not given the desired attention. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12-23 months in Techiman Municipality, Ghana...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651415/-investigation-of-burn-rehabilitation-development-of-china-in-2014
#19
M Ao, J Wu, J Chen
Objective: To further study the development of burn rehabilitation in China, so as to promote the development of burn rehabilitation in China. Methods: The questionnaire about the development of burn rehabilitation treatment was started by Specialized Committee of Burn Treatment and Rehabilitation Science of Chinese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine (hereinafter referred to as Specialized Committee) in the end of 2014, and 65 affiliations of Specialized Committee members participated in. There was a total of 26 questions, mainly focusing on problems as below: (1) General information of the burn department of the units, including the number of authorized beds, annual admitted burn patients, annual admitted patients with extremely severe burn, doctors, nurses, rehabilitation therapists, and the condition of rehabilitation area and rehabilitation beds, etc...
May 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639806/math-related-career-aspirations-and-choices-within-eccles-et-al-s-expectancy-value-theory-of-achievement-related-behaviors
#20
Fani Lauermann, Yi-Miau Tsai, Jacquelynne S Eccles
Which occupation to pursue is one of the more consequential decisions people make and represents a key developmental task. Yet the underlying developmental processes associated with either individual or group differences in occupational choices are still not well understood. This study contributes toward filling this gap, focusing in particular on the math domain. We examined two aspects of Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value theory of achievement-related behaviors: (a) the reciprocal associations between adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs and adolescents' career plans and (b) the multiplicative association between expectancies and values in predicting occupational outcomes in the math domain...
June 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
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