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Occupational science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535398/nurses-occupational-physical-activity-levels-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Stephanie E Chappel, Simone J J M Verswijveren, Brad Aisbett, Julie Considine, Nicola D Ridgers
BACKGROUND: Nurses' physical performance at work has implications both for nurses' occupational health and patient care. Although nurses are the largest healthcare workforce, are present 24-hours a day, and engage in many physically demanding tasks, nurses' occupational physical activity levels are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to examine nurses' occupational physical activity levels, and explore how nurses accumulate their physical activity during a shift...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528878/occupational-prognosis-factors-for-ulnar-nerve-entrapment-at-the-elbow-a-systematic-review
#2
M Fadel, R Lancigu, G Raimbeau, Y Roquelaure, A Descatha
Although ulnar nerve entrapment is the second most common entrapment neuropathy, there is a dearth of studies identifying occupational prognosis factors. We carried out a systematic review of the occupational prognosis factors for ulnar nerve entrapment in order to identify professions at risks and allow better follow-up for their workers. Using the key words, "ulnar OR cubital", "neuropathy OR tunnel", and "work OR occupational" without limitations, original prospective studies were selected from four databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) after two rounds (valid design, valid prognosis outcome reported, valid work exposure)...
May 18, 2017: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527235/implementing-the-icf-in-occupational-health-building-a-curriculum-as-an-exemplary-case
#3
C P M de Brouwer, L G P M van Amelsvoort, Y F Heerkens, G A M Widdershoven, I J Kant
BACKGROUND: This paper addresses the need for a paradigm shift from post-diagnosis tertiary care towards maintenance and promotion of health across the lifespan, for healthcare in general and in occupational healthcare specifically. It is based on the assumption that the realization of this paradigm shift may be facilitated by teaching (future) occupational health professionals to use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). OBJECTIVE: Describing the development of a an ICF based occupational health curriculum...
May 17, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524743/nanoparticle-exposures-from-nano-enabled-toner-based-printing-equipment-and-human-health-state-of-science-and-future-research-needs
#4
Sandra Vanessa Pirela, John Martin, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Toner formulations used by laser printers (LP) and photocopiers (PC), collectively called "toner-based printing equipment" (TPE), are nano-enabled products (NEP) because they contain several engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that improve toner performance. It has been shown that during consumer use (printing), these ENM are released in the air, together with other semi-volatile organic nanoparticles, and newly formed gaseous co-pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOC). The aim of this review is to detail and analyze physico-chemical and morphological (PCM), as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from TPE...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521724/hiv-risk-behavior-and-prevention-considerations-among-military-personnel-in-three-caribbean-region-countries-belize-barbados-and-the-dominican-republic
#5
Nakisa Asefnia, Lisa Cowan, Rose Werth
We review research findings and the limitations of recent qualitative and quantitative studies of HIV prevalence and risk behaviors in military populations in three Caribbean countries (Dominican Republic, Belize, and Barbados). This research shows how mental health issues, disordered substance use, and structuring aspects of the occupational field produce and reproduce patterns of risk behaviors. We discuss the use of formative research, the Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention framework, and the use of implementation science (including research methods that employ alternative methodological assumptions to better elucidate both cultural nuances and unknown components of program impact in different military populations) as a means to tailor individual prevention strategies to military populations...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516258/-biomarkers-of-internal-exposure-to-toxicologically-relevant-contaminants-in-food
#6
REVIEW
Klaus Abraham, Bernhard Monien, Alfonso Lampen
The assessment of health risks resulting from the intake of genotoxic carcinogens in food depends essentially on a valid exposure assessment. The reliability of the external exposure estimation is restricted by various factors, e. g. inaccurate data from dietary protocols and variations of food contaminant contents. As an alternative, the individual internal exposure to genotoxic substances may be described by specific biomarkers in different matrices. For example, mercapturic acids formed after glutathione conjugation of electrophilic metabolites can be detected in the urine...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513604/exploring-the-statistical-uncertainty-in-acceptable-exposure-limit-values-for-hexavalent-chromium-exposure
#7
Göran Kauermann, Heiko Becher, Verena Maier
Exposure limit values give the exposure level at which an accepted (or acceptable) number of additional work related diseases are expected. The values are derived from dose-response curves and carry a large amount of uncertainty. In this paper we aim to quantify some of this uncertainty with statistical means. We explore the limit value issued by the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) for occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium, CR(VI). We investigate how the dose-response model and statistical estimation variability influences the data-based fixation of exposure limit values...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508785/assessing-the-educational-needs-of-health-information-management-staff-of-the-mashhad-university-of-medical-sciences-iran
#8
Khalil Kimiafar, Abbas Sheikhtaheri, Masoumeh Sarbaz, Masoumeh Hoseini
Health information management (HIM) professionals have a combination of skills and, at the same time, the demand for their skills in the health system is increasing rapidly. This study aimed to assess the educational needs of the HIM staff in Iran. This descriptive analytical study was conducted in eight teaching hospitals. It was found that the maximum educational needs concerned the knowledge of medical terminology, occupational safety, legal aspects, the newest rules and regulations, and ministry guidelines, while the least of the felt needs related to insurance and other aspects of registry, data ownership, and data quality...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508696/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-occupational-therapy-publications
#9
Ted Brown, Sharon A Gutman, Yuh-Shan Ho, Kenneth N K Fong
BACKGROUND: Bibliometrics involves the statistical analysis of the publications in a specific discipline or subject area. A bibliometric analysis of the occupational therapy refereed literature is needed. AIM: A bibliometric analysis was completed of the occupational therapy literature from 1991-2014, indexed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded or the Social Sciences Citation Index. METHOD: Publications were searched by title, abstract, keywords, and KeyWords Plus...
May 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506248/paraquat-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-protocol-according-to-the-ohat-approach-for-hazard-identification
#10
Carolina Vaccari, Regina El Dib, João Lauro V de Camargo
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that has genetic susceptibility, aging, and exposure to certain chemicals as risk factors. In recent decades, epidemiological and experimental studies have investigated the role of pesticides in the development of PD, in particular that of the herbicide paraquat. Here, we, therefore, aim to systematically review the association between paraquat exposure and PD. METHODS: Observational studies (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) eligible for this systematic review will enroll any participant who was occupationally and/or environmentally exposed to paraquat...
May 15, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506009/structural-equation-model-of-interactions-between-risk-factors-and-work-related-musculoskeletal-complaints-among-iranian-hospital-nurses
#11
Semira Mehralizadeh, Alireza Dehdashti, Masoud Motaelebi Kashani
BACKGROUND: Statistics indicate a high risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders among hospital nurses. The challenge is to understand the associations between musculoskeletal symptoms and various individual and occupational risk factors. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the direct and indirect interactions of various risk factors with musculoskeletal complaints in hospital nurses. METHOD: In a cross-sectional design, Iranian hospital nurses from Semnan University of Medical Sciences participated in a questionnaire survey reporting their perceived perceptions of various work-related risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms...
May 6, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505224/muscle-bioenergetic-considerations-for-intrinsic-laryngeal-skeletal-muscle-physiology
#12
Mary J Sandage, Audrey G Smith
Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and introduce bioenergetic physiology as a necessary parameter for theoretical models of laryngeal skeletal muscle function. Method: A comprehensive review of the human intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle physiology literature was conducted...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499003/national-institutes-of-health-research-plan-on-rehabilitation-nih-medical-rehabilitation-coordinating-committee
#13
Ann O'Mara, Julia H Rowland, Thomas N Greenwell, Cheri L Wiggs, Jerome Fleg, Lyndon Joseph, Joan McGowan, James S Panagis, Charles Washabaugh, Grace C Y Peng, Rosalina Bray, Alison N Cernich, Theresa H Cruz, Sue Marden, Mary Ellen Michel, Ralph Nitkin, Louis Quatrano, Catherine Y Spong, Lana Shekim, Teresa L Z Jones, Denise Juliano-Bult, David M Panchinson, Daofen Chen, Lyn Jakeman, Ann Knebel, Lois A Tully, Leighton Chan, Diane Damiano, Biao Tian, Pamela McInnes, Partap Khalsa, Eve Reider, David Shurtleff, William Elwood, Rachel Ballard, Abby G Ershow, Lisa Begg
One in five Americans experiences disability that affects their daily function because of impairments in mobility, cognitive function, sensory impairment, or communication impairment. The need for rehabilitation strategies to optimize function and reduce disability is a clear priority for research to address this public health challenge. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a Research Plan on Rehabilitation that provides a set of priorities to guide the field over the next 5 years. The plan was developed with input from multiple Institutes and Centers within the NIH, the National Advisory Board for Medical Rehabilitation Research, and the public...
April 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494168/uveal-melanoma-risk-factors-a-systematic-review-of-meta-analyses
#14
Taylor Nayman, Cristina Bostan, Patrick Logan, Miguel N Burnier
PURPOSE: There is currently no clinical risk-assessment tool allowing identification of patients at risk for developing uveal melanoma (UM) who might benefit from regular screening. As a first step toward the elaboration of such a tool, we systematically reviewed UM risk factors already established by meta-analysis. METHODS: Two reviewers independently screened Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science from their respective inception dates until July 2016 using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms...
May 11, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490600/something-is-definitely-better-than-nothing-simple-strategies-to-prevent-vascular-dysfunction
#15
Joel D Trinity
Understanding the negative health consequences of a physical inactivity has been the topic of much investigation as an alarming number of adults have adopted a sedentary lifestyle. With the rise in sedentarism the field of inactivity physiology has emerged. The goal of inactivity physiology is to identify the impact in inactivity on health and develop strategies that effectively minimize the risk of a sedentary lifestyle. Arising from this field is the finding that excessive sitting is linked to increased cardiovascular and metabolic disease and all-cause mortality...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482296/is-mercury-exposure-causing-diabetes-metabolic-syndrome-and-insulin-resistance-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Cynthia Roy, Pierre-Yves Tremblay, Pierre Ayotte
INTRODUCTION: Several populations are exposed to mercury (Hg) via their environment, occupation or diet. It is hypothesized that Hg exposure can lead to the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Metabolic syndrome (MS) is also a possible outcome as its symptoms are closely linked to those of DM. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of the literature by screening Web of Science, MEDLINE, SciFinder and Embase and we included original studies pertaining to the relationship of total Hg exposure (elemental, inorganic or organic) to DM, MS or insulin resistance...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481370/employment-outcomes-for-people-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Viviana R Carmona, Juana Gómez-Benito, Tania B Huedo-Medina, J Emilio Rojo
Access to employment plays a critical role in the recovery and functioning of people with schizophrenia. We have investigated the effectiveness of treatments to enhance employment outcomes for people with schizophrenia and evaluated the potential moderators of these outcomes. A literature search was conducted in CINAHL, Cochrane Databases, MEDLINE, ProQuest XML, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science. Grey literature databases, references lists of the retrieved articles and specialized journals in the field were also inspected...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458499/gender-gap-in-science-technology-engineering-and-mathematics-stem-current-knowledge-implications-for-practice-policy-and-future-directions
#18
Ming-Te Wang, Jessica L Degol
Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences in cognitive capacity and motivation are also influenced by broader sociocultural factors. After reviewing research from the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, and education over the past 30 years, we summarize six explanations for US women's underrepresentation in math-intensive STEM fields: (a) cognitive ability, (b) relative cognitive strengths, (c) occupational interests or preferences, (d) lifestyle values or work-family balance preferences, (e) field-specific ability beliefs, and (f) gender-related stereotypes and biases...
March 2017: Educational Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457574/botanists-in-lithuania-during-the-michurinist-campaign
#19
Aurika Ričkienė
The meeting of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) that occurred from July 31 to August 7, 1948, declared Michurinism to be the only "correct theory" of biology in the Soviet Union. As of that moment, Michurinist biology officially took center stage in Soviet scientific institutions, and it was further developed over the next fifteen years. Scientists from all of the former Soviet Republics participated in the Michurinist campaign. In Lithuania, this campaign started in the autumn of 1948...
April 27, 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449199/age-at-onset-and-the-outcomes-of-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Johanna Immonen, Erika Jääskeläinen, Hanna Korpela, Jouko Miettunen
The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of age at onset on the long-term clinical, social and global outcomes of schizophrenia through a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Original studies were searched from Web of Science, PsycINFO, Pubmed and Scopus, as well as manually. Naturalistic studies with at least a 2-year follow-up were included. Of the 3509 search results, 81 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis was performed in Stata as a random-effect analysis with correlation coefficients between age at onset and the outcomes (categorized into remission, relapse, hospitalization, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, total symptoms, general clinical outcome, employment, social/occupational functioning and global outcome)...
April 27, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
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