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Multiple choice questions

Neo M Tapela, Michael J Peluso, Racquel E Kohler, Irene I Setlhako, Kerapetse Botebele, Kemiso Gabegwe, Isaac Nkele, Mohan Narasimhamurthy, Mompati Mmalane, Surbhi Grover, Tomer Barak, Lawrence N Shulman, Shahin Lockman, Scott Dryden-Peterson
Introduction: Health system delays in diagnosis of cancer contribute to the glaring disparities in cancer mortality between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries. In Botswana, approximately 70% of cancers are diagnosed at late stage and median time from first health facility visit for cancer-related symptoms to specialty cancer care was 160 days (IQR 59-653). We describe the implementation and early outcomes of training targeting primary care providers, which is a part of a multi-component implementation study in Kweneng-East district aiming to enhance timely diagnosis of cancers...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Mark S Freedman, Daniel Selchen, Alexandre Prat, Paul S Giacomini
Recent therapeutic advances in the management of multiple sclerosis (MS) have raised questions about the selection of appropriate patient candidates for various treatments and, if the plan is to move from one treatment to another, the appropriate sequencing of these therapies. The selected approach should provide optimal disease management without limiting future therapeutic options based on safety concerns, and recognize potential future treatments and the possibility of combination therapies. Additional challenges include incorporation of patient needs and preferences into the overall therapeutic approach, in order to ensure optimal outcomes in the short and long term...
June 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Kenneth Royal, David Dorman
BACKGROUND: The number of answer options is an important element of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Many MCQs contain four or more options despite the limited literature suggesting that there is little to no benefit beyond three options. The purpose of this study was to evaluate item performance on 3-option versus 4-option MCQs used in a core curriculum course in veterinary toxicology at a large veterinary medical school in the United States. METHODS: A quasi-experimental, crossover design was used in which students in each class were randomly assigned to take one of two versions (A or B) of two major exams...
June 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
O Onwuasoigwe, E E Onyia, M Mesi
Background: Medical students' assessment is an important aspect of medical undergraduate training that requires periodic review to achieve objectivity and improve training. We reviewed the outcome and factors that influenced outcome of undergraduate students' final surgery examination. Materials and Methods: Final examination records of undergraduate medical students in surgery from a single institution for 5 years (2013-2017) were retrospectively reviewed. Scores of the students in continuous assessments (CA), multiple-choice questions (MCQs), essays, long case, short cases, orals, and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) were extracted as appropriate...
June 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Stefania Gori, Fabio Puglisi, Michela Cinquini, Giovanni Pappagallo, Antonio Frassoldati, Laura Biganzoli, Laura Cortesi, Alba Fiorentino, Catia Angiolini, Corrado Tinterri, Andrea De Censi, Alessia Levaggi, Lucia Del Mastro
Premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer are candidates for adjuvant endocrine therapy, as recommended by the major international guidelines. To date, adjuvant endocrine options for premenopausal women include tamoxifen with or without ovarian function suppression (OFS) or an aromatase inhibitor with OFS. Multiple strategies for endocrine treatment of premenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer have been assessed, and the results of randomised clinical trials have been reported over the last years...
June 7, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Philip J Sandoval, Kimberely M Zorn, Alex M Clark, Sean Ekins, Stephen H Wright
The organic cation transporter OCT2 mediates the entry step for organic cation secretion by renal proximal tubule cells and is a site of unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). But reliance on decision tree-based predictions of DDIs at OCT2 that depend on IC50 values can be suspect because they can be influenced by choice of transported substrate; for example, IC50 s for inhibition of metformin vs MPP transport can vary by 5 to 10-fold. However, it is not clear if substrate-dependence of ligand interaction is common among OCT2 substrates...
June 8, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Ming Kai Tan, Fang Ni Goh, Hugh Tiang Wah Tan
The neural constraint hypothesis is one of the central ideas for the understanding of insect-plant interaction but there are still knowledge gaps in the data for foraging behavior and the performance of herbivores, and particularly florivores. We used a floriphilic katydid, Phaneroptera brevis (Serville, 1838) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and a naturalized weed, Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) in caged experiments in an insectary to answer these questions: 1) How does the foraging performance of the floriphilic katydid vary when exposed to a choice in the number of capitula and types of florets of B...
June 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Stephanie G B Sullivan, Kathryn T Hoiriis, Lucia Paolucci
OBJECTIVE: We describe a change in teaching method from extended face-to-face instruction to a blended classroom environment in a research methods course and compare student scores following a change in assessment from mid-term examination to weekly quizzes. METHODS: The course traditionally had been taught using a weekly 2-hour lecture for each academic term. A change in teaching methods was designed to include 20 minutes of lecture followed by 30 minutes of topic-specific in-class group discussions...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Chiropractic Education
M P Pereira, S Basta, J Moore, S Ständer
BACKGROUND: Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic skin condition characterised by intensely pruritic, hyperkeratotic papulonodular lesions that dramatically impairs patients' quality of life. Management of the condition is challenging, and there is no approved therapy in the United States or in Europe. OBJECTIVE: The key aim of this survey was to examine current perceptions of PN diagnosis and management among members of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Qiu Ting Chie, Cai Lian Tam, Gregory Bonn
A brief survey asked Malaysians if they had searched for information about illegal drugs and their thoughts about the information available. Two hundred and eighty participants from four states: Selangor, Penang, Malacca, and Johor filled out a paper-and-pencil survey including both multiple choice and open-ended written questions. Quantitative analyses of closed-ended, and thematic analyses of open-ended data indicated the following: Half of participants had, at some point, actively searched for information about drug use; 28% reported searching at least once per month...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Ruth M Carrico, Stephen Furmanek, Connor English
BACKGROUND: Improper infection prevention practice associated with ultrasound probe use has been linked to increased infection risk, outbreaks, and death. Although guidelines for reprocessing and use of probes exist, it is unclear how extensively these have been adopted in practice. METHODS: Infection preventionists from U.S. health care facilities were surveyed (N = 358). The anonymous survey had 31 multiple choice, sliding scale, and text response questions...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Timothy D O'Brien, Peilin Jia, Melinda C Aldrich, Zhongming Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is classified as a single entity comprised of multiple histological subtypes. But how similar are these subtypes on a genetic level? This paper aims to address this question through a concise overview of germline and somatic differences between small cell lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, and lung squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: We reveal the weak overlap found between these 3 lung cancer subtypes using published data from one of the largest germline genetic studies on lung cancer to date and somatic mutation data from Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC)...
June 5, 2018: Human Heredity
Maria Teresa Montagna, Osvalda De Giglio, Christian Napoli, Giusy Diella, Serafina Rutigliano, Antonella Agodi, Francesco Auxilia, Tatjana Baldovin, Francesco Bisetto, Luca Arnoldo, Silvio Brusaferro, Marina Busetti, Gioia Calagreti, Beatrice Casini, Maria Luisa Cristina, Rossano Di Luzio, Maurizio Fiorio, Maurizio Formoso, Giorgio Liguori, Enrica Martini, Andrea Molino, Placido Mondello, Ida Mura, Roberto Novati, Giovanni Battista Orsi, Andrea Patroni, Anna Poli, Gaetano Privitera, Giancarlo Ripabelli, Andrea Rocchetti, Francesco Rose, Mario Sarti, Sandra Savini, Antonio Silvestri, Luisa Sodano, Anna Maria Spagnolo, Stefano Tardivo, Valeria Teti, Maria Valeria Torregrossa, Emanuele Torri, Licia Veronesi, Raffaele Zarrilli, Claudia Pacifico, Antonio Goglio, Matteo Moro, Cesira Pasquarella
Risk assessment, environmental monitoring, and the disinfection of water systems are the key elements in preventing legionellosis risk. The Italian Study Group of Hospital Hygiene of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine, and Public Health and the Italian Multidisciplinary Society for the Prevention of Health Care-Associated Infections carried out a national cross-sectional survey to investigate the measures taken to prevent and control legionellosis in Italian hospitals. A multiple-choice questionnaire was developed, comprising 71 questions regarding hospital location, general characteristics, clinical and environmental surveillance, and control and preventive measures for legionellosis in 2015...
June 1, 2018: Environmental Research
Manisha Shrivastava, Nehal Shah, Seema Navaid
Aim: In an era of evidence based medicine research is an essential part of medical profession whether clinical or academic. A research methodology workshop intends to help participants, those who are newer to research field or those who are already doing empirical research. The present study was conducted to assess the changes in knowledge of the participants of a research methodology workshop through a structured questionnaire. Methods: With administrative and ethical approval, a four day research methodology workshop was planned...
April 2018: Perspectives in Clinical Research
HsingChi von Bergmann, Charles F Shuler, Jinli Yang, David Kohler, Connie Reynolds, Leandra Best, Nancy Black, James Richardson, Ruth A Childs
Progress testing is an innovative formative assessment practice that has been found successful in many educational programs. In progress testing, one exam is given to students at regular intervals as they progress through a curriculum, allowing them to benchmark their increase in knowledge over time. The aim of this study was to assess the first two years of results of a progress testing system implemented in a Canadian dental school. This was the first time in North America a dental school had introduced progress testing...
June 2018: Journal of Dental Education
M A Boudewyn, C S Carter
Attention is critical to the construction of mental representations of language context during comprehension. We investigated the consequences of momentary lapses in attention during listening comprehension on neural activity and behavior. Participants listened to two full-length stories while EEG was recorded, and afterwards completed multiple choice comprehension questions. Listening was periodically interrupted by attention probes, in which participants were asked whether their attention immediately preceding the probe's appearance was focused on the story...
May 26, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Sana Parsian, Ryan B O'Malley, Daniel S Hippe, William H Bush, Puneet Bhargava, Linda E Chen, Carolyn L Wang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to assess the performance of a contrast reaction management checklist for optimal management of a contrast reaction scenario created using a high-fidelity hands-on simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A safety checklist was designed that presented the five adverse events that most commonly occur after administration of IV contrast medium as well as their step-by-step management. Forty-three radiology residents were randomized into two groups, a checklist group (n = 22) and a control group (n = 21), as stratified by postgraduate year...
May 29, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Christina Heilmaier, Reto Treier, Elmar Max Merkle, Hatem Alkhadi, Dominik Weishaupt, Sebastian Schindera
OBJECTIVES: A nationwide survey was performed assessing current practice of dose data analysis in computed tomography (CT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All radiological departments in Switzerland were asked to participate in the on-line survey composed of 19 questions (16 multiple choice, 3 free text). It consisted of four sections: (1) general information on the department, (2) dose data analysis, (3) use of a dose management software (DMS) and (4) radiation protection activities...
May 28, 2018: European Radiology
Mohammad Idrees Adhi, Syed Moyn Aly
OBJECTIVE: To find differences between One-Correct and One-Best multiple-choice questions with relation to student scores, post-exam item analyses results and student perception. METHODS: This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from November 2010 to April 2011, and comprised medical students. Data was analysed using SPSS 18. RESULTS: Of the 207 participants, 16(7.7%) were boys and 191(92...
April 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Karen Haenraets, Gioele W Albisetti, Edmund Foster, Hendrik Wildner
Selective manipulation of spinal neuronal subpopulations has mainly been achieved by two different methods: 1) Intersectional genetics, whereby double or triple transgenic mice are generated in order to achieve selective expression of a reporter or effector gene (e.g., from the Rosa26 locus) in the desired spinal population. 2) Intraspinal injection of Cre-dependent recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV); here Cre-dependent AAV vectors coding for the reporter or effector gene of choice are injected into the spinal cord of mice expressing Cre recombinase in the desired neuronal subpopulation...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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