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D Champelovier, J Teixeira, J-M Conan, N Balla, L M Mugnier, T Tressard, S Reichinnek, S Meimon, R Cossart, H Rigneault, S Monneret, A Malvache
Adaptive optics is a promising technique for the improvement of microscopy in tissues. A large palette of indirect and direct wavefront sensing methods has been proposed for in vivo imaging in experimental animal models. Application of most of these methods to complex samples suffers from either intrinsic and/or practical difficulties. Here we show a theoretically optimized wavefront correction method for inhomogeneously labeled biological samples. We demonstrate its performance at a depth of 200 μm in brain tissue within a sparsely labeled region such as the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus, with cells expressing GCamP6...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
W Conan Mustain
Rectoceles are a very common finding in patients, and symptoms most commonly include pelvic pain, pressure, or difficulty with passing stool. However, there are often other associated pelvic floor disorders that accompany rectoceles, making the clinical significance of it in an individual patient often hard to determine. When evaluating a patient with a rectocele, a thorough history and physical exam must be conducted to help delineate other causes of these symptoms. Treatment consists of addressing other defecatory disorders through various methods, with surgery reserved for select cases in which obstructed defecation is well documented...
February 2017: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
Leslie Mertz
"It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data," said Sherlock Holmes creator and author Arthur Conan Doyle in 1887. In this era of big data, and especially the crush of medical information becoming available through new technologies and bulging databases, Doyle's quote could be updated to: "It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data and understands what they mean."
September 2016: IEEE Pulse
Bradford D Gessner, Darryn L Knobel, Anne Conan, Adam Finn
The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine has been associated with meningitis and cerebral malaria safety signals. Key characteristics of the meningitis signal include presence, in the 5-17month but not the 6-12week age group, of delayed and variable meningitis onset after vaccination, and multiple etiologies. For both meningitis and cerebral malaria, the 5-17month old age group control arm had abnormally low incidences while other arms in both age groups had meningitis and cerebral malaria incidences similar to background rates...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
Joakim E Swedberg, Choi Yi Li, Simon J de Veer, Conan K Wang, David J Craik
Neutrophils are directly responsible for destroying invading pathogens via reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial peptides, and neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs). Imbalance between NSP activity and endogenous protease inhibitors is associated with chronic inflammatory disorders, and engineered inhibitors of NSPs are a potential therapeutic pathway. In this study we characterized the extended substrate specificity (P4-P1) of the NSP cathepsin G using a peptide substrate library. Substituting preferred cathepsin G substrate sequences into sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1) produced a potent cathepsin G inhibitor (Ki = 0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Anna T Gavin, David Donnelly, Conan Donnelly, Frances J Drummond, Eileen Morgan, Gerard J Gormley, Linda Sharp
AIM: To investigate effects on men's health and well-being of higher prostate cancer (PCa) investigation and treatment levels in similar populations. PARTICIPANTS: PCa survivors in Ireland where the Republic of Ireland (RoI) has a 50% higher PCa incidence than Northern Ireland (NI). METHOD: A cross-sectional postal questionnaire was sent to PCa survivors 2-18 years post-treatment, seeking information about current physical effects of treatment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL; EORTC QLQ-C30; EQ-5D-5L) and psychological well-being (21 question version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, DASS-21)...
December 19, 2016: BMJ Open
Amy Downing, Penny Wright, Richard Wagland, Eila Watson, Therese Kearney, Rebecca Mottram, Majorie Allen, Victoria Cairnduff, Oonagh McSorley, Hugh Butcher, Luke Hounsome, Conan Donnelly, Peter Selby, Paul Kind, William Cross, James W H Catto, Dyfed Huws, David H Brewster, Emma McNair, Lauren Matheson, Carol Rivas, Johana Nayoan, Mike Horton, Jessica Corner, Julia Verne, Anna Gavin, Adam W Glaser
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer and its treatment may impact physically, psychologically and socially; affecting the health-related quality of life of men and their partners/spouses. The Life After Prostate Cancer Diagnosis (LAPCD) study is a UK-wide patient-reported outcomes study which will generate information to improve the health and well-being of men with prostate cancer. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Postal surveys will be sent to prostate cancer survivors (18-42 months postdiagnosis) in all 4 UK countries (n=∼70 000)...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Open
Ewen Conan, Julien Bonnel, Thierry Chonavel, Barbara Nicolas
Source depth estimation with a vertical line array generally involves mode filtering, then matched-mode processing. Because mode filtering is an ill-posed problem if the water column is not well-sampled, concerns for robustness motivate a simpler approach: source depth discrimination considered as a binary classification problem. It aims to evaluate whether the source is near the surface or submerged. These two hypotheses are formulated in terms of normal modes, using the concept of trapped and free modes. Decision metrics based on classic mode filters are proposed...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
David J Craik, Conan K Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biopolymers
Brice Reoyo-Prats, Dominique Aubert, Christophe Menniti, Wolfgang Ludwig, Jennifer Sola, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Pascal Conan, Olivier Verneau, Carmen Palacios
Contaminants found in watercourses are not only the result of anthropogenic activities but also depend on river's seasonal hydrodynamics. This is particularly true in Mediterranean climate regions where long dry periods are interrupted by strong rainfalls. Storm events remobilize particles from soils and sediments and, as a consequence, the load of particulate matter in rivers can be quite considerable, severely affecting water quality. Nevertheless, an absence of fieldwork studies exists concerning the simultaneous dynamics of mixtures of pollutants in river waters, particularly during strong rainfalls and floods...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Benedict U Nwachukwu, William W Schairer, Conan So, Jaime L Bernstein, James Herndon, Emily R Dodwell
BACKGROUND: There was a dramatic increase in the volume of manuscripts submitted to The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (JBJS) between 2009 and 2012. This resulted in increased journal administrative costs. To offset this financial burden, in May 2013, JBJS started charging authors an administrative processing fee at the time of submission. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the administrative fee on the volume and characteristics of manuscripts submitted to JBJS. METHODS: Our analysis included 866 manuscripts submitted to JBJS between November 2012 and November 2013...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Andrzej Chruscinski, Flora Y Y Huang, Antigona Ulndreaj, Conan Chua, Michael Fehlings, Vivek Rao, Heather J Ross, Gary A Levy
Autoantibodies, which are antibodies against self-antigens, are present in many disease states and can serve as markers for disease activity. The levels of autoantibodies to specific antigens are typically detected with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. However, screening for multiple autoantibodies with ELISA can be time-consuming and requires a large quantity of patient sample. The antigen microarray technique is an alternative method that can be used to screen for autoantibodies in a multiplex fashion...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Viera Husarova, Laura Macdarby, Patrick Dicker, Fergal D Malone, Conan L McCaul
OBJECTIVE: To identify patterns in intrapartum analgesia use in the migrant obstetric population. METHODS: A retrospective analysis included all deliveries with neonates above 500g in weight at a university hospital in Dublin, Ireland between 2009 and 2013. Analgesia was classified as neuraxial or non-neuraxial. Parturients were excluded owing to missing data, elective cesarean deliveries, and the use of analgesia during treatment for obstetric complications. RESULTS: There were 36 689 deliveries included in the present study...
November 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Tyler M Huggins, Justin M Whiteley, Corey T Love, Kwangwon Lee, Se-Hee Lee, Zhiyong Jason Ren, Justin C Biffinger
Biomass can serve as a sustainable template for the synthesis of carbon materials but is limited by the intrinsic properties of the precursor organism. In this study we demonstrate that the properties of a fungal biotemplate can be tuned during cultivation, establishing a new electrode manufacturing process and ultimately improving the electrochemical performance of the biomass-derived electrode. More specifically, the carbon/nitrogen ratio of Neurospora crassa mycelia mats was shifted by 5-fold while generating cobalt nanoparticles into the hyphal structure originating from macroconidia spores...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dustin M Simon, Hamid Charkhkar, Conan St John, Sakthi Rajendran, Tong Kang, Radu Reit, David Arreaga-Salas, Daniel G McHail, Gretchen L Knaack, Andrew Sloan, Dane Grasse, Theodore C Dumas, Robert L Rennaker, Joseph J Pancrazio, Walter E Voit
Intracortical probe technology, consisting of arrays of microelectrodes, offers a means of recording the bioelectrical activity from neural tissue. A major limitation of existing intracortical probe technology pertains to limited lifetime of 6 months to a year of recording after implantation. A major contributor to device failure is widely believed to be the interfacial mechanical mismatch of conventional stiff intracortical devices and the surrounding brain tissue. We describe the design, development, and demonstration of a novel functional intracortical probe technology that has a tunable Young's modulus from ∼2 GPa to ∼50 MPa...
January 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Nadia Benmoussa, Jennifer Kerner, Patrice Josset, Patrick Conan, Philippe Charlier
Joseph Gensoul was a pioneer of ENT surgery. In 1827, he performed the first total maxillectomy on 17-year-old boy. His work inspired many surgeons, who were previously unwilling to remove maxillary tumours. A paleopathological study performed in the Dupuytren museum allowed us to identify a skull from the early 19th century, with a large maxillar tumour. There were indications that this skull was operated according to Gensoul's technique. The aim of this study is to confirm that this patient had, in fact, received this surgical treatment...
January 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Alberto Muñoz Arancón, Bruno Gazengel, Jean-Pierre Dalmont, Ewen Conan
An approach for the estimation of single reed parameters during playing, using an instrumented mouthpiece and an iterative method, is presented. Different physical models describing the reed tip movement are tested in the estimation method. The uncertainties of the sensors installed on the mouthpiece and the limits of the estimation method are studied. A tenor saxophone reed is mounted on this mouthpiece connected to a cylinder, played by a musician, and characterized at different dynamic levels. Results show that the method can be used to estimate the reed parameters with a small error for low and medium sound levels (piano and mezzoforte dynamic levels)...
May 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Navaneeth Narayanan, Linda Johnson, Conan MacDougall
Carbapenemases are enzymes that are capable of inactivating all or almost all beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. These enzymes are frequently coexpressed with other resistance mechanisms to non-beta-lactams, leading to extremely drug-resistant pathogens. Once a curiosity, these enzymes have spread into organisms that are among the most common causes of infection, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Identification of these organisms has proved challenging for clinical microbiology laboratories, leading to revisions in susceptibility standards for carbapenems...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Conan K Wang, David J Craik
Achieving high oral bioavailability for drugs is a key design objective in drug development. It is not surprising then that with the growing expectation of peptides as future drugs, there has also been an increasing interest in developing oral peptide therapeutics. Brought to the fore are questions such as what makes peptides orally bioavailable and how this can be achieved; questions which have inspired research into the area for decades. Early research in the area focused on linear peptides with more recent literature focusing on cyclic peptides, motivated in part by cyclic peptides like cyclosporine A that have demonstrated drug-like oral bioavailability...
November 2016: Biopolymers
Audrey Roulston, Anne Campbell, Victoria Cairnduff, Deirdre Fitzpatrick, Conan Donnelly, Anna Gavin
BACKGROUND: Enabling patients to die in their preferred place is important but achieving preferred place of death may increase the informal carer's risk into bereavement. AIM: To determine risk factors of family carers bereaved through cancer in Northern Ireland. DESIGN: These results form part of a larger QUALYCARE-NI study which used postal questionnaires to capture quantitative data on carer's bereavement scores using the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief...
May 11, 2016: Palliative Medicine
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