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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685495/igg-and-leukocytes-targets-of-immunomodulatory-%C3%AE-2-6-sialic-acids
#1
Mark B Jones
ST6Gal1 is a critical sialyltransferase enzyme that controls the addition of α2,6-linked sialic acids to the termini of glycans. Attachment of sialic acids to glycoproteins as a posttranslational modification influences cellular responses, and is a well-known modifier of immune cell behavior. ST6Gal1 activity impacts processes such as: effector functions of immunoglobulin G via Fc sialylation, hematopoietic capacity by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell surface sialylation, and lymphocyte activation thresholds though CD22 engagement and inhibition of galectins...
March 31, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680984/serum-sialylation-changes-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Zejian Zhang, Manfred Wuhrer, Stephanie Holst
Cancer is a major cause of death in both developing and developed countries. Early detection and efficient therapy can greatly enhance survival. Aberrant glycosylation has been recognized to be one of the hallmarks of cancer as glycans participate in many cancer-associated events. Cancer-associated glycosylation changes often involve sialic acids which play important roles in cell-cell interaction, recognition and immunological response. This review aims at giving a comprehensive overview of the literature on changes of sialylation in serum of cancer patients...
April 21, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680235/transglutaminase-and-sialyltransferase-enzymatic-approaches-for-polymer-conjugation-to-proteins
#3
Katia Maso, Antonella Grigoletto, Gianfranco Pasut
Proteins hold a central role in medicine and biology, also confirmed by the several therapeutic applications based on biologic drugs. Such therapies are of great relevance thanks to high potency and safety of proteins. Nevertheless, many proteins as therapeutics might present issues like fast kidney clearance, rapid enzymatic degradation, or immunogenicity. Such defects implicate frequent administrations or administrations at high doses of the therapeutics, thus yielding or exacerbating potential side effects...
2018: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667779/mir-193a-3p-and-mir-224-mediate-renal-cell-carcinoma-progression-by-targeting-alpha-2-3-sialyltransferase-iv-and-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-pathway
#4
Yue Pan, Jialei Hu, Jia Ma, Xia Qi, Huimin Zhou, Xiaoyan Miao, Wei Zheng, Li Jia
Tumor metastasis is a major cause of cancer-related death in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely known to modulate proliferation invasion, metastasis and apoptosis of cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the function and novel target of miR-193a-3p and miR-224 in RCC. The levels of miR-193a-3p and miR-224 were significantly increased in RCC tissues and RCC cell lines. Alpha-2, 3-Sialyltransferase IV (ST3GalIV) was highly expressed in adjacent nontumor tissues and human normal proximal tubular cell line HK-2 compared to RCC tissues and cell lines...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666608/capsular-sialyltransferase-specificity-mediates-different-phenotypes-in-streptococcus-suis-and-group-b-streptococcus
#5
David Roy, Daisuke Takamatsu, Masatoshi Okura, Guillaume Goyette-Desjardins, Marie-Rose Van Calsteren, Audrey Dumesnil, Marcelo Gottschalk, Mariela Segura
The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) represents a key virulence factor for most encapsulated streptococci. Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are both well-encapsulated pathogens of clinical importance in veterinary and/or human medicine and responsible for invasive systemic diseases. S. suis and GBS are the only Gram-positive bacteria which express a sialylated CPS at their surface. An important difference between these two sialylated CPSs is the linkage between the side-chain terminal galactose and sialic acid, being α-2,6 for S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624120/theoretical-investigations-and-density-functional-theory-based-probe-of-the-affinity-interaction-of-saccharide-ligands-with-extra-cellular-sialic-acid-residues
#6
Anjali Patel, Sanjay Tiwari, Prafulla K Jha
Changes in glycosylation pattern leads to malignant transformations among the cells. In combination with upregulated actions of sialyltransferases, it ultimately leads to differential expression of sialic acid (SA) at cell surface. Given its negative charge and localization to extracellular domain, SA has been exploited as a target for the development of targeted theranostics using approaches, such as, cationization and appending recognition saccharides on carrier surface. In this study, we have performed quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) to study the interaction of saccharides with extracellular SA...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615986/whole-genome-sequencing-and-multiplex-qpcr-methods-to-identify-campylobacter-jejuni-encoding-cst-ii-or-cst-iii-sialyltransferase
#7
Jason M Neal-McKinney, Kun C Liu, Karen C Jinneman, Wen-Hsin Wu, Daniel H Rice
Campylobacter jejuni causes more than 2 million cases of gastroenteritis annually in the United States, and is also linked to the autoimmune sequelae Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS). GBS often results in flaccid paralysis, as the myelin sheaths of nerve cells are degraded by the adaptive immune response. Certain strains of C. jejuni modify their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with the addition of neuraminic acid, resulting in LOS moieties that are structurally similar to gangliosides present on nerve cells. This can trigger GBS in a susceptible host, as antibodies generated against C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594046/a-cartography-of-siglecs-and-sialyltransferases-in-gynecologic-malignancies-is-there-a-road-towards-a-sweet-future
#8
Quentin Haas, Cedric Simillion, Stephan von Gunten
Altered surface glycosylation is a key feature of cancers, including gynecologic malignancies. Hypersialylation, the overexpression of sialic acid, is known to promote tumor progression and to dampen antitumor responses by mechanisms that also involve sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs), inhibitory immune receptors. Here, we discuss the expression patterns of Siglecs and sialyltransferases (STs) in gynecologic cancers, including breast, ovarian, and uterine malignancies, based on evidence from The Cancer Genome Atlas...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569918/sialyltransferase-based-chemoenzymatic-histology-for-the-detection-of-n-and-o-glycans
#9
Aime Lopez Aguilar, Lu Meng, Xiaomeng Hou, Wei Li, Kelley W Moremen, Peng Wu
Profiling specific glycans in histopathological samples is hampered by the lack of selective and sensitive tools for their detection. Here, we report on the development of chemoenzymatic histology of membrane polysaccharide (CHoMP)-based methods for the detection of O- and N-linked glycans on tissue sections via the use of sialyltransferases ST3Gal1 and ST6Gal1, respectively. Combining these two methods, we developed tandem labeling and double labeling strategies that permit the detection of unsialylated and sialylated glycans or the detection of O- and N-linked glycans on the same tissue section, respectively...
March 23, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543427/%C3%AE-2-6-neosialidase-a-sialyltransferase-mutant-as-a-sialyl-linkage-specific-sialidase
#10
John B McArthur, Hai Yu, Nova Tasnima, Christie M Lee, Andrew J Fisher, Xi Chen
The lack of α2-6-linkage specific sialidases limits the structural and functional studies of sialic acid-containing molecules. Photobacterium damselae α2-6-sialyltransferase (Pd2,6ST) was shown previously to have α2-6-specific, but weak, sialidase activity. Here we develop a high-throughput blue-white colony screening method to identify Pd2,6ST mutants with improved α2-6-sialidase activity from mutant libraries generated by sequential saturation mutagenesis. A triple mutant (Pd2,6ST S232L/T356S/W361F) has been identified with 101-fold improved activity, high α2-6-sialyl linkage selectivity, good activity in cleaving two common sialic acid forms N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515098/lncrna-hcp5-promotes-follicular-thyroid-carcinoma-progression-via-mirnas-sponge
#11
Leilei Liang, Jingchao Xu, Meng Wang, Gaoran Xu, Ning Zhang, Guangzhi Wang, Yongfu Zhao
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are important functional regulators in cancer, have received increased attention in recent years. In this study, next-generation sequencing technology was used to identify aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). The long non-coding RNA-HLA complex P5 (HCP5) was found to be overexpressed in FTC. The results of the qPCR analysis were consistent with the sequencing results. In addition, functional experiments showed that overexpression of HCP5 can promote the proliferation, migration, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of FTC cells...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506202/applications-of-a-highly-%C3%AE-2-6-selective-pseudosialidase
#12
Peter Both, Michel Riese, Christopher J Gray, Kun Huang, Edward G Pallister, Iaroslav Kosov, Louis P Conway, Josef Voglmeir, Sabine L Flitsch
Within human biology, combinations of regioisomeric motifs of α2,6- or α2,3-sialic acids linked to galactose are frequently observed attached to glycoconjugates. These include glycoproteins and glycolipids, with each linkage carrying distinct biological information and function. Microbial linkage-specific sialidases have become important tools for studying the role of these sialosides in complex biological settings, as well as being used as biocatalysts for glycoengineering. However, currently, there is no α2,6-specific sialidase available...
February 28, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500369/mahanine-drives-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-cells-into-endoplasmic-reticular-stress-mediated-apoptosis-through-modulating-sialylation-process-and-ca-2-signaling
#13
Sayantani Sarkar Bhattacharya, Chandan Mandal, Reinhard Schwartz Albiez, Suman Kumar Samanta, Chitra Mandal
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from protein unfolding/misfolding during cellular maturation, which requires a coordinated action of several chaperones and enzymes and Ca2+ signalling. ER-stress possibly has a positive effect on survival of pancreatic cancer cell. Therefore, detailed insights into this complex signaling network are urgently needed. Here, we systematically analyzed the impact of ER stress-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) and Ca2+ -signaling cross-talk for the survival of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487346/galectin-1-enhances-tnf%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-sertoli-cells-through-activation-of-mapk-signalling
#14
Tao Lei, Sven Moos, Jörg Klug, Ferial Aslani, Sudhanshu Bhushan, Eva Wahle, Suada Fröhlich, Andreas Meinhardt, Monika Fijak
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a pleiotropic lectin involved in the modulation of immune responses. Using a model of rat experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), we investigated the role of Gal-1 in testicular inflammation. EAO is characterized by leukocytic infiltrates in the interstitium, damage of spermatogenesis and production of inflammatory mediators like TNFα and MCP1 causing infertility. In normal rat testis Gal-1 was mainly expressed in Sertoli cells and germ cells. In the inflamed testis, Gal-1 expression was significantly downregulated most likely due to germ cell loss...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475939/the-st6gal-i-sialyltransferase-protects-tumor-cells-against-hypoxia-by-enhancing-hif-1%C3%AE-signaling
#15
Robert B Jones, Kaitlyn A Dorsett, Anita B Hjelmeland, Susan L Bellis
Aberrant cell surface glycosylation is prevalent in tumor cells, and there is ample evidence that glycans have functional roles in carcinogenesis. Nonetheless, many molecular details remain unclear. Tumor cells frequently exhibit increased α2-6 sialylation on N-glycans, a modification that is added by the ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase, and emerging evidence suggests that ST6Gal-I-mediated sialylation promotes the survival of tumor cells exposed to various cell stressors. Here we report that ST6Gal-I protects cancer cells from hypoxic stress...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454317/oxidative-damage-and-response-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-in-bladder-cancer-cells-expressing-sialyltransferase-st3gal1
#16
Paulo F Severino, Mariana Silva, Mylene Carrascal, Nadia Malagolini, Mariella Chiricolo, Giulia Venturi, Roberto Barbaro Forleo, Annalisa Astolfi, Mariangela Catera, Paula A Videira, Fabio Dall'Olio
BACKGROUND: Treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the gold standard adjuvant immunotherapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), although it fails in one third of the patients. NMIBC expresses two tumor-associated O-linked carbohydrates: the disaccharide (Galβ1,3GalNAc) Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen, and its sialylated counterpart (Siaα2,3Galβ1,3GalNAc) sialyl-T (sT), synthesized by sialyltransferase ST3GAL1, whose roles in BCG response are unknown. METHODS: The human bladder cancer (BC) cell line HT1376 strongly expressing the T antigen, was retrovirally transduced with the ST3GAL1 cDNA or with an empty vector, yielding the cell lines HT1376sT and HT1376T , that express, respectively, either the sT or the T antigens...
February 17, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440651/reconstruction-of-the-sialylation-pathway-in-the-ancestor-of-eukaryotes
#17
Daniel Petit, Elin Teppa, Ugo Cenci, Steven Ball, Anne Harduin-Lepers
The biosynthesis of sialylated molecules of crucial relevance for eukaryotic cell life is achieved by sialyltransferases (ST) of the CAZy family GT29. These enzymes are widespread in the Deuterostoma lineages and more rarely described in Protostoma, Viridiplantae and various protist lineages raising the question of their presence in the Last eukaryotes Common Ancestor (LECA). If so, it is expected that the main enzymes associated with sialic acids metabolism are also present in protists. We conducted phylogenomic and protein sequence analyses to gain insights into the origin and ancient evolution of ST and sialic acid pathway in eukaryotes, Bacteria and Archaea...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439861/enhancement-of-glycosylation-by-stable-co-expression-of-two-sialylation-related-enzymes-on-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#18
Nguyen Thi Sam, Ryo Misaki, Takao Ohashi, Kazuhito Fujiyama
Sialic acid plays important roles in stabilization and modulation of the interaction of molecules and membranes in organisms. Due to its high electronegativity, sialic acid can promote binding effects of molecules and support the transportation of drugs and ions in cells. This also strengthens cells against degradation from glycosidases and proteases. Hence sialic acid helps glycoproteins extend their half-lives and bioactivity. On the other hand, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been widely used as a workhorse in biopharmaceutical fields in part due to the similarity between their glycan properties and those in humans...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434218/association-of-cytosolic-sialidase-neu2-with-plasma-membrane-enhances-fas-mediated-apoptosis-by-impairing-pi3k-akt-mtor-mediated-pathway-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#19
Shalini Nath, Chhabinath Mandal, Uttara Chatterjee, Chitra Mandal
Modulation of sialylation by sialyltransferases and sialidases plays essential role in carcinogenesis. There are few reports on sialyltransferase, however, the contribution of cytosolic sialidase (Neu2) remains unexplored in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We observed lower expression of Neu2 in different PDAC cells, patient tissues, and a significant strong association with clinicopathological characteristics. Neu2 overexpression guided drug-resistant MIAPaCa2 and AsPC1 cells toward apoptosis as evidenced by decreased Bcl2/Bax ratio, activation of caspase-3/caspase-6/caspase-8, PARP reduction, reduced CDK2/CDK4/CDK6, and cyclin-B1/cyclin-E with unaffected caspase-9...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433940/n-glycan-sialylation-in-a-silkworm-baculovirus-expression-system
#20
Masatoshi Suganuma, Tsuyoshi Nomura, Yukiko Higa, Yukiko Kataoka, Shunsuke Funaguma, Hironobu Okazaki, Takeo Suzuki, Kazuhito Fujiyama, Hideki Sezutsu, Ken-Ichiro Tatematsu, Toshiki Tamura
A silkworm-baculovirus system is particularly effective for producing recombinant proteins, including glycoproteins. However, N-glycan structures in silkworm differ from those in mammals. Glycoproteins in silkworm are secreted as pauci-mannose type N-glycans without sialic acid or galactose residues. Sialic acid on N-glycans plays important roles in protein functions. Therefore, we developed pathways for galactosylation and sialylation in silkworm. Sialylated N-glycans on proteins were successfully produced in silkworm by co-expressing galactosyltransferase and sialyltransferase and providing an external supply of a sialylation-related substrate...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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