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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898729/rna-contaminates-glycosaminoglycans-extracted-from-cells-and-tissues
#1
Jasper J van Gemst, Markus A Loeven, Mark J J de Graaf, Jo H M Berden, Ton J Rabelink, Cornelis H Smit, Johan van der Vlag
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear negatively charged polysaccharides and important components of extracellular matrices and cell surface glycan layers such as the endothelial glycocalyx. The GAG family includes sulfated heparin, heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), keratan sulfate, and non-sulfated hyaluronan. Because relative expression of GAGs is dependent on cell-type and niche, isolating GAGs from cell cultures and tissues may provide insight into cell- and tissue-specific GAG structure and functions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878326/a-novel-72-kda-leukocyte-derived-osteoglycin-enhances-the-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-exacerbates-cardiac-inflammation-during-viral-myocarditis
#2
Marieke Rienks, Anna Papageorgiou, Kristiaan Wouters, Wouter Verhesen, Rick van Leeuwen, Paolo Carai, Georg Summer, Dirk Westermann, Stephane Heymans
BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis can severely damage the myocardium through excessive infiltration of immune cells. Osteoglycin (OGN) is part of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) family. SLRP's may affect inflammatory and fibrotic processes, but the implication of OGN in cardiac inflammation and the resulting injury upon viral myocarditis is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study uncovered a previously unidentified 72-kDa variant of OGN that is predominant in cardiac human and mouse samples of viral myocarditis...
November 23, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846294/identification-and-verification-of-potential-therapeutic-target-genes-in-berberine-treated-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats-through-bioinformatics-analysis
#3
Yang Sheng Wu, Yi-Tao Chen, Yu-Ting Bao, Zhe-Ming Li, Xiao-Jie Zhou, Jia-Na He, Shi-Jie Dai, Chang Yu Li
BACKGROUND: Berberine is used to treat diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, the effect of berberine on specific diabetes treatment targets is unknown. In the current study, we investigated the effect of berberine on the random plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), AST, ALT, BUN and CREA levels of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, and we identified and verified the importance of potential therapeutic target genes to provide molecular information for further investigation of the mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effects of berberine...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826022/functional-characterization-of-arylsulfatase-b-mutations-in-indian-patients-with-maroteaux-lamy-syndrome-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-vi
#4
Anusha Uttarilli, Divya Pasumarthi, Prajnya Ranganath, Ashwin B Dalal
MPS VI is an autosomal recessive disorder which occurs due to the deficiency of N-acetyl galactosamine-4-sulfatase (Arylsulfatase B - ARSB) involved in catabolism of dermatan sulfate resulting from disease-causing variations in the ARSB gene. Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) search revealed 200 different mutations in ARSB worldwide. In the present study we carried out molecular and functional analyses to characterize the mutations reported by us in Indian population. Mutation analysis of 19 MPS VI patients revealed presence of a total of 15 different mutations of which twelve were novel [p...
November 5, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825753/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-coagulant-activity-and-toxicological-studies-of-marine-sulfated-glycosaminoglycans
#5
Fatma Krichen, Zohra Ghlissi, Ikram Ben Amor, Nadhem Sayari, Rim Kallel, Jalel Gargouri, Zouheir Sahnoun, Tahia Boudawara, Ali Bougatef
The present study aimed to characterize and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anticoagulant activity of sulfated glycosaminoglycans from the skins of smooth hound (SHSG) and grey triggerfish (GTSG). The analysis of SHSG and GTSG with acetate cellulose electrophoresis in Zn-acetate revealed the presence of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS). Both glycosaminoglycans were evaluated for their in vitro anticoagulant activities using activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombine time (PT) tests...
November 5, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785077/prognostic-value-of-endocan-expression-in-cancers-evidence-from-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Xing Huang, Chen Chen, Xin Wang, Jing-Yuan Zhang, Bin-Hui Ren, Da-Wei Ma, Lei Xia, Xin-Yu Xu, Lin Xu
Endocan is a 50 kDa dermatan sulfate proteoglycan. Numerous previous studies have indicated that endocan might be an attractive prognostic tumor biomarker. However, the results of different studies are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to explore the association between endocan expression and cancer prognosis. A systematic, comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was performed. Expression of endocan and its association with overall survival were evaluated by pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760399/shifts-in-macrophage-phenotype-at-the-biomaterial-interface-via-il-4-eluting-coatings-are-associated-with-improved-implant-integration
#7
Daniel Hachim, Samuel T LoPresti, Cecelia C Yates, Bryan N Brown
The present study tests the hypothesis that transient, early-stage shifts in macrophage polarization at the tissue-implant interface from a pro-inflammatory (M1) to an anti-inflammatory/regulatory (M2) phenotype mitigates the host inflammatory reaction against a non-degradable polypropylene mesh material and improves implant integration downstream. To address this hypothesis, a nanometer-thickness coating capable of releasing IL-4 (an M2 polarizing cytokine) from an implant surface at early stages of the host response has been developed...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744520/mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cell-viability-motility-and-matrix-adhesion-are-regulated-by-a-complex-interplay-of-heparan-sulfate-chondroitin-dermatan-sulfate-and-hyaluronan-biosynthesis
#8
Manuela Viola, Kathrin Brüggemann, Evgenia Karousou, Ilaria Caon, Elena Caravà, Davide Vigetti, Burkhard Greve, Christian Stock, Giancarlo De Luca, Alberto Passi, Martin Götte
Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans modulate numerous cellular processes relevant to tumour progression, including cell proliferation, cell-matrix interactions, cell motility and invasive growth. Among the glycosaminoglycans with a well-documented role in tumour progression are heparan sulphate, chondroitin/dermatan sulphate and hyaluronic acid/hyaluronan. While the mode of biosynthesis differs for sulphated glycosaminoglycans, which are synthesised in the ER and Golgi compartments, and hyaluronan, which is synthesized at the plasma membrane, these polysaccharides partially compete for common substrates...
October 15, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718145/newborn-screening-for-mucopolysaccharidoses-a-pilot-study-of-measurement-of-glycosaminoglycans-by-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Francyne Kubaski, Robert W Mason, Akiko Nakatomi, Haruo Shintaku, Li Xie, Naomi N van Vlies, Heather Church, Roberto Giugliani, Hironori Kobayashi, Seiji Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Tadao Orii, Toshiyuki Fukao, Adriana M Montaño, Shunji Tomatsu
BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inborn errors of metabolism that are progressive and usually result in irreversible skeletal, visceral, and/or brain damage, highlighting a need for early diagnosis. METHODS: This pilot study analyzed 2862 dried blood spots (DBS) from newborns and 14 DBS from newborn patients with MPS (MPS I, n = 7; MPS II, n = 2; MPS III, n = 5). Disaccharides were produced from polymer GAGs by digestion with chondroitinase B, heparitinase, and keratanase II...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687161/the-chondroitin-sulfate-dermatan-sulfate-4-o-endosulfatase-from-marine-bacterium-vibrio-sp-fc509-is-a-dimeric-species-biophysical-characterization-of-an-endosulfatase
#10
José L Neira, Encarnación Medina-Carmona, José G Hernández-Cifre, Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Ana Cámara-Artigás, Ilham Seffouh, Florence Gonnet, Régis Daniel, Sandra Villegas, José García de la Torre, Angel L Pey, Fuchuan Li
Sulfatases catalyze hydrolysis of sulfate groups. They have a key role in regulating the sulfation states that determine the function of several scaffold molecules. Currently, there are not studies of the conformational stability of endosulfatases. In this work, we describe the structural features and conformational stability of a 4-O-endosulfatase (EndoV) from a marine bacterium, which removes specifically the 4-O-sulfate from chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate. For that purpose, we have used several biophysical techniques, namely, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), FTIR spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mass spectrometry (MS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC)...
September 27, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647934/identification-of-keratan-sulfate-disaccharide-at-c-3-position-of-glucuronate-of-chondroitin-sulfate-from-mactra-chinensis
#11
Kyohei Higashi, Keita Takeda, Ann Mukuno, Yusuke Okamoto, Sayaka Masuko, Robert J Linhardt, Toshihiko Toida
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate, heparin, heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate (KS) are linear sulfated repeating disaccharide sequences containing hexosamine and uronic acid [or galactose (Gal) in the case of KS]. Among the GAGs, CS shows structural variations, such as sulfation patterns and fucosylation, which are responsible for their physiological functions through CS interaction with CS-binding proteins. Here, we solved the structure of KS-branched CS-E derived from a clam, Mactra chinensis KS disaccharide [d-GlcNAc6S-(1→3)-β-d-Gal-(1→] was attached to the C-3 position of GlcA, and consecutive KS-branched disaccharide sequences were found in a CS chain...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614617/biological-function-of-unique-sulfated-glycosaminoglycans-in-primitive-chordates
#12
Konstantina Karamanou, Diana Carolina Restrepo Espinosa, Anneliese Fortuna-Costa, Mauro Sérgio Gonçalves Pavão
Glycosaminoglycans with unique sulfation patterns have been identified in different species of ascidians (sea squirts), a group of marine invertebrates of the Phylum Chordata, sub-phylum Tunicata (or Urochordata). Oversulfated dermatan sulfate composed of [4-α-L-IdoA-(2-O-SO3)(-1) → 3-β-D-GalNAc(4-OSO3)(-1)]n repeating disaccharide units is found in the extracellular matrix of several organs, where it seems to interact with collagen fibers. This dermatan sulfate co-localizes with a decorin-like protein, as indicated by immunohistochemical analysis...
September 10, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605497/restriction-of-aerobic-metabolism-by-acquired-or-innate-arylsulfatase-b-deficiency-a-new-approach-to-the-warburg-effect
#13
Sumit Bhattacharyya, Leo Feferman, Joanne K Tobacman
Aerobic respiration is required for optimal efficiency of metabolism in mammalian cells. Under circumstances when oxygen utilization is impaired, cells survive by anerobic metabolism. The malignant cell has cultivated the use of anerobic metabolism in an aerobic environment, the Warburg effect, but the explanation for this preference is not clear. This paper presents evidence that deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase), either innate or acquired, helps to explain the Warburg phenomenon...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590924/non-myeloablative-preconditioning-with-ack2-anti-c-kit-antibody-is-efficient-in-bone-marrow-transplantation-for-murine-models-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii
#14
Takayuki Yokoi, Kentarou Yokoi, Kazumasa Akiyama, Takashi Higuchi, Yohta Shimada, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Taku Sato, Toshiaki Ohteki, Makoto Otsu, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Hiroyuki Ida, Toya Ohashi
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the deficient activity of iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS), which is involved in the lysosomal catabolism of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan and heparan sulfate. Such a deficiency leads to the accumulation of undegraded GAGs in some organs. Although enzyme replacement therapy is available as a treatment of MPS II, there are some limitations, such as the requirement of weekly administration for whole life. To avoid such limitations, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT) is a possible alternative...
August 21, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585464/glycosaminoglycan-levels-and-structure-in-a-mucopolysaccharidosis-iiia-mice-and-the-effect-of-a-highly-secreted-sulfamidase-engineered-to-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier
#15
F Maccari, N C Sorrentino, V Mantovani, F Galeotti, A Fraldi, N Volpi
Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA, Sanfilippo A) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of sulphamidase enzyme (SGSH) leading to accumulation of heparan sulfate (HS). We quantitatively and structurally characterize primary stored HS and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) possibly accumulated through a secondary storage in brain, liver, kidney and lung of MPS IIIA mouse model. This analysis was also performed in MPS IIIA mice upon the intravenous treatment with an engineered human sulphamidase (chimeric hSGSH) capable to increase its secretion from the liver and to cross the blood-brain barrier...
September 1, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585241/biglycan-intensifies-alk5-smad2-3-signaling-by-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-downregulates-syndecan-4-in-cultured-vascular-endothelial-cells
#16
Takato Hara, Eiko Yoshida, Yasuhiro Shinkai, Chika Yamamoto, Yasuyuki Fujiwara, Yoshito Kumagai, Toshiyuki Kaji
Proteoglycans are macromolecules that consist of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan side chains. A small leucine-rich dermatan sulfate proteoglycan, biglycan, is one of the predominant types of proteoglycans synthesized by vascular endothelial cells; however, the physiological functions of biglycan are not completely understood. In the present study, bovine aortic endothelial cells in culture were transfected with small interfering RNAs for biglycan, and the expression of other proteoglycans was examined...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566349/uplc-ms-ms-detection-of-disaccharides-derived-from-glycosaminoglycans-as-biomarkers-of-mucopolysaccharidoses
#17
Christiane Auray-Blais, Pamela Lavoie, Shunji Tomatsu, Vassili Valayannopoulos, John J Mitchell, Julian Raiman, Maxime Beaudoin, Bruno Maranda, Joe T R Clarke
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of disorders resulting from primary defects in lysosomal enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Depending on the specific enzyme defect, the catabolism of one or more GAGs is blocked leading to accumulation in tissues and biological fluids. GAG measurements are important for high-risk screening, diagnosis, monitoring treatment efficacy, and patient follow up. The dimethylmethylene blue (DMB) spectrophotometric method commonly used in most biochemical genetics laboratories relies on a non-specific total GAG analysis which has led to false positive results, and even false negative results (mainly for MPS III and IV patients)...
September 14, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564657/stimulation-of-thrombin-and-plasmin-mediated-activation-of-thrombin-activatable-fibrinolysis-inhibitor-by-anionic-molecules
#18
Tom Plug, Joost C M Meijers
BACKGROUND: Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a proenzyme that, once activated, attenuates fibrinolysis by removing C-terminal lysine residues from partially degraded fibrin. TAFI can be activated by thrombin or plasmin via a cleavage at Arg92 that removes the activation peptide from the enzyme, TAFIa. Thrombomodulin enhances thrombin-mediated TAFI activation and glycosaminoglycans enhance plasmin-mediated TAFI activation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are other anionic molecules that function as a cofactor for thrombin- or plasmin-mediated TAFI activation...
October 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547834/mice-deficient-in-n-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfate-6-o-sulfotransferase-exhibit-enhanced-liver-fibrosis-and-delayed-recovery-from-fibrosis-in-carbon-tetrachloride-treated-mice
#19
Hiroko Habuchi, Takahiro Ushida, Osami Habuchi
BACKGROUND: Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) rich in N-acetylgalactosamine 4,6-bissulfate (GalNAc(4,6SO4)) residues is present as decorin and/or biglycan in mouse liver, and GalNAc(4,6SO4) residues disappeared completely in N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4S-6ST) knockout (KO) mice. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CS/DS rich in GalNAc(4,6SO4) residues participate in the progression or resolution of liver fibrosis. METHODS: Wild type (WT) and GalNAc4S-6ST KO mice were treated with CCl4 for 5 weeks...
August 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526113/chondroitin-sulfate-dermatan-sulfate-sulfatases-from-mammals-and-bacteria
#20
Shumin Wang, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Fuchuan Li
Sulfatases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the sulfate groups on chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) poly- and oligosaccharides belong to the formylglycine-dependent family of sulfatases and have been widely found in various mammalian and bacterial organisms. However, only a few types of CS/DS sulfatase have been identified so far. Recently, several novel CS/DS sulfatases have been cloned and characterized. Advanced studies have provided significant insight into the biological function and mechanism of action of CS/DS sulfatases...
August 15, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
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