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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756967/dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-dxa-reliability-and-intraobserver-reproducibility-for-segmental-body-composition-measuring
#1
Osvaldo Costa Moreira, Claudia Eliza Patrocinio de Oliveira, José Antonio De Paz
BACKGROUND: the measurement precision of body composition can interfere on the diagnosis and prescription of diseases' treatment. Furthermore, with regard to dual energy X-rays absorptiometry (DXA), there may be important differences between the measures of regions of interest (ROI) automatically performed by DXA or manually by an evaluator, which can cause measurement error and influence the evaluation or diagnosis. AIM: thus, this study aimed to evaluate the measurement reliability of body composition by DXA and intraobserver reproducibility for the ROI measurement...
January 17, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754949/interpretation-of-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-derived-body-composition-change-in-athletes-a-review-and-recommendations-for-best-practice
#2
REVIEW
Karen Hind, Gary Slater, Brian Oldroyd, Matthew Lees, Shane Thurlow, Matthew Barlow, John Shepherd
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a medical imaging device which has become the method of choice for the measurement of body composition in athletes. The objectives of this review were to evaluate published longitudinal DXA body composition studies in athletic populations for interpretation of "meaningful" change, and to propose a best practice measurement protocol. An online search of PubMed and CINAHL via EBSCO Host and Web of Science enabled the identification of studies published until November 2016...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750848/accelerated-bone-loss-in-older-men-effects-on-bone-microarchitecture-and-strength
#3
J A Cauley, A J Burghardt, S L Harrison, P M Cawthon, A V Schwartz, E Barrett Connor, Kristine E Ensrud, Lisa Langsetmo, S Majumdar, E Orwoll
Accelerated bone loss (ABL) shown on routine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) may be accompanied by microarchitectural changes, increased cortical porosity and lower bone strength. To test this hypothesis, we performed a cross-sectional study and used high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans (SCANCO, Inc., Switzerland) to measure estimated bone strength and microarchitecture in the distal radius and distal and diaphyseal tibia. We studied 1628 men who attended the Year 14 exam of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750829/robust-trabecular-microstructure-in-type-2-diabetes-revealed-by-individual-trabecula-segmentation-analysis-of-hr-pqct-images
#4
Jessica F Starr, Leonardo C Bandeira, Sanchita Agarwal, Ankit M Shah, Kyle K Nishiyama, Yizhong Hu, Donald J McMahon, X Edward Guo, Shonni J Silverberg, Mishaela R Rubin
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients have an increased fracture risk, which may be partly explained by compromised bone microarchitecture within the cortical bone compartment. Data on trabecular bone parameters in T2D are contradictory. By high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) trabecular microarchitecture is preserved, yet larger trabecular holes are detected in T2D by MRI and DXA-based trabecular bone scores (TBS) are abnormal. To determine if there are differences in trabecular microstructure, connectivity and alignment in postmenopausal women with T2D as compared to controls, we performed individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analysis on high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans of the distal radius and tibia in 92 women with (n = 42) and without (n = 50) T2D...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746570/opportunistic-osteoporosis-screening-via-the-measurement-of-frontal-skull-hounsfield-units-derived-from-brain-computed-tomography-images
#5
Min Kyun Na, Yu Deok Won, Choong Hyun Kim, Jae Min Kim, Jin Hwan Cheong, Je Il Ryu, Myung-Hoon Han
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases, but detection and treatment rates are low. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the correlation between frontal skull Hounsfield unit (HU) values from brain computed tomography (CT) scans and T-scores of the lumbar spine and femoral neck from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. METHODS: Patients with < 1 year between brain CT and DXA scans were included in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736771/increased-prevalence-of-asymptomatic-vertebral-fractures-in-hiv-infected-patients-over-50-years-of-age
#6
Maria Llop, W A Sifuentes, S Bañón, C Macia-Villa, M J Perez-Elías, M Rosillo, S Moreno, M Vázquez, J L Casado
The prevalence of asymptomatic vertebral fracture in HIV-infected patients over 50 was 20%, associated with older age, male sex, longer time since HIV diagnosis, and tubular renal alterations. Vertebral fractures were independent of osteoporosis at lumbar spine, and were not predicted by the use of the FRAX equation. PURPOSE: Vertebral fractures (VF) are the hallmark of osteoporotic fractures. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic VF and associated factors in HIV-infected patients over 50 years, and the role of FRAX equation...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736402/accuracy-of-anthropometric-equations-for-estimating-body-fat-in-professional-male-soccer-players-compared-with-dxa
#7
Juan R López-Taylor, Roberto G González-Mendoza, Alejandro Gaytán-González, Juan Antonio Jiménez-Alvarado, Marisol Villegas-Balcázar, Edtna E Jáuregui-Ulloa, Francisco Torres-Naranjo
Background: There are several published anthropometric equations to estimate body fat percentage (BF%), and this may prompt uncertainty about their application. Purpose: To analyze the accuracy of several anthropometric equations (developed in athletic [AT] and nonathletic [NAT] populations) that estimate BF% comparing them with DXA. Methods: We evaluated 131 professional male soccer players (body mass: 73.2 ± 8.0 kg; height: 177.5 ± 5...
2018: Journal of Sports Medicine (Hindawi Publishing Corporation)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722809/repeatability-and-reproducibility-of-measurements-obtained-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-on-pig-carcasses
#8
M Kipper, M Marcoux, I Andretta, C Pomar
The precision of a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) device in terms of repeatability and reproducibility was evaluated on nine left half-carcasses from pigs with large variability in body weight and fat content. Repeatability was assessed by scanning each carcass 10 times sequentially in the same position. Reproducibility was assessed by scanning each carcass in 10 different positions. Images were analyzed with DXA software using a custom region of interest (ROI) and the standard head, trunk, arm, and leg ROI...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722435/stature-estimation-equations-for-south-asian-skeletons-based-on-dxa-scans-of-contemporary-adults
#9
Emma Pomeroy, Veena Mushrif-Tripathy, Jonathan C K Wells, Bharati Kulkarni, Sanjay Kinra, Jay T Stock
OBJECTIVES: Stature estimation from the skeleton is a classic anthropological problem, and recent years have seen the proliferation of population-specific regression equations. Many rely on the anatomical reconstruction of stature from archaeological skeletons to derive regression equations based on long bone lengths, but this requires a collection with very good preservation. In some regions, for example, South Asia, typical environmental conditions preclude the sufficient preservation of skeletal remains...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698499/less-screen-time-and-more-frequent-vigorous-physical-activity-is-associated-with-lower-risk-of-reporting-negative-mental-health-symptoms-among-icelandic-adolescents
#10
Soffia M Hrafnkelsdottir, Robert J Brychta, Vaka Rognvaldsdottir, Sunna Gestsdottir, Kong Y Chen, Erlingur Johannsson, Sigridur L Guðmundsdottir, Sigurbjorn A Arngrimsson
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have explored the potential interrelated associations of screen time and physical activity with mental health in youth, particularly using objective methods. We examined cross-sectional associations of these variables among Icelandic adolescents, using objective and subjective measurements of physical activity. METHODS: Data were collected in the spring of 2015 from 315 tenth grade students (mean age 15.8 years) in six elementary schools in metropolitan Reykjavík, Iceland...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691721/mild-cognitive-impairment-is-associated-with-poor-physical-function-but-not-bone-structure-or-density-in-late-adulthood-findings-from-the-hertfordshire-cohort-study
#11
A Patel, K A Jameson, M H Edwards, K Ward, C R Gale, C Cooper, Elaine M Dennison
This study investigated the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and physical function and bone health in older adults. MCI was associated with poor physical performance but not bone mineral density or bone microarchitecture. PURPOSE: Cross-sectional study to investigate the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and physical performance, and bone health, in a community-dwelling cohort of older adults. METHODS: Cognitive function of 222 men and 221 women (mean age 75...
April 24, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682551/quantification-of-volumetric-bone-mineral-density-of-proximal-femurs-using-a-two-compartment-model-and-computed-tomography-images
#12
Yan-Lin Liu, Jui-Ting Hsu, Tian-Yu Shih, Dmytro Luzhbin, Chun-Yuan Tu, Jay Wu
Objectives: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used to measure the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in clinical practice. However, DXA measurements are affected by the bone thickness and the body size and are unable to indicate nonosseous areas within the trabecular bone. This study aims to quantify the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) using computed tomography (CT) images and the two-compartment model (TCM) methods. Methods: The TCM method was proposed and validated by dipotassium phosphate (K2 HPO4 ) phantoms and a standard forearm phantom...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681438/usefulness-of-reflection-scanning-in-determining-whole-body-composition-in-broadly-built-individuals-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#13
Andreia V Moço, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Paulo M Rocha, Cláudia S Minderico, Edilson S Cyrino, Luís B Sardinha, Analiza M Silva
Whole-body composition analysis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires subjects to fit within the width limits of the DXA bed. To overcome this limitation, the aim of this study was to validate a partial scanning technique at which the upper left limb is deliberately left unscanned and measurements are "reflected" from the right-side upper limb. A Hologic Explorer-W densitometer was used in a sample of 189 participants, including athletes and nonathletes, ranging from underweight to obese (body mass index: 17...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670797/recurrent-migratory-transient-bone-marrow-edema-of-the-knees-associated-with-low-vitamin-d-and-systemic-low-bone-mineral-density-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Omar Alsaed, Mohammad Hammoudeh
Transient bone marrow edema (TBME) is a self-limiting disease characterized by joint pain with localized bone marrow edema by MRI and has been reported in many case series and case reports. It is well known that joints of the lower extremity including hips, knees, ankles, and feet are the classical sites for TBME. Many theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of TBME. Systemic osteopenia and vitamin D deficiency is one of the theories that have been suggested in the last few years. In this case report, we present a middle-aged male patient, who presented with 4 attacks of TBME in both knees between September 2016 and August 2017...
2018: Case Reports in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670261/body-weight-difference-between-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-multi-frequency-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-attenuates-the-equivalence-of-body-composition-assessment
#15
Duong Duc Pham, Seung Ku Lee, Chol Shin, Nan Hee Kim, Chae Hun Leem
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low agreement of body-composition analysis (BCA) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) has been reported. We examined whether this discrepancy is influenced by the precision of body weight (BW) measurement using DXA. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 1353 participants aged 53-83 years. A whole-body DXA scan and an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance-meter using four electronic frequencies of 5, 50, 250, and 500 kHz were employed for BCA...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665068/osteoporosis-and-hip-fracture-risk-from-routine-computed-tomography-scans-the-fracture-osteoporosis-and-ct-utilization-study-focus
#16
Annette L Adams, Heidi Fischer, David L Kopperdahl, David C Lee, Dennis M Black, Mary L Bouxsein, Shireen Fatemi, Sundeep Khosla, Eric S Orwoll, Ethel S Siris, Tony M Keaveny
Methods now exist for analyzing previously taken clinical computed tomography (CT) scans to measure a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-equivalent bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and a finite element analysis-derived femoral strength. We assessed the efficacy of this "biomechanical CT" (BCT) approach for identifying patients at high risk of incident hip fracture in a large clinical setting. Using a case-cohort design sampled from 111,694 women and men aged 65 or older who had a prior hip CT scan, a DXA within 3 years of the CT, and no prior hip fracture, we compared those with subsequent hip fracture (n = 1959) with randomly selected sex-stratified controls (n = 1979) and analyzed their CT scans blinded to all other data...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661685/natural-course-of-local-bone-mineralization-after-treatment-of-benign-or-borderline-bone-tumors-and-cysts-with-a-composite-ceramic-bone-graft-substitute
#17
Peter Frederik Horstmann, Werner Herbert Hettwer, Michael Mørk Petersen
After surgical bone tumor removal, filling of the bone defect is frequently performed using a bone graft or bone graft substitute. During follow-up, precise quantification of changes in bone mineral density, within the treated bone defect, is very difficult using conventional X-ray examinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pattern of resorption/biodegradation of a composite calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute and to quantify the bone defect healing with repeated dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656377/are-ct-based-finite-element-model-predictions-of-femoral-bone-strengthening-clinically-useful
#18
REVIEW
Marco Viceconti, Muhammad Qasim, Pinaki Bhattacharya, Xinshan Li
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study reviews the available literature to compare the accuracy of areal bone mineral density derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA-aBMD) and of subject-specific finite element models derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT-SSFE) in predicting bone strength measured experimentally on cadaver bones, as well as their clinical accuracy both in terms of discrimination and prediction. Based on this information, some basic cost-effectiveness calculations are performed to explore the use of QCT-SSFE instead of DXA-aBMD in (a) clinical studies with femoral strength as endpoint, (b) predictor of the risk of hip fracture in low bone mass patients...
April 14, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656305/do-reductions-in-out-of-pocket-expenses-for-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-scans-translate-to-reduced-fracture-incidence-amongst-older-australians-a-population-based-study
#19
Amanda L Stuart, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Julie A Pasco, Amelia G Betson, Kara L Holloway-Kew, Sarah M Hosking, Lana J Williams
This study aimed to compare fracture incidence in the elderly pre- and post-revision of bone density scan reimbursement guidelines, which changed in 2007. Fracture incidence by age group was calculated using population-specific data. Guideline changes did not appear to reduce fracture incidence in the study region located in south-eastern Australia. PURPOSE: In 2007, Medicare Australia revised reimbursement guidelines whereby individuals aged 70 years and over received reduced out-of-pocket expenses for dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans...
April 14, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642719/impact-of-pharmacist-physician-collaboration-on-osteoporosis-treatment-rates
#20
Brandi L Bowers, Amy M Drew, Christian Verry
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of women at high risk for osteoporotic fractures are not treated, despite known significant clinical and economic consequences of this prevalent condition. To date, this is the first study of this size and duration to examine the role of pharmacists in management of osteoporosis in a family medicine clinic. OBJECTIVE: To compare the initiation or continuation of prescription antifracture therapy in high-risk patients with collaborative pharmacist-physician to physician-only management; secondarily, to evaluate recommendation rates for antifracture therapy and calcium and vitamin D...
April 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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