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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149174/cystatin-b-cathepsin-l-and-d-related-to-surrogate-markers-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-children
#1
Magnus Dencker, Tina Tanha, Magnus K Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Lars B Andersen, Ola Thorsson
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated potential associations between novel biomarkers for cardiovascular disease and other surrogate markers for health. METHODS: Community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass (TBF) and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total body fat was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140875/bone-mineral-density-declines-twice-as-quickly-among-hiv-infected-women-compared-to-men
#2
Kristine M Erlandson, Jordan E Lake, Myung Sim, Julian Falutz, Carla M Prado, Ana Rita Domingues da Silva, Todd T Brown, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Initial declines in bone mineral density (BMD) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV are well described, but data on long-term changes and risk factors for decline, particularly among women, are limited. METHODS: HIV-infected men and women in the Modena Metabolic Clinic underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans every 6-12 months for up to 10 years (median 4.6 years). Mixed effect regression model in combined and sex-stratified models determined annual rates of decline and clinical factors associated with BMD...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135897/is-bmi-a-valid-measure-of-obesity-in-postmenopausal-women
#3
Hailey R Banack, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Kathleen M Hovey, Andrew Stokes
OBJECTIVE: Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used indicator of obesity status in clinical settings and population health research. However, there are concerns about the validity of BMI as a measure of obesity in postmenopausal women. Unlike BMI, which is an indirect measure of obesity and does not distinguish lean from fat mass, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides a direct measure of body fat and is considered a gold standard of adiposity measurement. The goal of this study is to examine the validity of using BMI to identify obesity in postmenopausal women relative to total body fat percent measured by DXA scan...
November 13, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134241/ct-based-evaluation-of-volumetric-bone-density-in-fragility-fractures-of-the-pelvis-a-matched-case-control-analysis
#4
D Schönenberg, R Guggenberger, D Frey, H-C Pape, H-P Simmen, G Osterhoff
This matched case-control study compared the computed tomography (CT)-based regional bone density of patients with fragility fractures of the sacrum to a control without fracture. Patients with a sacral fracture demonstrated a significantly lower regional bone density of the sacrum, the sacral bone density not being correlated with the BMD by DXA of the spine. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to compare the computed tomography-based regional bone density measured by Hounsfield units (HUs) in patients with and without fragility fractures of the sacrum...
November 13, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125120/canal-to-diaphysis-ratio-as-a-risk-factor-for-hip-fractures-and-hip-fracture-pattern
#5
Prasad Ellanti, Kunal Mohan, Andrew Moriarity, Niall Hogan, Tom McCarthy
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis and related fractures constitute a significant burden on modern healthcare. The standard method of diagnosing osteoporosis with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan is limited by accessibility and expense. The thickness of the cortex of the proximal femur on plain radiographs has been suggested to be a method for indicating osteoporosis and as a risk factor of hip fractures in the elderly. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of the canal-diaphysis ratio (CDR) as a risk factor for developing a hip fracture, excluding patients presenting under 50 years old, following high-energy trauma or pathological fractures...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111198/cumulative-effective-dose-and-cancer-risk-of-pediatric-population-in-repetitive-whole-body-scan-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#6
Martin Law, Wang-Kei Ma, Eva Chan, Candy Mui, Vivian Ma, Wai-Yin Ho, Lawrance Yip, Wendy Lam
This study aims to quantitatively evaluate the cumulative effective dose and associated cancer risk of pediatric patients of US and Hong Kong population undergoing repetitive whole-body scans with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during their diagnosis and follow-up periods. Organ-absorbed doses of pediatric patients undergoing DXA whole-body scan have been computer simulated using patient imaging parameters input to the Monte Carlo software PCXMC. Gender- and age-specific effective doses have been calculated with the simulated organ-absorbed doses using the ICRP-103 approach...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101669/25oh-vitamin-d-levels-in-pediatric-patients-affected-by-prader-willi-syndrome
#7
D Fintini, S Pedicelli, S Bocchini, C Bizzarri, G Grugni, M Cappa, A Crinò
PURPOSE: Obesity, insulin resistance, and puberty seem to influence and been inversely associated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels. To our knowledge, a study on 25OHD in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic form of obesity, is not yet available. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the 25OHD values in pediatric PWS subjects in comparison with a control group (CNT), highlighting the possible correlations with IR, BMD, body composition, pubertal stage, and GH therapy (GHT)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096403/impact-of-lean-mass-and-bone-density-on-glomerular-filtration-rate-estimation-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#8
Corinne Isnard Bagnis, Laurence Pieroni, Rachida Inaoui, Philippe Maksud, Stéphanie Lallauret, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Roland Tubiana, Christine Katlama, Gilbert Deray, Marie Courbebaisse, Jérôme Tourret, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
CONTEXT: Chronic kidney disease is a frequent complication in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Although previous studies have suggested that the CKD-EPI formula is appropriate to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in HIV-positive adults with normal kidney function, the optimal way to estimate GFR in those with Stage 3 chronic kidney disease is not known. Moreover, the impact of muscle mass on creatinine level and GFR estimation is unknown. AIM AND METHODS: Our study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of different diagnostic tests available compared to the gold standard measurement of GFR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094074/progressive-resistance-training-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-undergoing-concomitant-chemoradiotherapy
#9
Camilla K Lonkvist, Anders Vinther, Bo Zerahn, Eva Rosenbom, Atul S Deshmukh, Pernille Hojman, Julie Gehl
Objectives: Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma undergoing concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) frequently experience weight loss, especially loss of lean body mass (LBM), and reduced functional performance. This study investigated whether a 12-week hospital-based progressive resistance training (PRT) program during CCRT is feasible in the clinical setting before planning initiation of a larger randomized study which is the long-term goal. Study design: Prospective pilot study...
October 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084090/kinetic-contributions-of-the-upper-limbs-during-counter-movement-vertical-jumps-with-and-without-arm-swing
#10
Eric M Mosier, Andrew C Fry, Michael T Lane
This study examined the kinetic contributions of the upper extremities during counter-movement vertical jumps (CMVJ) while using arm swing (AS) or no-arm swing (NAS) conditions. Fourteen healthy men (X¯±SD; age = 24.1±3.9 yrs) volunteered for this investigation. Subjects performed in random order a total of 6 jumps consisting of 3 AS and 3 NAS CMVJ. A motion capture system was used to analyze the kinetic data. Paired samples t-tests were used to examine the subjects' mean differences in the AS and NAS CMVJ trials (p<0...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066635/measurement-of-bone-mineral-density-as-an-efficacy-marker-in-denosumab-treatment-of-giant-cell-tumour-of-bone
#11
Christian Veng, Peter Holmberg Jørgensen, Inger Krog-Mikkelsen, Maiken Stilling
Three patients with giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) in the lower extremity, where the only surgical treatment options were amputation or severe weakening of the bone, were treated with denosumab (D-mab) to strengthen the bone mass in the tumour. In order to quantify changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the GCTB lesion during D-mab treatment, we did repeated dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. The patients underwent operation after 3, 4 and 8 months of D-mab treatment, respectively. The tumours in all three patients responded markedly to D-mab, and up to 50% BMD increase was observed...
October 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066534/the-effect-of-long-term-bisphosphonate-therapy-on-trabecular-bone-strength-and-microcrack-density
#12
A Jin, J Cobb, U Hansen, R Bhattacharya, C Reinhard, N Vo, R Atwood, J Li, A Karunaratne, C Wiles, R Abel
OBJECTIVES: Bisphosphonates (BP) are the first-line treatment for preventing fragility fractures. However, concern regarding their efficacy is growing because bisphosphonate is associated with over-suppression of remodelling and accumulation of microcracks. While dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning may show a gain in bone density, the impact of this class of drug on mechanical properties remains unclear. We therefore sought to quantify the mechanical strength of bone treated with BP (oral alendronate), and correlate data with the microarchitecture and density of microcracks in comparison with untreated controls...
October 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065054/the-importance-of-body-composition-in-the-national-hockey-league-combine-physiologic-assessments
#13
Nathan A Chiarlitti, Patrick Delisle-Houde, Ryan E R Reid, Cory Kennedy, Ross E Andersen
The National Hockey League (NHL) combine was designed to assess draft-eligible players based on body composition, speed, power, and strength. The importance of body composition in the battery of combine physical tests was investigated and differences in results based on position were explored. Thirty-seven elite male Canadian university hockey players (age = 22.86 ± 1.55 years, weight = 87.21 ± 6.52 kg, height = 181.69 ± 6.19 cm) participated in the study at the beginning of their hockey season. All participants underwent physical testing (as outlined in the 2016 NHL combine) and one total body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan to measure body composition...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062599/investigating-the-level-of-agreement-of-two-positioning-protocols-when-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-the-assessment-of-body-composition
#14
Flinn Shiel, Carl Persson, Vini Simas, James Furness, Mike Climstein, Ben Schram
BACKGROUND: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a commonly used instrument for analysing segmental body composition (BC). The information from the scan guides the clinician in the treatment of conditions such as obesity and can be used to monitor recovery of lean mass following injury. Two commonly used DXA positioning protocols have been identified-the Nana positioning protocol and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both protocols have been shown to be reliable...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046970/a-focused-evaluation-of-lumbar-spine-trabecular-bone-score-in-the-first-year-post-menarche
#15
Jodi N Dowthwaite, R Winzenrieth, N Binkley, D Krueger, T A Scerpella
Trabecular bone score, an index of lumbar spine trabecular texture, has not been explored fully in adolescent girls. Our cross-sectional analysis supported the hypothesis that "adult normal" trabecular bone score has been achieved by the end of the first year post-menarche, providing a potential screening tool, independent from bone density. INTRODUCTION: Trabecular bone score (TBS) evaluates lumbar spine (LS) trabecular texture from DXA images. Limited evidence suggests low TBS in pre-pubertal girls...
October 18, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043391/analysis-of-the-evolution-of-cortical-and-trabecular-bone-compartments-in-the-proximal-femur-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-3d-dxa
#16
L Gifre, L Humbert, A Muxi, L Del Rio, J Vidal, E Portell, A Monegal, N Guañabens, P Peris
Marked trabecular and cortical bone loss was observed at the proximal femur short-term after spinal cord injury (SCI). 3D-DXA provided measurement of vBMD evolution at both femoral compartments and cortical thinning, thereby suggesting that this technique could be useful for bone analysis in these patients. INTRODUCTION: SCI is associated with a marked increase in bone loss and risk of osteoporosis development short-term after injury. 3D-DXA is a new imaging analysis technique providing 3D analysis of the cortical and trabecular bone from DXA scans...
October 17, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038836/automated-dxa-based-finite-element-analysis-for-hip-fracture-risk-stratification-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
S Yang, W D Leslie, Y Luo, A L Goertzen, S Ahmed, L M Ward, I Delubac, L M Lix
Fracture risk indices (FRIs) generated from DXA-based finite element analysis were associated with hip fracture independent of FRAX score computed with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). Prospective studies are warranted to determine whether FRIs represent an improvement over BMD for predicting incident hip fractures. INTRODUCTION: The study aims to examine the association between prior hip fracture and FRIs derived from automated finite element analysis (FEA) of DXA hip scans. Femoral neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric FRIs were calculated as the von Mises stress induced by a sideways fall divided by the bone yield stress over the specified region of interest (ROI)...
October 6, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029190/pharmacokinetics-of-igf-i-in-papp-a2-deficient-patients-growth-response-and-effects-on-glucose-and-bone-density
#18
Catalina Cabrera-Salcedo, Tomoyuki Mizuno, Leah Tyzinski, Melissa Andrew, Alexander A Vinks, Jan Frystyk, Halley Wasserman, Catherine M Gordon, Vivian Hwa, Philippe Backeljauw, Andrew Dauber
Context: PAPP-A2 cleaves IGFBP-3 and -5 releasing free IGF-I. Homozygous mutations in PAPP-A2 result in growth failure with elevated total but low free IGF-I. Objective: To determine the 24-hour pharmacokinetic profile of free and total IGF-I after a dose of rhIGF-I. We describe the growth response and effects on glucose metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) after one year of rhIGF-I therapy. Design and patients: Three affected siblings, their heterozygous parents, and two healthy controls participated...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988694/do-textiles-impact-dxa-bone-density-or-body-composition-results
#19
E Siglinsky, N Binkley, D Krueger
External artifacts can confound dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. It is often accepted that garments free of metal do not affect DXA results; however, little data exist in this regard. It is plausible that some textiles absorb radiation and thereby alter DXA results. We hypothesized that some dense or synthetic textiles, for example, reflective materials, might alter DXA-measured bone and soft tissue mass. Hologic and GE Lunar spine phantoms and a Bioclinica prototype total body phantom were imaged on a GE Lunar iDXA and Prodigy densitometer...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954488/the-peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomographic-and-densitometric-analysis-of-skeletal-tissue-in-male-wistar-rats-after-chromium-sulfate-treatment
#20
Marek Bieńko, Radosław Piotr Radzki, Dariusz Wolski
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates the effects of three different doses of chromium sulphate on bone density and the tomographic parameters of skeletal tissue of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The experiment was performed on 40 male Wistar rats which received, by gavage, during 90 days, a chromium sulphate in either a daily dose of 400, 600 or 800 µg/kg BW. At the end of experiment, the rats were scanned using the densitometry method (DXA) to determine the bone mineral density, bone mineral content of total skeleton and vertebral column (L2-L4) and parameters of body composition (Lean Mass and Fat Mass)...
September 21, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
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