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DXA scan

Douglas C Chang, Paolo Piaggi, Joushua E Burkholder, Susanne B Votruba, Jonathan Krakoff, Marci E Gluck
Elevated body mass index and post-prandial state are associated with disadvantageous choices on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Whether physiological factors including percent body fat, and peripheral glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, are associated with IGT performance is unknown. In196 healthy adults without diabetes, we measured body fat by DXA scan, glucose, insulin and leptin (n=138) concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test and IGT performance after a standardized meal. Glucose was not associated with IGT performance...
October 13, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Carmelo Messina, Luca Maria Sconfienza, Michele Bandirali, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Fabio Massimo Ulivieri
Several imaging methods for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis exist. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely available and commonly used for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). Central DXA has several advantages: It has very good reproducibility, administers a negligible radiation dose to the patient, and BMD values obtained by DXA relate to fracture risk. Nevertheless, DXA has some technical limitations that should be recognized by those physicians who interpret and report this examination...
July 2016: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
Solvey Schüle, Jean-Benoît Rossel, Diana Frey, Luc Biedermann, Michael Scharl, Jonas Zeitz, Natália Freitas-Queiroz, Valérie Pittet, Stephan R Vavricka, Gerhard Rogler, Benjamin Misselwitz
BACKGROUND: Low bone mineral density (BMD) remains a frequent problem in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). There is no general agreement regarding osteoporosis screening in IBD patients. METHODS: Cases of low BMD and disease characteristics were retrieved from 3172 patients of the Swiss IBD cohort study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted for predictive modeling. In a subgroup of 877 patients, 253 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were available for validation...
October 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Lan T Ho-Pham, Thai Q Lai, Uyen D T Nguyen, Quoc V Bui, Tuan V Nguyen
To test the hypothesis that the relationship between fat mass (FM) and bone mineral density (BMD) is mediated by leptin. The study involved 611 individuals aged 20-89 years who were randomly sampled from Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). BMD at the femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS), and whole body (WB) was measured by DXA. Lean mass and FM were derived from the WB DXA scan. Leptin was measured by ELISA (DRG Diagnostics, Germany). The regression method was used to partition the variance of leptin and FM on BMD...
October 8, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Sara L Arena, Kelsey McLaughlin, Anh-Dung Nguyen, James M Smoliga, Kevin R Ford
Athletic individuals may differ in body segment inertial parameter (BSIP) estimates due to differences in body composition, and this may influence calculation of joint kinetics. The purposes of this study were to 1) compare BSIPs predicted by the method introduced by de Leva(1) with DXA-derived BSIPs in collegiate female soccer players, and 2) examine the effects of these BSIPs estimation methods on joint moment and power calculations during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Twenty female NCAA Division 1 soccer players were recruited...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Francyne Kubaski, Heidi H Kecskemethy, H Theodore Harcke, Shunji Tomatsu
To date, the only published reports of bone mineral density (BMD) in MPS IV involve patients with MPS IVA; no reports exist describing BMD for MPS IVB. In this prospective study of BMD in three patients with MPS IVB, BMD was acquired by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), and lateral distal femur (LDF). Functional abilities, ambulatory status, medical history, and height z-score were evaluated. Three patients with MPS IVB (two females), aged 17.7, 31.4 and 31.7 years, were evaluated...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Michael W J Davie, Sally F Evans, Christopher A Sharp
Aims. To investigate regional lower limb bone density and associations with weight, PTH, and bone breakdown in coeliac men. Methods. From whole body DXA scans bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 28 coeliac men, in the lower limb (subdivided into 6 regions, 3 being metaphyseal (mainly trabecular) and 2 diaphyseal (mainly cortical)). BMD at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine L2-4, body weight, height, serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and urinary calcium and NTx/Cr, a measure of bone breakdown, were also measured...
2016: Journal of Osteoporosis
Prashant Singh, John J Garber
BACKGROUND: There are no studies evaluating the implementation of American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) guidelines on osteoporosis screening in coeliac disease. AIMS: To investigate implementation of osteoporosis screening guidelines in coeliac disease patients and determine how often bone mineral density (BMD) assessment leads to therapeutic intervention. METHODS: We screened all patients with biopsy-proven coeliac disease at our center from 2003 to 2013 and collected data on indication and results of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA) and therapeutic interventions...
September 5, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Jordan Gaines, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Susan L Calhoun, Fan He, Duanping Liao, Marjorie D Sawyer, Edward O Bixler
Only a handful of studies, primarily in clinical samples, have reported an association between obesity, inflammation, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children and adolescents. No studies, however, have examined the pathogenetic link between visceral adiposity, systemic inflammation, and incident OSA in a large general population sample using objective measures of sleep and body fat. Adolescents (n=392; mean age 17.0±2.2y, 54.0% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort (PSCC) underwent 9-hour overnight polysomnography; a DXA scan to assess body fat distribution; and a single fasting blood draw for the assessment of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6 sR), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1A (TNFR1), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, and adiponectin levels via ELISA...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
SatyaVati Rana, Rajesh Kumar Morya, Aastha Malik, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Naresh Sachdeva, Gaurav Sharma
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is chronic metabolic disorder. Common gastrointestinal symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients are flatulence, constipation and/or diarrhea. Reason for these may be lactose intolerance leading to change in vitamin D, Calcium and parathyroid hormone which further regulate bone mineralization. AIM: To measure lactose intolerance, vitamin D, calcium and parathyroid hormone in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 type 2 diabetic patients attending Endocrinology Clinic in PGI, Chandigarh and 150 age and sex matched healthy controls were enrolled...
November 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Caroline A Gjorup, Bo Zerahn, Sarah Juul, Helle W Hendel, Karl Bang Christensen, Lisbet R Hölmich
Lower limb lymphedema is a dynamic condition in which tissue composition and volume measurements are affected. Various definitions of lower limb lymphedema exist but volume differences between the limbs are widely used. It is therefore necessary to have a readily available noninvasive measurement technique allowing multiple measurements of the lower limbs. This study investigated the repeatability of duplicate volume and regional body composition measurements of the lower limb using the GE Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner Prodigy (GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Esther Kinning, Martin McMillan, Sheila Shepherd, Miep Helfrich, Rob Vant Hof, Christopher Adams, Heather Read, Daniel M Wall, S Faisal Ahmed
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of a chromosome 4:20 imbalance with osteoporosis in three related children. Bone biochemistry, bone turnover markers, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning were performed in all three cases and bone biopsy and histomorphometry in one. The chromosome imbalance was delineated by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and analyzed for candidate genes. A potential candidate gene within the deleted region is caspase-3, previously linked to low bone mineral density (BMD) in heterozygous mice thus caspase-3 activity was measured in cases and controls...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
G Isanne Schacter, William D Leslie
In the absence of a fragility fracture, osteoporosis is usually diagnosed from bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osteoporosis is an increasingly prevalent disease, as is diabetes [in particular type 2 diabetes (T2D)], in part due to aging populations worldwide. It has been suggested that an increased risk of fracture may be another complication ensuing from longstanding diabetes. The purpose of this review is to concentrate on skeletal parameters and techniques readily available from DXA scanning, and their utility in routine clinical practice for predicting fracture risk...
September 3, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Carlene A Johnson Stoklossa, Mary Forhan, Raj S Padwal, Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Carla M Prado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to explore the practical considerations for body composition assessment of adults with class II/III obesity. Studies assessing adults (18-64 years) with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m(2) with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and/or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included. RECENT FINDINGS: Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. Five considerations were identified: variances in equipment and technology, equipment weight capacity, subject positioning, tissue penetration, and total body hydration...
September 3, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Joshua Szczepanski, Tamara D Hew-Butler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
A Spangenberg, N Maghsoodi, D Dulnoan, A E Moore, S Edwards, M L Frost, G Hampson
Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) are closely related to bone mass (BM) in post-menopausal women, although their relative importance is unclear. Angiogenic factors which control angiogenesis may influence BM, LM and FM. The aim of the study was to compare the contribution of LM and FM to bone mineral density (BMD) and the association between these tissues and circulating angiogenic factors. The study population comprised of 392 post-menopausal women aged mean [SD] 61.8 [6.4] years. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), neck of femur and total hip (TH) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
August 30, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Laura Al-Dakhiel Winkler, Jacob Stampe Frølich, Maya Schulpen, René Klinkby Støving
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between body composition measures and menstrual status in a large sample of adult patients with a history of anorexia nervosa and to calculate the predicted probability of resumption of menstrual function. Furthermore, to establish whether fat percentage is superior to body mass index in predicting the resumption of menses. METHOD: One hundred and thirteen adult women with a history of anorexia nervosa underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and completed questionnaires regarding medication prescription and menstrual function...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Erik Lindgren, Magnus K Karlsson, Mattias Lorentzon, Bjorn E Rosengren
By identifying individuals with low peak bone mass (PBM) at young age, early targeted interventions to reduce future fracture risk could be possible. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is in many ways superior to the gold standard dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as cortical and trabecular compartments as well as the volumetric density and bone structure can be examined separately. Because each of these traits contributes independently to bone strength, it is probable that pQCT provides an even better fracture risk estimation than DXA...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Alice S Ryan, Frederick M Ivey, Monica C Serra, Joseph Hartstein, Charlene E Hafer-Macko
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in stroke survivors using different methodologies, and compare a subset of the stroke group to age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched nonstroke control counterparts. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: A Veterans Affairs medical center and a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Mild to moderately disabled participants >6 months after onset of stroke aged 40 to 84 years (N=190, 61% men, 57% African American; mean BMI ± SEM, 29±1kg/m(2))...
August 13, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Dorte Glintborg, Maria Houborg Petersen, Pernille Ravn, Anne Pernille Hermann, Marianne Andersen
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by obesity and insulin resistance. Measures of regional obesity may be used to predict insulin resistance. In the present study we compared fat distribution in patients with PCOS vs. controls and established the best measure of fat mass to predict insulin resistance in patients with PCOS MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was cross-sectional in an academic tertiary-care medical center in 167 premenopausal women with PCOS and 110 controls matched for ethnicity, BMI and age...
August 16, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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