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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222031/a-retrospective-analysis-of-longitudinal-changes-in-bone-mineral-content-in-cystic-fibrosis
#1
Adela Chirita-Emandi, Sheila Shepherd, Andreas Kyriakou, Jane D McNeilly, Carol Dryden, Donna Corrigan, Anne Devenny, Syed Faisal Ahmed
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the longitudinal changes in bone mineral content and influencing factors, in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: One hundred children (50 females) had dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed. Of these, 48 and 24 children had two to three scans, respectively over 10 years of follow-up. DXA data were expressed as lumbar spine bone mineral content standard deviation score (LSBMCSDS) adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and bone area...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197890/relationships-among-diet-physical-activity-and-dual-plane-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-bone-outcomes-in-pre-pubertalgirls
#2
Jie Ren, Lynn S Brann, Kay S Bruening, Tamara A Scerpella, Jodi N Dowthwaite
: In pre-pubertal girls, nutrient intakes and non-aquatic organized activity were evaluated as factors in vertebral body bone mass, structure, and strength. Activity, vitamin B12, and dietary fiber predicted bone outcomes most consistently. Exercise and vitamin B12 appear beneficial, whereas high fiber intake appears to be adverse for vertebral body development. PURPOSE: Childhood development sets the baseline for adult fracture risk. Most studies evaluate development using postero-anterior (PA) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) areal bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and bone mineral apparent density...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197643/machine-learning-principles-can-improve-hip-fracture-prediction
#3
Christian Kruse, Pia Eiken, Peter Vestergaard
Apply machine learning principles to predict hip fractures and estimate predictor importance in Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-scanned men and women. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data from two Danish regions between 1996 and 2006 were combined with national Danish patient data to comprise 4722 women and 717 men with 5 years of follow-up time (original cohort n = 6606 men and women). Twenty-four statistical models were built on 75% of data points through k-5, 5-repeat cross-validation, and then validated on the remaining 25% of data points to calculate area under the curve (AUC) and calibrate probability estimates...
February 14, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181695/later-age-at-onset-of-independent-walking-is-associated-with-lower-bone-strength-at-fracture-prone-sites-in-older-men
#4
Alex Ireland, Stella Muthuri, Joern Rittweger, Judith E Adams, Kate A Ward, Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper
Later age at onset of independent walking is associated with lower leg bone strength in childhood and adolescence. However it is unknown whether these associations persist into older age, or whether they are evident at axial (central) or upper limb sites. Therefore we examined walking age obtained at 2y and bone outcomes obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans at 60-64y in a nationally-representative cohort study of British people, the MRC National Survey of Health and Development...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179094/pediatric-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-poses-risk-for-low-bone-mineral-density-at-early-adulthood
#5
Anat Guz-Mark, Firas Rinawi, Oxana Egotubov, Ilan Shimon, Raanan Shamir, Amit Assa
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known to pose a risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adults. We aimed to evaluate the impact of pediatric-onset IBD on BMD in adulthood. METHODS: Records of pediatric-IBD patients were retrospectively reviewed for documentation of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans in adulthood. BMD was expressed as z-score. RESULTS: Sixty one patients were included. Mean (±SD) age at diagnosis was 14...
January 20, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169450/quantitating-the-effect-of-prosthesis-design-on-femoral-remodeling-using-high-resolution-region-free-densitometric-analysis-dxa-rfa
#6
Mohsen Farzi, Richard M Morris, Jeannette Penny, Lang Yang, Jose M Pozo, Søren Overgaard, Alejandro F Frangi, J Mark Wilkinson
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard method used to study bone mineral density (BMD) after total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, the subtle, spatially-complex changes in bone mass due to strain-adaptive bone remodeling relevant to different prosthesis designs are not readily resolved using conventional DXA analysis. DXA region free analysis (DXA RFA) is a novel computational image analysis technique that provides a high-resolution quantitation of periprosthetic BMD. Here we applied the technique to quantitate the magnitude and areal size of periprosthetic BMD changes using scans acquired during two previous randomized clinical trials (2004 to 2009); one comparing three cemented prosthesis design geometries, and the other comparing a hip resurfacing versus a conventional cementless prosthesis...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166744/effect-of-large-weight-reductions-on-measured-and-estimated-kidney-function
#7
Bernt Johan von Scholten, Frederik Persson, Maria S Svane, Tine W Hansen, Sten Madsbad, Peter Rossing
BACKGROUND: When patients experience large weight loss, muscle mass may be affected followed by changes in plasma creatinine (pCr). The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) include pCr. We hypothesised that a large weight loss reduces muscle mass and pCr causing increase in eGFR (creatinine-based equations), whereas measured GFR (mGFR) and cystatin C-based eGFR would be unaffected if adjusted for body surface area. METHODS: Prospective, intervention study including 19 patients...
February 6, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159711/quality-in-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-scans
#8
Sarah L Morgan, Ginnie L Prater
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD), making the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and for monitoring changes in BMD over time. DXA data are also used in the determination of fracture risk. Procedural steps in DXA scanning can be broken down into scan acquisition, analysis, interpretation, and reporting. Careful attention to quality control pertaining to these procedural steps should theoretically be beneficial in patient management. Inattention to procedural steps and errors that may occur at each step has the possibility of providing information that would inform inappropriate clinical decisions, generating unnecessary healthcare expenses and ultimately causing avoidable harm to patients...
January 31, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155836/fracture-liaison-services-polish-experience-methods-of-secondary-prevention-of-osteoporotic-fractures
#9
Jarosław Amarowicz, Edward Czerwiński, Katarzyna Zając, Anna Kumorek
BACKGROUND: Fragility fractures are a major challenge to health systems around the world. The risk of a subsequent fracture may increase even 11-fold after one's first fracture event. A coordinator-based system (Fracture Liaison Services) was established in Poland in order to fill the gap in the care of patients with osteoporotic fractures. In the past years, the FLS has become a crucial part of orthopaedic facilities worldwide, bringing benefits to patients and savings to health systems' budgets...
November 30, 2016: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155141/compliance-to-the-joint-commission-proposed-core-measure-set-on-osteoporosis-associated-fracture-review-of-different-secondary-fracture-prevention-programs-in-an-open-medical-system-from-2010-to-2015
#10
Ma Conchitina Fojas, Lauren T Southerland, Laura S Phieffer, Julie A Stephens, Tanya Srivastava, Steven W Ing
: There are care gaps in the evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis after a fragility fracture. The Joint Commission is considering adoption of core measures. We compared compliance between two secondary fracture prevention programs in our institution. Incorporating strengths of both may provide the best outcomes for secondary fracture prevention. PURPOSE: There are significant care gaps in the evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis after occurrence of fragility fracture...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150035/dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-underestimates-in-vivo-lumbar-spine-bone-mineral-density-in-overweight-rats
#11
Rim Cherif, Laurence Vico, Norbert Laroche, Mohsen Sakly, Nebil Attia, Cedric Lavet
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the most widely used technique for measuring areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, several studies have shown inaccuracy, with either overestimation or underestimation of DXA BMD measurements in the case of overweight or obese individuals. We have designed an overweight rat model based on junk food to compare the effect of obesity on in vivo and ex vivo BMD and bone mineral content measurements. Thirty-eight 6-month old male rats were given a chow diet (n = 13) or a high fat and sucrose diet (n = 25), with the calorie amount being kept the same in the two groups, for 19 weeks...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150034/association-of-dpp-4-activity-with-bmd-body-composition-and-incident-hip-fracture-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#12
L D Carbone, P Bůžková, H A Fink, J A Robbins, M Bethel, C M Isales, W D Hill
: There was no association of plasma DPP-4 activity levels with bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, or incident hip fractures in a cohort of elderly community-dwelling adults. INTRODUCTION: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inactivates several key hormones including those that stimulate postprandial insulin secretion, and DPP-4 inhibitors (gliptins) are approved to treat diabetes. While DPP-4 is known to modulate osteogenesis, the relationship between DPP-4 activity and skeletal health is uncertain...
February 2, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146115/normal-bone-mineral-density-associates-with-duodenal-mucosa-healing-in-adult-patients-with-celiac-disease-on-a-gluten-free-diet
#13
Tiziana Larussa, Evelina Suraci, Maria Imeneo, Raffaella Marasco, Francesco Luzza
Impairment of bone mineral density (BMD) is frequent in celiac disease (CD) patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD). The normalization of intestinal mucosa is still difficult to predict. We aim to investigate the relationship between BMD and duodenal mucosa healing (DMH) in CD patients on a GFD. Sixty-four consecutive CD patients on a GFD were recruited. After a median period of a 6-year GFD (range 2-33 years), patients underwent repeat duodenal biopsy and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Twenty-four patients (38%) displayed normal and 40 (62%) low BMD, 47 (73%) DMH, and 17 (27%) duodenal mucosa lesions...
January 31, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132392/determinants-of-volumetric-breast-density-in-chilean-premenopausal-women
#14
Ana Pereira, Maria Luisa Garmendia, Ricardo Uauy, Paulina Neira, Sandra Lopez-Arana, Serghei Malkov, John Shepherd
PURPOSE: High mammographic breast density (BD) is a strong risk factor of breast cancer; however, little is known in women under 40 years of age. Recently, dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) has been developed as a low-dose method to measure BD in young populations. Thus, our aims were to describe BD in relation to risk factors in Chilean women under 40 years old and to explore the equivalence of DXA to mammography for the measurement of BD. METHODS: We selected 192 premenopausal Chilean female participants of the DERCAM study for whom we have anthropometric, sociodemographic, and gyneco-obstetric data...
April 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108802/opportunistic-screening-for-osteoporosis-by-routine-ct-in-southern-europe
#15
Elena Alacreu, David Moratal, Estanislao Arana
: Feasibility evaluation of early detection of osteoporosis in oncologic patients by bone mineral density (BMD) on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans performed for other clinical indications, by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference. Abdominal CT images can identify patients with osteoporosis BMD without additional radiation exposure or cost. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of early detection of osteoporosis by bone mineral density (BMD) on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans performed in oncologic patients, comparing calibrated and uncalibrated measurements by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference...
January 20, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105580/pixel-based-dxa-derived-structural-properties-strongly-correlate-with-pqct-measures-at-the-one-third-distal-femur-site
#16
Alexander M Baker, David W Wagner, B Jenny Kiratli, Gary S Beaupre
While bone mineral density has been traditionally used to quantify fracture risk for individuals with spinal cord injuries, recent studies are including engineering measurements such as section modulus and cross sectional moment of inertia. These are almost exclusively calculated by peripheral QCT scanners which, unlike DXA scanners, are rarely found in clinical settings. Using fifty-four fresh frozen femora, we developed and validated a pixel-by-pixel method to calculate engineering properties at the distal femur using a Hologic QDR-1000 W DXA scanner and compared them against similar parameters measured using a Stratec XCT-3000 peripheral QCT scanner...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099754/addressing-the-crisis-in-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis-a-path-forward
#17
Sundeep Khosla, Jane A Cauley, Juliet Compston, Douglas P Kiel, Clifford Rosen, Kenneth G Saag, Elizabeth Shane
Considerable data and media attention have highlighted a potential "crisis" in the treatment of osteoporosis. Specifically, despite the availability of several effective drugs to prevent fractures, many patients who need pharmacological therapy are either not being prescribed these medications or if prescribed a medication, are simply not taking it. Although there are many reasons for this "gap" in the treatment of osteoporosis, a major factor is physician and patient concerns over the risk of side effects, especially atypical femur fractures (AFFs) related to bisphosphonate (and perhaps other antiresorptive) drug therapy...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096530/associations-between-body-mass-index-related-genetic-variants-and-adult-body-composition-the-fenland-cohort-study
#18
E A D Clifton, F R Day, E De Lucia Rolfe, N G Forouhi, S Brage, S J Griffin, N J Wareham, K K Ong
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Body mass index (BMI) is a surrogate measure of adiposity but does not distinguish fat from lean or bone mass. The genetic determinants of BMI are thought to predominantly influence adiposity but this has not been confirmed. Here we characterise the association between BMI-related genetic variants and body composition in adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among 9667 adults aged 29-64 years from the Fenland study, a genetic risk score for BMI (BMI-GRS) was calculated for each individual as the weighted sum of BMI-increasing alleles across 96 reported BMI-related variants...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074250/cortical-porosity-exhibits-accelerated-rate-of-change-in-peri-compared-with-post-menopausal-women
#19
L A Burt, J L Bhatla, D A Hanley, S K Boyd
: The rate of change in bone density was not different between peri- and post-menopausal women. Differences in rate of change were observed in bone microarchitecture, specifically cortical porosity (Ct.Po), where peri-menopausal women increased +9% per year compared with the +6% per year for post-menopausal women. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare changes in bone density and microarchitecture in peri- and post-menopausal women over 6 years...
January 10, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062546/the-clinical-importance-of-quantifying-fat-distribution-during-androgen-deprivation
#20
Stephen John Foulkes, Robin M Daly, Steve Fraser
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is now considered a mainstay in the treatment of metastatic and locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Despite well-established benefits of ADT in relation to overall survival, this treatment has been associated with a number of adverse effects, particularly with regard to key cardiometabolic risk factors including the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and increases in total and regional fat mass. In non-ADT populations, increased levels of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are thought to be a key mediator of the increased cardiometabolic risk associated with weight gain, but this has received limited attention in men treated with ADT...
January 6, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
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