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DXA scan

Galateia J Kazakia, Julio Carballido-Gamio, Andrew Lai, Lorenzo Nardo, Luca Facchetti, Courtney Pasco, Chiyuan A Zhang, Misung Han, Amanda Hutton Parrott, Phyllis Tien, Roland Krug
Background: There is evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are independent risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture which is not solely explained by changes in bone mineral density. Thus, we hypothesized that the assessment of trabecular microstructure might play an important role for bone quality in this population and might explain the increased fracture risk. In this study, we have assessed bone microstructure in the proximal femur using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as in the extremities using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in HIV-infected men and healthy controls and compared these findings to those based on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) which is the standard clinical parameter for the diagnosis of osteoporosis...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Shuman Yang, Yunhua Luo, Lang Yang, Enrico Dall'Ara, Richard Eastell, Andrew L Goertzen, Eugene V McCloskey, William D Leslie, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based finite element analysis (FEA) has been studied for assessment of hip fracture risk. Femoral strength (FS) is the maximum force that the femur can sustain before its weakest region reaches the yielding limit. Fracture risk index (FRI), which also considers subject-specific impact force, is defined as the ratio of von Mises stress induced by a sideways fall to the bone yield stress over the proximal femur. We compared risk stratification for prior hip fracture using FS and FRI derived from DXA-based FEA...
March 8, 2018: Bone
Leticia Goni, Dianjianyi Sun, Yoriko Heianza, Tiange Wang, Tao Huang, J Alfredo Martínez, Xiaoyun Shang, George A Bray, Steven R Smith, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
PURPOSE: A common variant of the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) gene has been related to increased signaling of melatonin, a hormone previously associated with body fatness mainly through effects on energy metabolism. We examined whether the MTNR1B variant affects changes of body fatness and composition in response to a dietary weight loss intervention. METHODS: The MTNR1B rs10830963 variant was genotyped for 722 overweight and obese individuals, who were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient composition...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Ashraf S Gorgey, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, William A Bauman, Robert A Adler
STUDY DESIGN: Repeated measures design. OBJECTIVES: To determine the reproducibility of total-body and regional-body composition assessments from a total-body scan using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Twenty-four individuals with SCI completed within-day short-term precision testing by repositioning study participants between scans. An additional and separate cohort of 22 individuals with SCI were scanned twice on a GE-Lunar DXA scanner separated by a 4-week interval to assess the long-term precision assessment...
March 6, 2018: Spinal Cord
Kitty S Chan, Marina Mourtzakis, Lisa Aronson Friedman, Victor D Dinglas, Catherine L Hough, E Wesley Ely, Peter E Morris, Ramona O Hopkins, Dale M Needham
Survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) experience severe muscle wasting. Upper arm anthropometrics can provide a quick, non-invasive estimate of muscle status, but its accuracy is unknown. This study examines the accuracy of upper arm percent muscle area (UAMA) with reference measures of lean mass from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Data are from 120 ARDS survivors participating in a multicenter national study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, by patient sex, demonstrated that UAMA did no better than chance in discriminating low appendicular skeletal muscle mass identified using DXA findings (c-statistics, 6 months: 0...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Inusha Panigrahi, Siyaram Didel, Harita Kirpal, Ravishankara Bellampalli, Shabna Miyanath, Nandita Mullapudi, Sudha Rao
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited disorder with osteoporosis and recurrent fractures. Children presenting with recurrent fractures and bowing of limbs have severe form of the disorder. Patients carrying homozygous WNT1 mutations have more frequent fractures while heterozygous carriers of the mutation in WNT1 gene are also found to have early onset osteoporosis. We identified a family with novel WNT1 mutation. The index case, a 6 month old child presented with fractures from early infancy. Next generation sequencing (NGS)done for the child didn't show any variations in other OI genes including COL1A1, COL1A2, SERPINH1, CRTAP, LEPRE1, PP1B, 1F1TM5 and BMP1 genes...
February 23, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Alexandra Fane De Salis, Reza Saatchi, Paul Dimitri
Vertebral fractures are common in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Current imaging methods for fracture detection (X-ray and DXA) use ionising radiation. This pilot study explored whether the alteration in blood flow in vertebral fractures results in skin temperature changes that may be detected using high resolution thermal imaging (HRTI) and thus assist diagnosis and monitoring of fractures in OI patients. Eleven participants aged 5-18 years with OI and known vertebral fractures were enrolled...
February 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Malia N M Blue, Katie R Hirsch, Eric T Trexler, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to estimate body volume (BV) for use in a four-compartment (4C) body composition model in an overweight/obese population. Body composition of 61 overweight/obese adults (Age: 37.3 ± 10.0 yrs; Height: 170.2 ± 9.5 cm; Body mass: 97.1 ± 17.4 kg) was measured by two methods: a criterion 4C model and a DXA-derived BV 4C model. For both models, bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy was used to estimate total body water; total body bone mineral content was measured by a full body DXA scan...
February 23, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Tanvi S Sharma, Gabriel Somarriba, Kristopher L Arheart, Daniela Neri, M Sunil Mathew, Patricia L Graham, Gwendolyn B Scott, Tracie L Miller
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has allowed youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV+) to live into adulthood, but many youth may experience metabolic and body composition changes that predispose to greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This longitudinal study evaluated changes in body composition measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cohort of PHIV+ youth compared to HIV- controls over a 7-year period. METHODS: PHIV+ youth and HIV- controls were prospectively enrolled in a single-site study to assess nutrition and CVD risk...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Patrizia Calella, Giuliana Valerio, Matt Thomas, Helen McCabe, Jake Taylor, Malcolm Brodlie, Mario Siervo
OBJECTIVES: Body mass index (BMI) has significant limitations when assessing nutritional status in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We evaluated whether measurements of lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) are more sensitive nutritional parameters by testing their association with pulmonary function in adolescent patients with CF. METHODS: Sixty-nine male and female adolescents with CF were studied (age: 14.5 ± 2.3, BMI: 19.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2 )...
December 5, 2017: Nutrition
Gary Kiebzak, Walter R Sassard
Introduction Bone mineral density (BMD) measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is typically used to assess fracture risk. However, other factors such as bone size and the forward momentum of a fall (a function of body size) can also potentially influence fracture risk, but are understudied. This report describes the characteristics of a cohort of Caucasian pre- and postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures (DRF) after falling onto an outstretched hand. Methods The fracture cohort comprised entries in an institutional review board-approved registry of study patients who had had DXA scans...
December 14, 2017: Curēus
Angelo A Licata, Neil Binkley, Steven M Petak, Pauline M Camacho
OBJECTIVE: High-quality dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are necessary for accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis and monitoring of therapy; however, DXA scan reports may contain errors that cause confusion about diagnosis and treatment. This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology consensus statement was generated to draw attention to many common technical problems affecting DXA report conclusions and provide guidance on how to address them to ensure that patients receive appropriate osteoporosis care...
February 2018: Endocrine Practice
Signe Wildt, Lars K Munck, Sabine Becker, Helle Brockstedt, Ole K Bonderup, Mette F Hitz
OBJECTIVES: Patients with microscopic colitis (MC) have several risk factors for osteoporosis. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in MC is unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate bone mineral status in MC. METHODS: Patients with MC and disease activity within the last 2 years were included. Bone turnover markers were analyzed and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at inclusion and after one year...
February 22, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
I Duran, K Martakis, S Hamacher, C Stark, O Semler, E Schoenau
The aim was to describe the effect of age, gender, height, different stages of human life, and body fat on the functional muscle-bone unit. All these factors had a significant effect on the functional muscle-bone unit and should be addressed when assessing functional muscle-bone unit in children and adults. INTRODUCTION: For the clinical evaluation of the functional muscle-bone unit, it was proposed to evaluate the adaptation of the bone to the acting forces. A frequently used parameter for this is the total body less head bone mineral content (TBLH-BMC) determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in relation to the lean body mass (LBM by DXA)...
February 17, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Barbara Resnick, J Richard Hebel, Ann L Gruber-Baldini, Gregory E Hicks, Marc C Hochberg, Denise Orwig, Marty Eastlack, Jay Magaziner
The purpose of this study was to test a model of the factors influencing physical activity, physical function and physical performance at 2 months post hip fracture and compare model fit between men and women. Age, cognitive status, comorbidities, pain, resilience, bone mineral density, total body lean mass, total body fat and grip strength were hypothesized to be directly and/or indirectly related to physical activity, physical function and physical performance. This analysis used data from the seventh Baltimore Hip Studies (BHS-7), a prospective cohort study that included 258 community-dwelling participants, 125 (48%) men and 133 (52%) women, hospitalized for treatment of a hip fracture; survey and objective data were obtained at 2 months post hip fracture...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Peter M Prodinger, Peter Foehr, Dominik Bürklein, Oliver Bissinger, Hakan Pilge, Kilian Kreutzer, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Thomas Tischer
OBJECTIVES: Rat fracture models are extensively used to characterize normal and pathological bone healing. Despite, systematic research on inter- and intra-individual differences of common rat bones examined is surprisingly not available. Thus, we studied the biomechanical behaviour and radiological characteristics of the humerus, the tibia and the femur of the male Wistar rat-all of which are potentially available in the experimental situation-to identify useful or detrimental biomechanical properties of each bone and to facilitate sample size calculations...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Medical Research
Amanda R Hale, Ann H Ross
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a promising, novel method to aid in the assessment of bone quality in forensically relevant skeletal remains. BMD is an important component of bone's nutritional status and in skeletal remains of both juveniles and adults, and it can provide information about bone quality. For adults remains, it can provide information on pathological conditions or when bone insufficiency may have occurred. In juveniles, it provides a useful metric to elucidate cases of fatal starvation or neglect, which are generally difficult to identify...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nilanjana Tewari, Sherif Awad, Ian A Macdonald, Dileep N Lobo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of measurements of body composition made using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans at the L3 vertebral level, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). METHODS: DXA, CT, and BIA were performed in 47 patients recruited from two clinical trials investigating metabolic changes associated with major abdominal surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophagogastric cancer...
March 2018: Nutrition
Danbee Kwon, Jaehwan Kim, Hyeeun Lee, Byeol Kim, HyunHee Han, HyunJu Oh, MinJung Kim, Hakyoung Yoon, ByeongChun Lee, Kidong Eom
This study aimed to demonstrate the higher accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a gold standard for measuring canine bone mineral density (BMD). Seven middle-aged beagle dogs underwent lumbar vertebral and bilateral femoral DXA and QCT scans. BMD (mg/cm2) was measured at the vertebral body from L2 to L6, femoral neck, and proximal and distal femoral diaphyses. The BMD values were measured 3 times and compared. The BMD value on QCT was higher than that on DXA for femoral BMD but not for vertebral BMD...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
David V Glidden, Kathleen Mulligan, Vanessa McMahan, Peter L Anderson, Juan Guanira, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Susan P Buchbinder, Linda-Gail Bekker, Mauro Schechter, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Robert M Grant
Background: Antiretroviral drugs have been associated with changes in fat metabolism including lipids, fat mass and fat distribution. In HIV treatment, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been shown to have a more favorable metabolic profile than other drugs in its class. However, the metabolic effects of TDF used as PrEP have not been reported. Methods: We evaluated the effects of TDF/FTC on lipids and body composition in participants in a blinded placebo controlled PrEP trial...
February 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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