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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245010/our-gut-microbiome-the-evolving-inner-self
#1
REVIEW
Parag Kundu, Eran Blacher, Eran Elinav, Sven Pettersson
The "holobiont" concept, defined as the collective contribution of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic counterparts to the multicellular organism, introduces a complex definition of individuality enabling a new comprehensive view of human evolution and personalized characteristics. Here, we provide snapshots of the evolving microbial-host associations and relations during distinct milestones across the lifespan of a human being. We discuss the current knowledge of biological symbiosis between the microbiome and its host and portray the challenges in understanding these interactions and their potential effects on human physiology, including microbiome-nervous system inter-relationship and its relevance to human variation and individuality...
December 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244998/applicability-of-the-national-comprehensive-cancer-network-multinational-association-of-supportive-care-in-cancer-guidelines-for-prevention-and-management-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-southeast-asia-a-consensus-statement
#2
Alexandre Chan, Matin M Abdullah, Wan Zamaniah B Wan Ishak, Annielyn B Ong-Cornel, Antonio H Villalon, Ravindran Kanesvaran
A meeting of regional experts was convened in Manila, Philippines, to develop a resource-stratified chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) management guideline. In patients treated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy in general clinical settings, triple therapy with a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine-3 [5-HT3]) antagonist (preferably palonosetron), dexamethasone, and aprepitant is recommended for acute CINV prevention. In resource-restricted settings, triple therapy is still recommended, although a 5-HT3 antagonist other than palonosetron may be used...
December 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244967/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-wounds-current-standards-of-germany-s-initiative-for-chronic-wounds-e-v
#3
J Dissemond, A Bültemann, V Gerber, B Jäger, K Kröger, C Münter
The diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic wounds is an enormous challenge in various disciplines of medicine. These very complex processes usually involve several experts of different medical specialties with varying educational backgrounds. A necessary basis for consistent communication and documentation is the use of unambiguous nomenclature. Therefore, the board of the German wound association, Initiative for Chronic Wounds (ICW) e.V., has started to define various terms and procedures. An easy to remember algorithm, in the form of the ABCDE rule, has been developed for the structured diagnosis of chronic wounds...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244906/finding-treatment-resistant-depression-in-real-world-data-how-a-data-driven-approach-compares-with-expert-based-heuristics
#4
M Soledad Cepeda, Jenna Reps, Daniel Fife, Clair Blacketer, Paul Stang, Patrick Ryan
BACKGROUND: Depression that does not respond to antidepressants is treatment-resistant depression (TRD). TRD definitions include assessments of treatment response, dose and duration, and implementing these definitions in claims databases can be challenging. We built a data-driven TRD definition and evaluated its performance. METHODS: We included adults with depression, ≥1 antidepressant, and no diagnosis of mania, dementia, or psychosis. Subjects were stratified into those with and without proxy for TRD...
December 15, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244904/pharmacokinetics-of-the-cannabinoid-receptor-ligand-18-f-mk-9470-in-the-rat-brain-evaluation-of-models-using-micropet
#5
Isabelle Miederer, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Andrea Kronfeld, Stephan Maus, Veronika Weyer-Elberich, Philipp Mildenberger, Beat Lutz, Mathias Schreckenberger
PURPOSE: The positron emission tomography ligand [18 F]MK-9470 is an inverse agonist that binds reversibly and with high affinity to the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Due to its slow brain kinetics, care is required in the definition of its dissociation rates from the receptor. The goal of this study was to investigate pharmacokinetic analysis methods using an arterial input function. METHODS: Five Sprague-Dawley rats received injections of 13 to 25 MBq of [18 F]MK-9470 and were scanned over a period of 90 min...
December 15, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244889/elderly-patients-with-ongoing-migraine-show-reduced-gray-matter-volume-in-second-somatosensory-cortex
#6
Sébastien Celle, Christelle Créac'h, Claire Boutet, Frédéric Roche, Florian Chouchou, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Roland Peyron
AIMS: To identify structural changes in gray matter in suspected migraine generators (the hypothalamus and/or brainstem nuclei) and pain pathways and to evaluate whether structural changes in migraine are definitive or resolve with age. METHODS: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess differences in gray matter between 39 healthy controls (HC), 25 episodic migraine (EM) subjects, and 37 subjects with a history of migraine (HM). In addition, morphometric changes were specifically investigated in suspected migraine generators and/or pain pathways...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244833/genomic-characterization-and-molecular-evolution-analysis-of-subtype-b-and-bf-recombinant-hiv-1-strains-among-argentinean-men-who-have-sex-with-men-reveal-a-complex-scenario
#7
Cintia G Cevallos, Leandro R Jones, Maria A Pando, Jean K Carr, Maria M Avila, Jorge Quarleri
Currently, data on HIV-1 circulating strains among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Argentina is scarce. In South America, the distribution and the prevalence of BF recombinants are dissimilar and exhibit an underappreciated heterogeneity of recombinant structures. Here, we studied for the first time the genetic diversity of HIV-1 BF recombinants and their evolution over time through in-depth phylogenetic analysis and multiple recombination detection methods involving 337 HIV-1 nucleotide sequences (25 near full-length (NFL) and 312 partial pol gene) obtained from Argentinean MSM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244602/association-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-preoperative-tumor-volume-with-postsurgical-survival-time-in-dogs-with-primary-intracranial-glioma
#8
Jeffrey D MacLellan, Susan A Arnold, Aditya C Dave, Matthew A Hunt, G Elizabeth Pluhar
OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between preoperative volume of primary intracranial gliomas in dogs as determined via MRI and survival time after surgical debulking and adjunctive immunotherapy. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 47 client-owned dogs enrolled in clinical trials regarding glioma treatments. PROCEDURES Medical records of all dogs undergoing craniotomy at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medicine Center with histologically confirmed glioma between 2008 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed, and outcome data were collected...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244533/systematic-overview-of-neuroanatomical-differences-in-adhd-definitive-evidence
#9
Bruno Bastos Vieira de Melo, Maria João Trigueiro, Pedro Pereira Rodrigues
OBJECTIVES: This article seeks to identify neuroanatomical differences in ADHD through an overview of systematic reviews that report encephalic differences compared to a control group in volume, area, activation likelihood or chemical composition. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search using Cochrane guidelines and PRISMA criteria in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. RESULTS: Results revealed broad encephalic involvement that includes a functional frontal and cingulate hypoactivation and structural differences in corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal nuclei...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244501/origins-of-enzyme-catalysis-experimental-findings-for-c-h-activation-new-models-and-their-relevance-to-prevailing-theoretical-constructs
#10
Judith P Klinman, Adam R Offenbacher, Shenshen Hu
The physical basis for enzymatic rate accelerations is a subject of great fundamental interest and of direct relevance to areas that include the de novo design of green catalysts and the pursuit of new drug regimens. Extensive investigations of C-H activating systems have provided considerable insight into the relationship between an enzyme's overall structure and the catalytic chemistry at its active site. This Perspective highlights recent experimental data for two members of distinct, yet iconic C-H activation enzyme classes, lipoxygenases and prokaryotic alcohol dehydrogenases...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244479/discovery-of-intermetallic-compounds-from-traditional-to-machine-learning-approaches
#11
Anton O Oliynyk, Arthur Mar
Intermetallic compounds are bestowed by diverse compositions, complex structures, and useful properties for many materials applications. How metallic elements react to form these compounds and what structures they adopt remain challenging questions that defy predictability. Traditional approaches offer some rational strategies to prepare specific classes of intermetallics, such as targeting members within a modular homologous series, manipulating building blocks to assemble new structures, and filling interstitial sites to create stuffed variants...
December 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244206/deficits-in-general-emotion-regulation-skills-evidence-of-a-transdiagnostic-factor
#12
Christian Aljoscha Lukas, David Daniel Ebert, Hugo Trevisi Fuentes, Franz Caspar, Matthias Berking
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in emotion regulation (ER) skills are discussed as a transdiagnostic factor contributing to the development and maintenance of various mental disorders. However, systematic comparisons of a broad range of ER skills across diagnostic groups that are based on comparable definitions and measures of ER are still rare. METHOD: Therefore, we conducted two studies assessing a broad range of ER skills with the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire in individuals meeting criteria for mental disorders (N1  = 1448; N2  = 137) and in a general population sample (N = 214)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244199/secondary-prevention-of-recurrent-venous-thromboembolism-after-initial-oral-anticoagulation-therapy-in-patients-with-unprovoked-venous-thromboembolism
#13
REVIEW
Lindsay Robertson, Su Ern Yeoh, Ahmad Ramli
BACKGROUND: Currently, little evidence is available on the length and type of anticoagulation used for extended treatment for prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with unprovoked VTE who have completed initial oral anticoagulation therapy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of available oral therapeutic options (aspirin, warfarin, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs)) for extended thromboprophylaxis in adults with a first unprovoked VTE, to prevent VTE recurrence after completion of an acceptable initial oral anticoagulant treatment period, as defined in individual studies...
December 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244066/electrocardiographic-and-electrophysiologic-differentiation-between-atriofascicular-long-atrioventricular-and-short-atrioventricular-decrementally-conducting-accessory-pathways
#14
Jian-Du Yang, Gong-Bu Zhou, Qi Sun, Xiao-Gang Guo, Xu Liu, Bin Luo, Hui-Qiang Wei, Jackson J Liang, Shuanglun Xie, Fei-Fan Ouyang, Jian Ma
Aims: We aimed to examine the electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic characteristics of anterograde-conducting decremental accessory pathways (DAP) and to identify surrogate criteria to distinguish short atrioventricular (SAV) DAP from atriofascicular (AF) AP and long atrioventricular (LAV) DAP. Methods and results: We identified all patients with DAPs and analysed electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic characteristics. Distal insertion sites were examined using existing criteria, including V-H interval, ventricular activation at the right ventricular apex, and around tricuspid annulus during antidromic atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia (A-AVRT) or complete pre-excitation and evaluated the AV node-like properties according to the response to adenosine and radiofrequency ablation...
December 13, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244031/transition-and-post-transition-metals-in-exhaled-breath-condensate
#15
Andrew Ghio, Michael C Madden, Charles R Esther
Water vapor in expired air, as well as dispersed non-volatile components, condense onto a cooler surface after exiting the respiratory tract. This exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a dilute sampling of the epithelial lining fluid. Accordingly, the collection of EBC imparts a capacity to provide biomarkers of injury preceding clinical disease. Concentrations of transition and post-transition metals in EBC are included among these endpoints. Iron and zinc are those metals in highest concentration and are measurable in all EBC samples from healthy subjects; other metals are most frequently either at or below the level of detection in this group...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243998/adjacent-segment-disease-after-thoracic-pedicle-screw-fixation
#16
Nitin Agarwal, Robert F Heary, Prateek Agarwal
OBJECTIVE Pedicle screw fixation is a technique widely used to treat conditions ranging from spine deformity to fracture stabilization. Pedicle screws have been used traditionally in the lumbar spine; however, they are now being used with increasing frequency in the thoracic spine as a more favorable alternative to hooks, wires, or cables. Although safety concerns, such as the incidence of adjacent-segment disease (ASD) after cervical and lumbar fusions, have been reported, such issues in the thoracic spine have yet to be addressed thoroughly...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243893/preliminary-appraisal-of-clinical-drug-trials-is-changing
#17
Outi Konttinen, Ulla Närhi
The EU Clinical Trials Regulation will change the preliminary appraisal of trials and lighten the bureaucracy. Routines of the member states will be standardized, processing of applications provided with tighter time limits, and the licensing procedure made more flexible by using a common European portal. At the same time, definitions will be provided for low intervention trials subject to more flexible rules of follow-up, requirements of master file content, and traceability of test drugs. Implementation of the regulation depends on the completion of the EU portal, currently estimated to take place in the autumn of 2018...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243880/review-article-best-practice-management-of-common-knee-injuries-in-the-emergency-department-part-3-of-the-musculoskeletal-injuries-rapid-review-series
#18
REVIEW
Kirsten Strudwick, Megan McPhee, Anthony Bell, Melinda Martin-Khan, Trevor Russell
Knee injuries are a common presentation to the ED and are often difficult to assess and definitively diagnose due to the patient's acute pain, effusion and guarding. The quality of ED care provided to patients with fractures or soft tissue injuries of the knee is critical to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient. This rapid review investigated best practice for the assessment and management of common knee injuries in the ED. Databases were searched in 2017, including PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, TRIP and the grey literature, including relevant organisational websites...
December 15, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243844/in-vitro-improvement-of-quail-primordial-germ-cell-expansion-through-activation-of-tgf-beta-signaling-pathway
#19
Saeed Yakhkeshi, Shaban Rahimi, Mohsen Sharafi, Seyedeh-Nafiseh Hassani, Sara Taleahmad, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Hossein Baharvand
Avian primordial germ cells (PGCs) have valuable potentials to cell-based approaches for transgenic bird production. In this regard, improvement of avian PGC expansion in vitro is necessary. Among experimental avian species, quail is a good model for transgenic technology, especially due to its short generation time. In the present study, we have examined the proliferative effects of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) on the quail PGCs. After isolation of quail PGCs from blood [Hamburger-Hamilton (HH stages 13-15)] and gonads (HH stages 28-30), these cells were cultured on quail embryonic fibroblasts (QEF)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243807/microrna-as-a-systemic-intervention-in-the-specific-breast-cancer-subtypes-with-c-myc-impacts-introducing-subtype-based-appraisal-tool
#20
REVIEW
Vida Pourteimoor, Mahdi Paryan, Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh
Breast cancer is indisputably a heterogeneous disease, in which a formidable combination of definitely dis-regulated C-MYC and microRNA (miRNA) profiles along with other factors are responsible to generate a specific type of breast cancer. C-MYC as a master regulator of more than 20,000 genes can modify the expression of genes underlying to perform diverse conflicting functional frameworks. The functional spectra of miRNA in the new areas of the evolution of cell behaviors are identified. Here, we endeavor to summarize some recent advances of miRNA applications that can be recruited as combinatorial targeted therapy for patients with breast cancer...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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