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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732303/do-analog-number-representations-underlie-the-meanings-of-young-children-s-verbal-numerals
#1
Susan Carey, Anna Shusterman, Paul Haward, Rebecca Distefano
Children learn to count, and even learn the cardinal meanings of the first three or four verbal numerals ("one" through "three" or "four"), before they master the numerical significance of counting. If so, it follows that the cardinal meanings of those first few numerals cannot be derived, initially, from their place in the count list and the counting routine. What non-verbal representations, then, support the cardinal meanings of verbal numerals before children have mastered how counting does so? Four experiments addressed the commonly adopted assumption that in the earliest period of learning the meanings of number words, children map verbal numerals to regions of the analog number system (ANS), a system of representation with numerical content that is widely attested in animals and in human infants...
July 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732233/piecewise-convexity-of-artificial-neural-networks
#2
Blaine Rister, Daniel L Rubin
Although artificial neural networks have shown great promise in applications including computer vision and speech recognition, there remains considerable practical and theoretical difficulty in optimizing their parameters. The seemingly unreasonable success of gradient descent methods in minimizing these non-convex functions remains poorly understood. In this work we offer some theoretical guarantees for networks with piecewise affine activation functions, which have in recent years become the norm. We prove three main results...
July 3, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732052/protein-asparagine-deamidation-prediction-based-on-structures-with-machine-learning-methods
#3
Lei Jia, Yaxiong Sun
Chemical stability is a major concern in the development of protein therapeutics due to its impact on both efficacy and safety. Protein "hotspots" are amino acid residues that are subject to various chemical modifications, including deamidation, isomerization, glycosylation, oxidation etc. A more accurate prediction method for potential hotspot residues would allow their elimination or reduction as early as possible in the drug discovery process. In this work, we focus on prediction models for asparagine (Asn) deamidation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731451/novel-blood-based-biomarkers-of-cognition-stress-and-physical-or-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia-preliminary-evidence-for-a-role-of-bdnf-irisin-and-the-kynurenine-pathway
#4
Olivia C Küster, Daria Laptinskaya, Patrick Fissler, Cathrin Schnack, Martina Zügel, Verena Nold, Franka Thurm, Sina Pleiner, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Björn von Einem, Patrick Weydt, Andre Liesener, Andreas Borta, Alexander Woll, Bastian Hengerer, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christine A F von Arnim
 Psychosocial stress and physical, cognitive, and social activity predict the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The aim of this study was to elucidate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), irisin, and the kynurenine pathway (KP) as potential underlying biological correlates. We evaluated associations of irisin and the KP with BDNF in serum and with cognition, stress, and activities. Furthermore, changes in serum concentrations of BDNF, irisin, and KP metabolites were investigated after physical or cognitive training...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731403/safe-and-sustainable-the-extracranial-approach-toward-frontoethmoidal-meningoencephalocele-repair
#5
Paul I Heidekrueger, Myat Thu, Wolfgang Mühlbauer, Charlotte Holm-Mühlbauer, Philippe Schucht, Hans Anderl, Heinrich Schoeneich, Kyawzwa Aung, Mg Mg Ag, Ag Thu Soe Myint, Sabrina Juran, Thiha Aung, Denis Ehrl, Milomir Ninkovic, P Niclas Broer
OBJECTIVE Although rare, frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles continue to pose a challenge to neurosurgeons and plastic reconstructive surgeons. Especially when faced with limited infrastructure and resources, establishing reliable and safe surgical techniques is of paramount importance. The authors present a case series in order to evaluate a previously proposed concise approach for meningoencephalocele repair, with a focus on sustainability of internationally driven surgical efforts. METHODS Between 2001 and 2016, a total of 246 patients with frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles were treated using a 1-stage extracranial approach by a single surgeon in the Department of Neurosurgery of the Yangon General Hospital in Yangon, Myanmar, initially assisted by European surgeons...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731267/heuristic-knowledge-based-planning-for-single-isocenter-stereotactic-radiosurgery-to-multiple-brain-metastases
#6
Benjamin P Ziemer, Parag Sanghvi, Jona Hattangadi-Gluth, Kevin L Moore
PURPOSE: Single-isocenter, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for multiple brain metastases (multi-mets) can deliver highly conformal dose distributions and reduce overall patient treatment time compared to other techniques. However, treatment planning for multi-met cases is highly complex due to variability in numbers and sizes of brain metastases, as well as their relative proximity to organs-at-risk (OARs). The purpose of this study was to automate the VMAT planning of multi-met cases through a knowledge-based planning (KBP) approach that adapts single target SRS dose predictions to multiple target predictions...
July 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730936/an-industry-update-what-is-the-latest-news-in-therapeutic-delivery
#7
Iain Simpson
This Industry Update covers the period from 1 through 30 April 2017, and is based on information sourced from company press releases, scientific literature, patents and various news websites. Biogen expanded its portfolio of developmental drugs targeting neurological diseases by licensing a drug from Bristol-Myers Squibb which is currently under investigation for the treatment of progressive supranuclear palsy. Takeda announced a deal with NuBiyota focused on developing treatments for gastrointestinal disorders, based on the manipulation of microbes living in the gut...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730888/preoperative-exercise-training-prevents-functional-decline-after-lung-resection-surgery-a-randomized-single-blind-controlled-trial
#8
Raquel Sebio García, Maria Isabel Yáñez-Brage, Esther Giménez Moolhuyzen, Marta Salorio Riobo, Ana Lista Paz, Jose María Borro Mate
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of a preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation programme in patients with lung cancer undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery. DESIGN: Randomized, single-blind controlled trial. SETTING: Teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients with suspected or confirmed lung cancer undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to either a prehabilitation group or a control group...
August 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730849/treadmill-training-to-improve-mobility-for-people-with-sub-acute-stroke-a-phase-ii-feasibility-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Gillian D Baer, Lisa G Salisbury, Mark T Smith, Jane Pitman, Martin Dennis
OBJECTIVE: This phase II study investigated the feasibility and potential effectiveness of treadmill training versus normal gait re-education for ambulant and non-ambulant people with sub-acute stroke delivered as part of normal clinical practice. DESIGN: A single-blind, feasibility randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Four hospital-based stroke units. SUBJECTS: Participants within three months of stroke onset. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to treadmill training (minimum twice weekly) plus normal gait re-education or normal gait re-education only (control) for up to eight weeks...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730459/fetal-programming-as-a-predictor-of-adult-health-or-disease-the-need-to-reevaluate-fetal-heart-function
#10
REVIEW
Joana O Miranda, Carla Ramalho, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, José Carlos Areias
Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that adverse stimuli during critical periods in utero permanently alters organ structure and function and may have persistent consequences for the long-term health of the offspring. Fetal hypoxia, maternal malnutrition, or ventricular overloading are among the major adverse conditions that can compromise cardiovascular development in early life. With the heart as a central organ in fetal adaptive mechanisms, a deeper understanding of the fetal cardiovascular physiology and of the echocardiographic tools to assess both normal and stressed pregnancies would give precious information on fetal well-being and hopefully may help in early identification of special risk groups for cardiovascular diseases later in life...
July 20, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730267/phantom-based-standardization-of-ct-angiography-images-for-spot-sign-detection
#11
Andrea Morotti, Javier M Romero, Michael J Jessel, Andrew M Hernandez, Anastasia Vashkevich, Kristin Schwab, Joseph D Burns, Qaisar A Shah, Thomas A Bergman, M Fareed K Suri, Mustapha Ezzeddine, Jawad F Kirmani, Sachin Agarwal, Angela Hays Shapshak, Steven R Messe, Chitra Venkatasubramanian, Katherine Palmieri, Christopher Lewandowski, Tiffany R Chang, Ira Chang, David Z Rose, Wade Smith, Chung Y Hsu, Chun-Lin Liu, Li-Ming Lien, Chen-Yu Hsiao, Toru Iwama, Mohammad Rauf Afzal, Christy Cassarly, Steven M Greenberg, Renee' Hebert Martin, Adnan I Qureshi, Jonathan Rosand, John M Boone, Joshua N Goldstein
PURPOSE: The CT angiography (CTA) spot sign is a strong predictor of hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, CTA parameters vary widely across centers and may negatively impact spot sign accuracy in predicting ICH expansion. We developed a CT iodine calibration phantom that was scanned at different institutions in a large multicenter ICH clinical trial to determine the effect of image standardization on spot sign detection and performance. METHODS: A custom phantom containing known concentrations of iodine was designed and scanned using the stroke CT protocol at each institution...
July 20, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729308/the-effect-of-combined-resistance-exercise-training-and-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-musculoskeletal-health-and-function-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Anneka Elizabeth Antoniak, Carolyn A Greig
OBJECTIVES: In older adults, there is a blunted responsiveness to resistance training and reduced muscle hypertrophy compared with younger adults. There is evidence that both exercise training and vitamin D supplementation may benefit musculoskeletal health in older adults, and it is plausible that in combination their effects may be additive. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health in older adults...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729234/mobile-phone-supported-physiotherapy-for-frozen-shoulder-feasibility-assessment-based-on-a-usability-study
#13
Thomas Stütz, Gerlinde Emsenhuber, Daniela Huber, Michael Domhardt, Martin Tiefengrabner, Gertie Janneke Oostingh, Ulrike Fötschl, Nicholas Matis, Simon Ginzinger
BACKGROUND: Patients with frozen shoulder show limited shoulder mobility often accompanied by pain. Common treatment methods include physiotherapy, pain medication, administration of corticosteroids, and surgical capsulotomy. Frozen shoulder often lasts from months to years and mostly affects persons in the age group of 40 to 70 years. It severely reduces the quality of life and the ability to work. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a mobile health (mHealth) intervention that supports patients affected by "stage two" frozen shoulder...
July 20, 2017: JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729058/impacts-of-sensation-perception-and-motor-abilities-of-the-ipsilesional-upper-limb-on-hand-functions-in-unilateral-stroke-quantifications-from-biomechanical-and-functional-perspectives
#14
Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Chia-Wen Ke, Ta-Shen Kuan, Hsiu-Ching Yang, Ching-Liang Tsai, Li-Chieh Kuo
BACKGROUND: The presence of subtle losses in hand dexterity after stroke impacts the regaining of independence with regard to activities of daily living. Therefore, awareness of ipsilesional upper extremity (UE) function may be of importance when drafting a comprehensive rehabilitation program. However, current hand function tests seem to be unable to identify asymptomatic UE impairments. OBJECTIVES: To assess the motor coordination as well as the sensory-perception of an ipsilesional UE using biomechanical analysis of performance-oriented tasks and conducting a Manual Tactile Test (MTT)...
July 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729016/learning-based-structurally-guided-construction-of-resting-state-functional-correlation-tensors
#15
Lichi Zhang, Han Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Qian Wang, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures changes in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals to detect brain activities. It has been recently reported that the spatial correlation patterns of resting-state BOLD signals in the white matter (WM) also give WM information often measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). These correlation patterns can be captured using functional correlation tensor (FCT), which is analogous to the diffusion tensor (DT) obtained from DTI. In this paper, we propose a noise-robust FCT method aiming at further improving its quality, and making it eligible for further neuroscience study...
July 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728956/ataluren-in-patients-with-nonsense-mutation-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-act-dmd-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#16
Craig M McDonald, Craig Campbell, Ricardo Erazo Torricelli, Richard S Finkel, Kevin M Flanigan, Nathalie Goemans, Peter Heydemann, Anna Kaminska, Janbernd Kirschner, Francesco Muntoni, Andrés Nascimento Osorio, Ulrike Schara, Thomas Sejersen, Perry B Shieh, H Lee Sweeney, Haluk Topaloglu, Már Tulinius, Juan J Vilchez, Thomas Voit, Brenda Wong, Gary Elfring, Hans Kroger, Xiaohui Luo, Joseph McIntosh, Tuyen Ong, Peter Riebling, Marcio Souza, Robert J Spiegel, Stuart W Peltz, Eugenio Mercuri
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, progressive, and rare neuromuscular, X-linked recessive disease. Dystrophin deficiency is the underlying cause of disease; therefore, mutation-specific therapies aimed at restoring dystrophin protein production are being explored. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ataluren in ambulatory boys with nonsense mutation DMD. METHODS: We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 54 sites in 18 countries located in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and Latin America...
July 17, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728865/mass-spring-models-for-the-simulation-of-mitral-valve-function-looking-for-a-trade-off-between-reliability-and-time-efficiency
#17
O A Pappalardo, F Sturla, F Onorati, G Puppini, M Selmi, G B Luciani, G Faggian, A Redaelli, E Votta
Patient-specific finite element (FE) models can assess the impact of mitral valve (MV) repair on the complex MV anatomy and function. However, FE excessive time requirements hamper their use for surgical planning; mass-spring models (MSMs) represent a more approximate approach but can provide almost real-time simulations. On this basis, we implemented MSMs of three healthy MVs from cardiac magnetic resonance (cMR) imaging to simulate the systolic MV closure, including the in vivo papillary muscles and annular kinematics, and the anisotropic and non-linear mechanical response of MV tissues...
July 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728771/contribution-of-benson-s-relaxation-technique-and-brief-psycho-educational-intervention-on-quality-of-life-of-primary-caregivers-of-iranian-children-with-chronic-diseases
#18
Forough Mowla, Sedigheh Khanjari, Mehrnoush Inanlou
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases leave a significant effect on not only the afflicted children but also their parents. Chronic diseases in children may also influence their parents' or primary caregivers' quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a Brief Psycho-educational Intervention (BPI) and Benson's Relaxation Technique (BRT) on the QoL of primary caregivers of children with chronic diseases. METHODS: The present quasi-experimental pre-test post-test design was conducted on 100 parents with children who had one chronic disease (50 in each of the control and intervention groups) and were admitted to two state-run pediatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran in 2014...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728715/robotic-lobectomy-and-segmentectomy-technical-details-and-results
#19
REVIEW
Benjamin Wei, Robert J Cerfolio
Robotic-assisted pulmonary lobectomy can be considered for patients fit for conventional lobectomy. Contraindications include prohibitive lung function or medical comorbidities, multistation N2, gross N2 disease, or evidence of N3 disease. Team training, familiarity with equipment, troubleshooting, and preparation are critical for successful robotic lobectomy. Similar to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy, robotic lobectomy is associated with decreased blood loss, blood transfusion, air leak, chest tube duration, duration of stay, and mortality compared with thoracotomy...
August 2017: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728602/robot-assisted-training-for-the-upper-limb-after-stroke-ratuls-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Helen Rodgers, Lisa Shaw, Helen Bosomworth, Lydia Aird, Natasha Alvarado, Sreeman Andole, David L Cohen, Jesse Dawson, Janet Eyre, Tracy Finch, Gary A Ford, Jennifer Hislop, Steven Hogg, Denise Howel, Niall Hughes, Hermano Igo Krebs, Christopher Price, Lynn Rochester, Elaine Stamp, Laura Ternent, Duncan Turner, Luke Vale, Elizabeth Warburton, Frederike van Wijck, Scott Wilkes
BACKGROUND: Loss of arm function is a common and distressing consequence of stroke. We describe the protocol for a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial to determine whether robot-assisted training improves upper limb function following stroke. METHODS/DESIGN: Study design: a pragmatic, three-arm, multicentre randomised controlled trial, economic analysis and process evaluation. SETTING: NHS stroke services. PARTICIPANTS: adults with acute or chronic first-ever stroke (1 week to 5 years post stroke) causing moderate to severe upper limb functional limitation...
July 20, 2017: Trials
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