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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653737/a-validated-algorithm-for-selecting-non-toxic-chemical-concentrations
#1
Julita Stadnicka-Michalak, Melanie Knöbel, Anže Županič, Kristin Schirmer
The maximal chemical concentration that causes an acceptably small or no effect in an organism or isolated cells is an often-sought-after value in toxicology. Existing approaches to derive this value have raised several concerns; thus, it is often chosen case-by-case based on personal experience. To overcome this ambiguity, we propose an approach for choosing the non-toxic concentration (NtC) of a chemical in a rational, tractable way. We developed an algorithm that identifies the highest chemical concentration which causes no more than 10% effect (=EC10) including the modeled 95% confidence intervals and considering each of the measured biological replicates; and whose toxicity is not significantly different from no effect...
June 26, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653616/head-to-head-comparisons-of-bisphosphonates-and-teriparatide-in-osteoporosis-a-meta-analysis
#2
Chun-Lin Liu, Han-Chung Lee, Chun-Chung Chen, Der-Yang Cho
PURPOSE: This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of teriparatide vs. bisphosphonates in the management of osteoporosis. METHODS: A total of 1,967 patients from eight randomized controlled trials were analyzed; outcomes included bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine, vertebral and nonvertebral fractures and any adverse event. A subgroup analysis of treatment effectiveness was performed according to the etiology of osteoporosis; i...
June 26, 2017: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652893/low-bone-mineral-density-and-the-severity-of-cholestasis-in-biliary-atresia
#3
Krittapak Homchan, Tawatchai Chaiwatanarat, Wanvisa Udomsinprasert, Voranush Chongsrisawat, Yong Poovorawan, Sittisak Honsawek
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in postoperative biliary atresia (BA) children and the association of bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical parameters in postKasai BA subjects. METHODS: A total of 70 patients with postKasai BA were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were classified into two groups according to their jaundice status. BMD of the lumbar spine was analyzed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The prevalence of low bone mass (osteopenia and osteoporosis) in BA patients were 51...
June 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652104/quantifying-pelvic-periprosthetic-bone-remodeling-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-region-free-analysis
#4
Andrew M Parker, Lang Yang, Mohsen Farzi, José M Pozo, Alejandro F Frangi, J Mark Wilkinson
The gold standard tool for measuring periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, resolution of the method is limited due to the aggregation of pixel data into large regions of interest for clinical and statistical analysis. We have previously validated a region-free analysis method (DXA-RFA) for quantitating BMD change at the pixel level around femoral prostheses. Here, we applied the DXA-RFA method to the pelvis, and quantitated its precision in this setting using repeated DXA scans taken on the same day after repositioning in 29 patients after total hip arthroplasty...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652048/the-efficacy-of-low-intensity-vibration-to-improve-bone-health-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-is-highly-dependent-on-compliance-and-muscle-response
#5
Chamith S Rajapakse, Mary B Leonard, Elizabeth A Kobe, Michelle A Slinger, Kelly A Borges, Erica Billig, Clinton T Rubin, Felix W Wehrli
RATIONAL AND OBJECTIVES: Low intensity vibration (LIV) may represent a nondrug strategy to mitigate bone deficits in patients with end-stage renal disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty end-stage renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis were randomized to stand for 20 minutes each day on either an active or placebo LIV device. Analysis at baseline and completion of 6-month intervention included magnetic resonance imaging (tibia and fibula stiffness; trabecular thickness, number, separation, bone volume fraction, plate-to-rod ratio; and cortical bone porosity), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (hip and spine bone mineral density [BMD]), and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (tibia trabecular and cortical BMD; calf muscle cross-sectional area)...
June 23, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651948/genetic-sharing-with-coronary-artery-disease-identifies-potential-novel-loci-for-bone-mineral-density
#6
Cheng Peng, Jie Shen, Xu Lin, Kuan-Jui Su, Jonathan Greenbaum, Wei Zhu, Hui-Ling Lou, Feng Liu, Chun-Ping Zeng, Wei-Feng Deng, Hong-Wen Deng
Bone mineral density (BMD) is a complex trait with high missing heritability. Numerous evidences have shown that BMD variation has a relationship with coronary artery disease (CAD). This relationship may come from a common genetic basis called pleiotropy. By leveraging the pleiotropy with CAD, we may be able to improve the detection power of genetic variants associated with BMD. Using a recently developed conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) method, we jointly analyzed summary statistics from two large independent genome wide association studies (GWAS) of lumbar spine (LS) BMD and CAD...
June 23, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651365/cathepsin-k-inhibitors-for-osteoporosis-biology-potential-clinical-utility-and-lessons-learned
#7
Matthew T Drake, Bart L Clarke, Merry Jo Oursler, Sundeep Khosla
Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease member of the cathepsin lysosomal protease family. While cathepsin K is highly expressed in osteoclasts, lower levels of cathepsin K are also found in a variety of other tissues. Secretion of cathepsin K from the osteoclast into the sealed osteoclast-bone cell interface results in efficient degradation of type I collagen. The absence of cathepsin K activity in humans results in pycnodysostosis, characterized by increased bone mineral density and fractures. Pharmacological cathepsin K inhibition leads to continuous increases in BMD for up to five years of treatment and improves bone strength at the spine and hip...
June 23, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651068/effect-of-choukroun-platelet-rich-fibrin-combined-with-autologous-micro-morselized-bone-on-the-repair-of-mandibular-defects-in-rabbits
#8
Tian Zhou, Hua-Wei Yang, Zhuo-Wei Tian, Yang Wang, Xiao-Shan Tang, Jing-Zhou Hu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Choukroun platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) combined with autologous micro-morselized bone on the repair of mandibular defects in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six healthy New Zealand rabbits were selected for the present study. After models of mandibular defects were established, rabbits were randomly divided into Choukroun PRF, autologous micro-morselized bone (autologous), Choukroun PRF combined with autologous bone (combined) and model groups...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650589/immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-infection-accelerates-bone-loss-relative-to-deferring-therapy-findings-from-the-start-bone-mineral-density-substudy-a-randomized-trial
#9
Jennifer F Hoy, Birgit Grund, Mollie Roediger, Ann V Schwartz, John Shepherd, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, Stephane de Wit, Simone Jacoby, Alberto La Rosa, Sanjay Pujari, Mauro Schechter, David White, Nicole Wyman Engen, Kristine Ensrud, Peer D Aagaard, Andrew Carr
Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Because the relative contributions of ART and untreated HIV to BMD loss are unclear, it is important to quantify the effect of ART on bone. We compared the effect of early ART initiation (CD4 >500 cells/μL) with deferred ART on change in BMD in the START Bone Mineral Density substudy, a randomized trial evaluating the effect of immediate ART initiation versus deferring ART (to CD4 <350 cells/μL)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650214/distinct-dna-methylation-profiles-in-bone-and-blood-of-osteoporotic-and-healthy-postmenopausal-women
#10
Sjur Reppe, Tonje G Lien, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Vigdis T Gautvik, Ole K Olstad, Rona Yu, Hege G Bakke, Robert Lyle, Marianne K Kringen, Ingrid K Glad, Kaare M Gautvik
DNA methylation affects expression of associated genes and may contribute to the missing genetic effects from genome-wide association studies of osteoporosis. To improve insight into the mechanisms of postmenopausal osteoporosis, we combined transcript profiling with DNA methylation analyses in bone. RNA and DNA were isolated from 84 bone biopsies of postmenopausal donors varying markedly in bone mineral density (BMD). In all, 2529 CpGs in the top 100 genes most significantly associated with BMD were analyzed...
June 26, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648858/evaluation-of-vancomycin-mic-creep-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Raquel Diaz, Vera Afreixo, Elmano Ramalheira, Carmen Rodrigues, Bruno Gago
OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin is currently the primary option treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, an increasing number of MRSA isolates with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), within the susceptible range (vancomycin MIC creep), are being reported worldwide. Resorting to a meta-analysis approach, this study aims to assess the evidence of vancomycin MIC creep. METHODS: We searched for studies in the Pubmed database. The inclusion criteria for study eligibility included the possibility of retrieving from the reported data values of vancomycin MIC and information concerning the applied MIC methodology...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647803/chronic-joint-pain-and-handgrip-strength-correlates-with-osteoporosis-in-mid-life-women-a-singaporean-cohort
#12
S Logan, W P P Thu, W K Lay, L Y Wang, J A Cauley, E L Yong
This study aimed to identify novel correlates which may relate to low bone mass at lumbar spine in mid-life Asian women. The possibility of developing a prediction model for osteoporosis (OP) was explored which resulted in a risk assessment tool that performed better than currently available tools. INTRODUCTION: In order to identify novel correlates associated with low spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in mid-life women, we examined a large number of lifestyle and medical and performance measurements and developed a prediction model for triage to BMD scanning...
June 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646831/assessment-of-differences-in-nutrients-consumption-in-women-diagnosed-with-osteoporosis-as-compared-to-a-healthy-control-group
#13
Agata Wawrzyniak, Patrycja Klimczyk, Agnieszka Woźniak, Anna Anyżewska, Magdalena Leonkiewicz
Background: Osteoporosis is a condition that has been much more frequent for women, which is related to menopause and to their lower bone mineral density (BMD). Inappropriate diet is among the development factors of the disease. Objective: To assess differences in consumption of particular nutrients among women with and without osteoporosis diagnosed. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 2013 in a group of 100 women aged 51-70, using a questionnaire, including a 24-hour recall related to a participant’s nutrients consumptions...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646476/the-relationship-between-circulating-adiponectin-leptin-and-vaspin-with-bone-mineral-density-bmd-arterial-calcification-and-stiffness-a-cross-sectional-study-in-post-menopausal-women
#14
N Tanna, K Patel, A E Moore, D Dulnoan, S Edwards, G Hampson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between circulating adiponectin, leptin and vaspin with bone mineral density (BMD), arterial stiffness and vascular calcification in post-menopausal women. We hypothesised that adipokines produced by adipose tissue may be mediators of bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and explain, in part, the observed association between osteoporosis and CVD. DESIGN: We studied 386 ambulant community dwelling postmenopausal women aged (mean [SD] 61 [6...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646239/intake-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-contributes-to-bone-mineral-density-at-the-hip-in-a-younger-japanese-female-population
#15
T Kuroda, H Ohta, Y Onoe, N Tsugawa, M Shiraki
This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism...
June 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643272/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-low-bone-mineral-density-in-ulcerative-colitis
#16
Ram Pratap Singh Bundela, Prachis Ashdhir, Kumar Shwetanshu Narayan, Mukesh Jain, Rupesh Kumar Pokharna, Sandeep Nijhawan
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Several risk factors contribute to this; however, studies evaluating their association have conflicting results. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with prospective enrollment of adult ulcerative colitis patients attending the Gastroenterology Department of Sawai Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur Rajasthan between June 2015 and December 2015. Demographic data including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), disease duration, type of disease, prior steroid use and vitamin D levels were recorded and compared with bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
June 23, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642974/abdominal-aortic-calcification-and-the-risk-of-bone-fractures-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#17
Dailin Wei, Guanlin Zheng, Yun Gao, Jinying Guo, Tie Zhang
The relationship between abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and bone fracture has been examined by some observational studies, but the results remain discordant. Therefore, we aimed to assess the link between them by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases until the end of December 2016. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between AAC and fracture risk were estimated with fixed- or random- effects models...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642856/longitudinal-change-in-trabecular-bone-score-during-and-after-treatment-of-osteoporosis-in-postmenopausal-korean-women
#18
Mi-Seon Shin, Eun-Hee Cho, Ha Young Kim
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes of trabecular bone score (TBS) during and after bisphosphonate (BP) treatment in postmenopausal Korean women with osteoporosis. METHODS: We analyzed 191 patients who took BP and underwent bone mineral density (BMD) test for the period from January 2010 to December 2015. The mean follow up period during treatment and after treatment was 22.8 months and 18 months, respectively. The TBS and BMD values were evaluated by the percent changes relative to the baseline...
May 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642854/measurement-uncertainty-in-spine-bone-mineral-density-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#19
Ae-Ja Park, Jun-Il Yoo, Jee-Hye Choi, Kyun Shik Chae, Chang Geun Kim, Dal Sik Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to calculate the measurement uncertainty of the process of bone mineral density (BMD) analysis using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with traceability. METHODS: Between March 2015 and October 2016, among healthy participants in their 20s and 30s, the study included those who had not taken calcium, vitamin D supplements and steroids and were without a history of osteoporosis, osteopenia and diseases related to osteoporosis...
May 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642852/fracture-preventing-effects-of-maxmarvil%C3%A2-tablets-alendronate-5-mg-calcitriol-0-5-%C3%A2%C2%B5g-in-patients-with-osteoporosis
#20
Jun-Il Yoo, Yong-Chan Ha, Ye-Yeon Won, Kyu-Hyun Yang, Sang-Bum Kim, Ju-Hyung Yoo, Dong-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective, open-label, observational study was to assess the fracture preventing effect of Maxmarvil® tablets (alendronate 5 mg + calcitriol 0.5 µg) in patients with osteoporosis and to evaluate the change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the minimum 1-year follow-up. METHODS: In this multicenter observational study, 691 patients with osteoporosis (aged 50 years or older) were treated with alendronate 5 mg + calcitriol 0.5 µg/day during their normal course of care...
May 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
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