keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

bioethics, medical ethics,

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092711/-the-future-of-ecology-wisdom-as-the-speculative-centre-of-environmental-ethics
#1
Luca Valera
This article argues that it is necessary to go back to Potter's proposal to rediscover a concept of bioethics wider than medical ethics, and strongly connected to environmental ethics. The two disciplines share, among others, the following dimensions: the consciousness of the sin as a consequence of recent technological developments; the need for a salvation; the need for a science of survival; wisdom as a possible solution. Referring to the latter, the work of Van Rennselaer Potter (father of bioethics) and Arne Næss (father of deep ecology, and in a broader sense, of environmental ethics) are particularly linked: it seems that wisdom should be the virtue providing answers about our way of dwelling the world...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089392/-views-of-the-spanish-paediatric-association-bioethics-committee-on-the-refusal-of-essential-and-non-essential-treatment-in-minors
#2
Marta Sánchez Jacob, María Tasso Cereceda, Carmen Martínez González, Federico de Montalvo Jááskeläinem, Isolina Riaño Galán
The conflicts that arise when minors or their legal representatives refuse to receive medical treatment considered necessary by the paediatrician pose a serious ethical dilemma and also have a considerable emotional impact. In order to adequately tackle this rejection of medical treatment, there is to identify and attempt to understand the arguments of the people involved, to consider the context in each individual case and be conversant with the procedure to follow in life-threatening scenarios, taking into account bioethical considerations and the legal framework...
January 11, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074587/after-the-dnr-surrogates-who-persist-in-requesting-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#3
Ellen M Robinson, Wendy Cadge, Angelika A Zollfrank, M Cornelia Cremens, Andrew M Courtwright
Some health care organizations allow physicians to withhold cardiopulmonary resuscitation from a patient, despite patient or surrogate requests that it be provided, when they believe it will be more harmful than beneficial. Such cases usually involve patients with terminal diagnoses whose medical teams argue that aggressive treatments are medically inappropriate or likely to be harmful. Although there is state-to-state variability and a considerable judicial gray area about the conditions and mechanisms for refusals to perform CPR, medical teams typically follow a set of clearly defined procedures for these decisions...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060982/-ethical-dilemmas-about-disclosure-of-errors-in-medicine
#4
Sebastián Lavanderos, Juan Pedraza, Moisés Russo N, Sofía P Salas
Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” awareness of the importance of medical errors has increased. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and recent studies suggest that they can be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Difficulties have been identified by health personnel to prevent, detect and disclose to patients the occurrence of a medical error, an also to report them to the appropriate authorities. Although human error cannot be eliminated, it is possible to design safety systems to mitigate their frequency and consequences...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043018/dynamic-axes-of-informed-consent-in-japan
#5
Laura Specker Sullivan
Scholarship in cross-cultural bioethics routinely frames Japanese informed consent in contrast to informed consent in North America. This contrastive analysis foregrounds cancer diagnosis disclosure and physician paternalism as unique aspects of Japanese informed consent that deviate from American practices. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 Japanese medical professionals obtained during fieldwork in Japan from 2013 to 15, this article complicates the informed consent discourse beyond East-West comparisons premised on Anglo-American ethical frameworks...
December 23, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039887/the-mitochondrial-replacement-therapy-myth
#6
Tina Rulli
This article argues that two forms of mitochondrial replacement therapy, maternal spindle transfer (MST) and pro-nuclear transfer (PNT), are not therapies at all because they do not treat children who are coming into existence. Rather, these technologies merely create healthy children where none was inevitable. Even if creating healthy lives has some value, it is not to be confused with the medical value of a cure or therapy. The article addresses a recent Bioethics article, 'Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity,' by Wrigley, Wilkinson, and Appleby, who argue that PNT is morally favorable to MST due to the Non-Identity Problem...
December 30, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026076/ethical-issues-with-colorectal-cancer-screening-a-systematic-review
#7
Bjørn Hofmann
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is widely recommended and implemented. However, sometimes CRC screening is not implemented despite good evidence, and some types of CRC screening are implemented despite lack of evidence. The objective of this article is to expose and elucidate relevant ethical issues in the literature on CRC screening that are important for open and transparent deliberation on CRC screening. METHODS: An axiological question-based method is used for exposing and elucidating ethical issues relevant in HTA...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025237/responsible-innovation-in-children-s-surgical-care
#8
(no author information available yet)
Advances in medical care may occur when a change in practice incorporates a new treatment or methodology. In surgery, this may involve the translation of a completely novel concept into a new procedure or device or the adaptation of existing treatment approaches or technology to a new clinical application. Regardless of the specifics, innovation should have, as its primary goal, the enhancement of care leading to improved outcomes from the patient's perspective. This policy statement examines innovation as it pertains to surgical care, focusing on some of the definitions that help differentiate applied innovation or innovative therapy from research...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914993/-solid-paediatricians-in-fluid-times-reviving-professionalism
#9
Carmen Martínez González, María Tasso Cereceda, Marta Sánchez Jacob, Isolina Riaño Galán
Professionalism is rarely taught formally. It is learned by osmosis through the hidden curriculum: a set of attitudes that each one of us transmits unconsciously to students, medical residents, and colleagues. All of us are a model or counter-model of professionalism through a series of values that have been the pillars of our profession since Hippocrates. Values that do not seem to be strong enough to pass our time. There are specific factors of the 21st century such as the financial crisis, the highly technical nature of medicine, bureaucratisation or trivialisation of the medical process that could explain, but not justify, the decline in the values of our profession: Empathy, integrity, solidarity, the altruism, or confidentiality...
November 30, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853684/cloning-a-review-on-bioethics-legal-jurisprudence-and-regenerative-issues-in-iran
#10
REVIEW
Seyedeh Leila Nabavizadeh, Davood Mehrabani, Zabihallah Vahedi, Farzad Manafi
In recent years, the cloning technology has remarkably developed in Iran, but unfortunately, the required legal framework has not been created to support and protect such developments yet. This legal gap may lead to abuse of scientific researches to obtain illegal benefits and to undermine the intellectual property rights of scientists and researchers. Thus to prevent such consequences, the attempts should be made to create an appropriate legal-ethical system and an approved comprehensive law. In this review we concluded that the right method is guiding and controlling the cloning technology and banning the technique is not always fruitful...
September 2016: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845480/bioethics-and-the-italian-national-bioethics-committee-historical-highlights
#11
A A Conti
Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818430/how-should-we-treat-the-vulnerable-qualitative-study-of-authoritative-ethics-documents
#12
Ivana Zagorac
The aim of this study is to explore what actual guidance is provided by authoritative ethics documents regarding the recognition and protection of the vulnerable. The documents included in this analysis are the Belmont Report, the Declaration of Helsinki, The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) Guidelines, and the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, including its supplementary report on vulnerability. A qualitative analysis of these documents was conducted in light of three questions: what is vulnerability, who are the vulnerable, and how should the vulnerable be protected? The results show significant differences among the documents regarding the first two questions...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815940/ethics-competences-in-the-undergraduate-medical-education-curriculum-the-spanish-experience
#13
Guillermo Ferreira-Padilla, Teresa Ferrández-Antón, Fernando Lolas-Stepke, Rut Almeida-Cabrera, Joan Brunet, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera
: Aim .To investigate if there are differences in medical ethics education between different schools of medicine in Spain, specifically between private and public schools and between recently founded schools and older ones. METHOD: The curricula of medical degrees from all Spanish faculties were reviewed for the 2014/2015 academic year, identifying subjects concerning bioethics, deontology, and ethics. We identified the type of teaching, format and method of the course, the number of credits and hours, and the school year of each subject...
October 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809825/becoming-partners-retaining-autonomy-ethical-considerations-on-the-development-of-precision-medicine
#14
Alessandro Blasimme, Effy Vayena
Precision medicine promises to develop diagnoses and treatments that take individual variability into account. According to most specialists, turning this promise into reality will require adapting the established framework of clinical research ethics, and paying more attention to participants' attitudes towards sharing genotypic, phenotypic, lifestyle data and health records, and ultimately to their desire to be engaged as active partners in medical research.Notions such as participation, engagement and partnership have been introduced in bioethics debates concerning genetics and large-scale biobanking to broaden the focus of discussion beyond individual choice and individuals' moral interests...
November 4, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762091/reexamining-the-prohibition-of-gestational-surrogacy-in-sunni-islam
#15
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758806/beyond-the-anticipatory-corpse-future-perspectives-for-bioethics
#16
Hille Haker
This essay explores the two main objectives of Bishop's book, which he analyzes in the context of the care for the dying: (1) the medical metaphysics underlying medical science and (2) biopolitics as governance of the human body. This essay discusses Bishop's claims in view of newer developments in medicine, especially the turn to the construction of life, and confronts the concept of the patient's sovereignty with an alternative model of vulnerable agency. In order to overcome the impasses of contemporary bioethics, the essay argues that practical reason requires a two-fold ethics: first, it must develop a new hermeneutics of illness and disease, and second, in order to protect the individuals in the process of dying, moral claims concerning death must be based on the concept of human rights...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716264/current-state-of-ethics-literature-synthesis-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#17
Marcel Mertz, Hannes Kahrass, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed...
October 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707532/-perspective-of-intensive-care-nursing-staff-on-the-limitation-of-life-support-treatment
#18
O Vallès-Fructuoso, B Ruiz-de Pablo, M Fernández-Plaza, V Fuentes-Milà, O Vallès-Fructuoso, G Martínez-Estalella
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perspective of intensive care nursing staff on the limitation of life support treatment (LLST) in the Intensive Care Units. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative study was carried out by applying the theory of Strauss and Corbin as the analysis tool. Constructivist paradigm. POPULATION: Nursing staff from three Intensive Care Units of Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge. Convenience sampling to reach theoretical saturation of data...
October 2016: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694600/doctors-in-space-ships-biomedical-uncertainties-and-medical-authority-in-imagined-futures
#19
Lesley Henderson, Simon Carter
There has been considerable interest in images of medicine in popular science fiction and in representations of doctors in television fiction. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to doctors administering space medicine in science fiction. This article redresses this gap. We analyse the evolving figure of 'the doctor' in different popular science fiction television series. Building upon debates within Medical Sociology, Cultural Studies and Media Studies we argue that the figure of 'the doctor' is discursively deployed to act as the moral compass at the centre of the programme narrative...
December 2016: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644429/teaching-medical-ethics-in-graduate-and-undergraduate-medical-education-a-systematic-review-of-effectiveness
#20
REVIEW
Santiago de la Garza, Vania Phuoc, Steven Throneberry, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Laurence McCullough, John Coverdale
OBJECTIVE: One objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to psychiatry residents. In order to gain insights from other disciplines that have published research in this area, a second objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to residents across all other specialties of training and on teaching medical students. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for controlled trials on teaching medical ethics with quantitative outcomes...
September 19, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
keyword
keyword
25954
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"