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bioethics, medical ethics,

Nazli Hossain
Biomedical ethics is not taught as a subject in undergraduate or postgraduate studies in our country. Recently governing bodies have introduced the subject in medical school in a limited manner. A majority of doctors are unable to appreciate the importance of the subject in the curriculum. This article emphasises the importance of this subject by sharing the author's personal experiences after attaining a diploma in the subject.
February 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Nathan Emmerich, Bert Gordjin
This paper takes the philosophical notion of suberogatory acts or morally permissible moral mistakes and, via a reinterpretation of a thought experiment from the medical ethics literature, offers an initial demonstration of their relevance to the field of medical ethics. That is, at least in regards to this case, we demonstrate that the concept of morally permissible moral mistakes has a bearing on medical decision-making. We therefore suggest that these concepts may have broader importance for the discourse on medical ethics and should receive fuller consideration by those working the field...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Kenneth V Iserson
The aim of this section is to expand and accelerate advances in curriculum developments and in methods of teaching bioethics.
April 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Russell F D'Souza, Mary Mathew, Derek S J D'Souza, Princy Palatty
Studies conducted by the University of Haifa, Israel in 2001, evaluating the effectiveness of bioethics being taught in medical colleges, suggested that there was a significant lack of translation in clinical care. Analysis also revealed, ineffectiveness with the teaching methodology used, lack of longitudinal integration of bioethics into the undergraduate medical curriculum, and the limited exposure to the technology in decision making when confronting ethical dilemmas. A modern novel bioethics curriculum and innovative methodology for teaching bioethics for the medical course was developed by the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics, Haifa...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
Thalia Arawi, Lama Charafeddine
Bioethics is a relatively new addition to bedside medical care in Arab world which is characterized by a special culture that often makes blind adaptation of western ethics codes and principles; a challenge that has to be faced. To date, the American University of Beirut Medical Center is the only hospital that offers bedside ethics consultations in the Arab Region aiming towards better patient-centered care. This article tackles the role of the bedside clinical ethics consultant as an active member of the medical team and the impact of such consultations on decision-making and patient-centered care...
February 20, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
D Carrieri, F A Peccatori, G Boniolo
'Right To Try' (RTT) laws originated in the USA to allow terminally ill patients to request access to early stage experimental medical products directly from the producer, removing the oversight and approval of the Food and Drug Administration. These laws have received significant media attention and almost equally unanimous criticism by the bioethics, clinical and scientific communities. They touch indeed on complex issues such as the conflict between individual and public interest, and the public understanding of medical research and its regulation...
February 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Rodrigo R Salinas, Carlos Echeverría B, Anamaría Arriagada U, Alejandro Goic G, Carlos Quintana V, Alberto Rojas O, Alejandro Serani M, Paulina Taboada R, Ricardo Vacarezza Y
During the last years, bioethical discussion has highlighted the role of the patients' autonomy, being informed consent its particular expression, about decisions that they should make about their own health. The Hippocratic tradition, the deontological positions of the Geneva Declaration of the World Medical Association and numerous codes of ethics in various countries, require that the physician, above all, should ensure patients' health. In this context the discussion on pros and cons for the so-called "therapeutic privilege" are discussed...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Tenzin Wangmo, Sirin Hauri, Eloise Gennet, Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Veerle Provoost, Bernice S Elger
BACKGROUND: A review of literature published a decade ago noted a significant increase in empirical papers across nine bioethics journals. This study provides an update on the presence of empirical papers in the same nine journals. It first evaluates whether the empirical trend is continuing as noted in the previous study, and second, how it is changing, that is, what are the characteristics of the empirical works published in these nine bioethics journals. METHOD: A review of the same nine journals (Bioethics; Journal of Medical Ethics; Journal of Clinical Ethics; Nursing Ethics; Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics; Hastings Center Report; Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics; Christian Bioethics; and Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal) was conducted for a 12-year period from 2004 to 2015...
February 7, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Álvaro Romero-Tapia, Gilberto A Gamboa-Bernal
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective and safety medical procedure, broadly utilized in several countries for the treatment of multiple mental disorders, including major depressive disorder, which is a prevalent disease. However, due the records of their use, technical inappropriate of application, adverse effects and even cases of death associated to the procedure, it has been stigmatized, disused and considered unethical treatment. This paper reviews the main components of ECT and discuss in it is a bioethical treatment...
January 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Agnès Condat, Nicolas Mendes, Véronique Drouineaud, Nouria Gründler, Chrystelle Lagrange, Colette Chiland, Jean-Philippe Wolf, François Ansermet, David Cohen
Today, thanks to biomedical technologies advances, some persons with fertility issues can conceive. Transgender persons benefit also from these advances and can not only actualize their self-identified sexual identities but also experience parenthood. Based on clinical multidisciplinary seminars that gathered child psychiatrists and psychoanalysts interested in the fields of assisted reproduction technology (ART) and gender dysphoria, philosophers interested in bioethics, biologists interested in ART, and endocrinologists interested in pubertal suppression, we explore how new biotechnical advances, whether in gender transition or procreation, could create new ways to conceive a child possible...
January 17, 2018: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Margaret Olivia Little, Marisha N Wickremsinhe
Despite a global need for the use of medication during pregnancy, the medical research community lacks robust evidence for safety and efficacy of treatments and preventives often taken by pregnant women. Given the biological differences between pregnant women and the rest of the population, the need to gather data on the ways in which medications behave in the pregnant body is critical to the health of pregnant women and their offspring. Three ethical reasons are central to this need: 1. Pregnant women deserve access to effective treatment, 2...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
Daniel W Tigard
Recent medical and bioethics literature shows a growing concern for practitioners' emotional experience and the ethical environment in the workplace. Moral distress, in particular, is often said to result from the difficult decisions made and the troubling situations regularly encountered in health care contexts. It has been identified as a leading cause of professional dissatisfaction and burnout, which, in turn, contribute to inadequate attention and increased pain for patients. Given the natural desire to avoid these negative effects, it seems to most authors that systematic efforts should be made to drastically reduce moral distress, if not altogether eliminate it from the lives of vulnerable practitioners...
December 15, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Rachael Hernandez
ISSUE: Medical educators should consider how institutional norms influence medical students' perceptions of implicit bias. Understanding normative structures in medical education can shed light on why this influence is associated with students' resistance to implicit bias. EVIDENCE: Extant research across diverse fields of study uncovers and theorizes layers of norms and normative systems and how they are related to ethical behavior. This review bridges the fields of communication, bioethics, and medical education, constructing an organized foundation and common language by which researchers can build effective educational interventions...
January 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Alejandra T Rabadán, Vilma A Tripodoro
In healthcare, an ethical concern that arises during the decision making process is considered to be a bioethical dilemma. It is often the case that in the absence of proper deliberation, the problem is transferred to a bioethics committee, not even representing precisely a dilemma. Bioethics emerged as a discipline in the mid-20th century. It is defined as a support to decision-making in ethical dilemmas centered on two aspects: ethics of clinical investigation, focused on protecting the rights of research subjects, and bioethics in medical practice, of an advisory nature...
2017: Medicina
A Del Rio, R Rinaldi, S Napoletano, N M di Luca
The only interventions deemed ethically acceptable are those that serve the "objective interest" of the minors involved from the standpoint of and conducive to sound mental health and balance in a patient's teenage years; by the same token, disproportionate interventions (e.g. overly invasive or pointlessly risky), or all those deemed unsuitable with regards to a poor cost-benefit ratio are viewed as unacceptable. In the process of considering the best interest of the minors involved, a wide array of factors come into play, such as: age, maturity, psychological and emotional conditions, motivations put forth by the underage patient, the opportunity to procrastinate the operation: parents, who are naturally entitled to give consent to the surgical procedures, and physicians are primarily liable to safeguard and act in the minor's best interest...
November 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
Thomas P Sartwelle, James C Johnston, Berna Arda
Bioethics abolished the prevailing Hippocratic tenet instructing physicians to make treatment decisions, replacing it with autonomy through informed consent. Informed consent allows the patient to choose treatment after options are explained by the physician. The appearance of bioethics in 1970 coincided with the introduction of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM), which evolved to become the fetal surveillance modality of choice for virtually all women in labor. Autonomy rapidly pervaded all medical procedures, but there was a clear exemption for EFM...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Carolyn P Neuhaus
This August, I participated in the conference "Genome Editing: Biomedical and Ethical Perspectives," hosted by the Center for the Study of Bioethics at the University of Belgrade and cosponsored by the Division of Medical Ethics of NYU Langone Health and The Hastings Center. The prime minister of Serbia, Ana Brnabić, spoke of the significance of bringing together an international community of bioethicists, acknowledging that ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding gene editing technologies transcend national boundaries...
November 2017: Hastings Center Report
Meta Roestenberg, Annie Mo, Peter G Kremsner, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
The principle of deliberately infecting humans with infectious agents in a controlled setting, so-called controlled human infections (CHI), is not novel. Many CHI models have a long history and were established decades ago such as the intentional exposure to yellow fever and dengue performed in the 1900's (Reed, 1902) [2]. In these times bioethics and scientific reasoning were in their infancy. Nowadays, clinical trials are highly regulated and CHI are executed worldwide. Controlled human malaria infections and influenza infections are the two most frequently practiced...
December 18, 2017: Vaccine
Daniel Steel, Kirsten Marchand, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes
Supervised injectable opioid assisted treament (siOAT) prescribes injectable opioids to individuals for whom other forms of addiction treatment have been ineffective. In this article, we examine arguments that opioid-dependent people should be assumed incompetent to voluntarily consent to clinical research on siOAT unless proven otherwise. We agree that concerns about competence and voluntary consent deserve careful attention in this context. But we oppose framing the issue solely as a matter of the competence of opioid-dependent people and emphasize that it should be considered in the context of inequities in access to siOAT as a medical treatment...
December 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
James Dwyer, Kathy Faber-Langendoen
PROBLEM: Health care professionals encounter situations in which they need to speak up to prevent harm, ensure better care, and/or address unprofessional behavior. Speaking up is often difficult, especially for medical students; nonetheless, it is a skill students must practice, so they can better advocate for patients. APPROACH: The authors have designed an ethical action exercise and incorporated it into a required bioethics course that meets concurrently with third-year clerkships...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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