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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853684/cloning-a-review-on-bioethics-legal-jurisprudence-and-regenerative-issues-in-iran
#1
REVIEW
Seyedeh Leila Nabavizadeh, Davood Mehrabani, Zabihallah Vahedi, Farzad Manafi
In recent years, the cloning technology has remarkably developed in Iran, but unfortunately, the required legal framework has not been created to support and protect such developments yet. This legal gap may lead to abuse of scientific researches to obtain illegal benefits and to undermine the intellectual property rights of scientists and researchers. Thus to prevent such consequences, the attempts should be made to create an appropriate legal-ethical system and an approved comprehensive law. In this review we concluded that the right method is guiding and controlling the cloning technology and banning the technique is not always fruitful...
September 2016: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845480/bioethics-and-the-italian-national-bioethics-committee-historical-highlights
#2
A A Conti
Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818430/how-should-we-treat-the-vulnerable-qualitative-study-of-authoritative-ethics-documents
#3
Ivana Zagorac
The aim of this study is to explore what actual guidance is provided by authoritative ethics documents regarding the recognition and protection of the vulnerable. The documents included in this analysis are the Belmont Report, the Declaration of Helsinki, The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) Guidelines, and the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, including its supplementary report on vulnerability. A qualitative analysis of these documents was conducted in light of three questions: what is vulnerability, who are the vulnerable, and how should the vulnerable be protected? The results show significant differences among the documents regarding the first two questions...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815940/ethics-competences-in-the-undergraduate-medical-education-curriculum-the-spanish-experience
#4
Guillermo Ferreira-Padilla, Teresa Ferrández-Antón, Fernando Lolas-Stepke, Rut Almeida-Cabrera, Joan Brunet, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera
: Aim .To investigate if there are differences in medical ethics education between different schools of medicine in Spain, specifically between private and public schools and between recently founded schools and older ones. METHOD: The curricula of medical degrees from all Spanish faculties were reviewed for the 2014/2015 academic year, identifying subjects concerning bioethics, deontology, and ethics. We identified the type of teaching, format and method of the course, the number of credits and hours, and the school year of each subject...
October 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809825/becoming-partners-retaining-autonomy-ethical-considerations-on-the-development-of-precision-medicine
#5
Alessandro Blasimme, Effy Vayena
Precision medicine promises to develop diagnoses and treatments that take individual variability into account. According to most specialists, turning this promise into reality will require adapting the established framework of clinical research ethics, and paying more attention to participants' attitudes towards sharing genotypic, phenotypic, lifestyle data and health records, and ultimately to their desire to be engaged as active partners in medical research.Notions such as participation, engagement and partnership have been introduced in bioethics debates concerning genetics and large-scale biobanking to broaden the focus of discussion beyond individual choice and individuals' moral interests...
November 4, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762091/reexamining-the-prohibition-of-gestational-surrogacy-in-sunni-islam
#6
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758806/beyond-the-anticipatory-corpse-future-perspectives-for-bioethics
#7
Hille Haker
This essay explores the two main objectives of Bishop's book, which he analyzes in the context of the care for the dying: (1) the medical metaphysics underlying medical science and (2) biopolitics as governance of the human body. This essay discusses Bishop's claims in view of newer developments in medicine, especially the turn to the construction of life, and confronts the concept of the patient's sovereignty with an alternative model of vulnerable agency. In order to overcome the impasses of contemporary bioethics, the essay argues that practical reason requires a two-fold ethics: first, it must develop a new hermeneutics of illness and disease, and second, in order to protect the individuals in the process of dying, moral claims concerning death must be based on the concept of human rights...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716264/current-state-of-ethics-literature-synthesis-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#8
Marcel Mertz, Hannes Kahrass, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed...
October 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707532/-perspective-of-intensive-care-nursing-staff-on-the-limitation-of-life-support-treatment
#9
O Vallès-Fructuoso, B Ruiz-de Pablo, M Fernández-Plaza, V Fuentes-Milà, O Vallès-Fructuoso, G Martínez-Estalella
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perspective of intensive care nursing staff on the limitation of life support treatment (LLST) in the Intensive Care Units. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative study was carried out by applying the theory of Strauss and Corbin as the analysis tool. Constructivist paradigm. POPULATION: Nursing staff from three Intensive Care Units of Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge. Convenience sampling to reach theoretical saturation of data...
October 1, 2016: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694600/doctors-in-space-ships-biomedical-uncertainties-and-medical-authority-in-imagined-futures
#10
Lesley Henderson, Simon Carter
There has been considerable interest in images of medicine in popular science fiction and in representations of doctors in television fiction. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to doctors administering space medicine in science fiction. This article redresses this gap. We analyse the evolving figure of 'the doctor' in different popular science fiction television series. Building upon debates within Medical Sociology, Cultural Studies and Media Studies we argue that the figure of 'the doctor' is discursively deployed to act as the moral compass at the centre of the programme narrative...
September 30, 2016: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644429/teaching-medical-ethics-in-graduate-and-undergraduate-medical-education-a-systematic-review-of-effectiveness
#11
Santiago de la Garza, Vania Phuoc, Steven Throneberry, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Laurence McCullough, John Coverdale
OBJECTIVE: One objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to psychiatry residents. In order to gain insights from other disciplines that have published research in this area, a second objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to residents across all other specialties of training and on teaching medical students. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for controlled trials on teaching medical ethics with quantitative outcomes...
September 19, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587443/vulnerable-subjects-why-does-informed-consent-matter
#12
Michele Goodwin
This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more...
September 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581426/comments-on-the-lambert-case-the-rulings-of-the-french-conseil-d-%C3%A3-tat-and-the-european-court-of-human-rights
#13
Denard Veshi
This study examines the decisions of the French Conseil d'Etat (Supreme Administrative Court) and the European Court of Human Rights in the Lambert case concerning the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments. After presenting the facts of this case, the main legal question will be analyzed from an ethical and medical standpoint. The decisions of the Conseil d'État and then of the European Court of Human Rights are studied from a comparative legal perspective. This commentary focuses on the autonomous will of an unconscious patient and on the judicial interpretation of the right to life as recognized in article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights...
August 31, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558392/mars-ain-t-the-kind-of-place-to-raise-your-kid-ethical-implications-of-pregnancy-on-missions-to-colonize-other-planets
#14
Haley Schuster, Steven L Peck
The colonization of a new planet will inevitably bring about new bioethical issues. One is the possibility of pregnancy during the mission. During the journey to the target planet or moon, and for the first couple of years before a colony has been established and the colony has been accommodated for children, a pregnancy would jeopardize the safety of the crew and the wellbeing of the child. The principal concern with a pregnancy during an interplanetary mission is that it could put the entire crew in danger...
December 2016: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531923/response-to-why-medical-professionals-have-no-moral-claim-to-conscientious-objection-accommodation-in-liberal-democracies-by-schuklenk-and-smalling
#15
Richard John Lyus
Bioethicists commenting on conscientious objection and abortion should consider the empirical data on abortion providers. Abortion providers do not fall neatly into groups of providers and objectors, and ambivalence is a key theme in their experience. Practical details of abortion services further upset the dichotomy. These empirical facts are important because they demonstrate that the way the issue is described in analytical bioethics does not reflect reality. Addressing conscientious objection as a barrier to patient access requires engaging with those who provide the service and those who are able to but do not...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522374/ethical-issues-in-nanomedicine-tempest-in-a-teapot
#16
Irit Allon, Ahmi Ben-Yehudah, Raz Dekel, Jan-Helge Solbakk, Klaus-Michael Weltring, Gil Siegal
Nanomedicine offers remarkable options for new therapeutic avenues. As methods in nanomedicine advance, ethical questions conjunctly arise. Nanomedicine is an exceptional niche in several aspects as it reflects risks and uncertainties not encountered in other areas of medical research or practice. Nanomedicine partially overlaps, partially interlocks and partially exceeds other medical disciplines. Some interpreters agree that advances in nanotechnology may pose varied ethical challenges, whilst others argue that these challenges are not new and that nanotechnology basically echoes recurrent bioethical dilemmas...
August 13, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499485/henry-knowles-beecher-jay-katz-and-the-transformation-of-research-with-human-beings
#17
Alexander Morgan Capron
The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499484/moving-bioethics-toward-its-better-self-a-sociologist-s-perspective
#18
E C Fox
The value and belief questions with which bioethics deals have social, cultural, moral, and societal implications that are not confined to certain spheres of biology and medicine, health and illness, and the delivery of medical care. And yet, throughout its history, the field has continued to be focused on a narrow array of medically associated phenomena to which it has applied a limited set of ethical precepts that originate in Western and American philosophical thought. It has done so in an intellectual atmosphere that has not been characterized by vigorous debate...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474694/personal-experience-narratives-by-students-a-teaching-learning-tool-in-bioethics
#19
Radhika H Pandya, Radha Shukla, Alpa P Gor, Barna Ganguly
The principles of bioethics have been identified as important requirements for training basic medical doctors. Till now, various modalities have been used for teaching bioethics, such as lectures, followed by a small case-based discussion, case vignettes or debates among students. For effective teaching-learning of bioethics, it is necessary to integrate theory and practice rather than merely teach theoretical constructs without helping the students translate those constructs into practice. Classroom teaching can focus on the theoretical knowledge of professional relationships, patient-doctor relationships, issues at the beginning and end of life, reproductive technologies, etc...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461194/developing-a-bioethics-curriculum-for-medical-students-from-divergent-geo-political-regions
#20
Rebecca A Greenberg, Celine Kim, Helen Stolte, Jonathan Hellmann, Randi Zlotnik Shaul, Rahim Valani, Dennis Scolnik
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization calls for stronger cross-cultural emphasis in medical training. Bioethics education can build such competencies as it involves the conscious exploration and application of values and principles. The International Pediatric Emergency Medicine Elective (IPEME), a novel global health elective, brings together 12 medical students from Canada and the Middle East for a 4-week, living and studying experience. It is based at a Canadian children's hospital and, since its creation in 2004, ethics has informally been part of its curriculum...
2016: BMC Medical Education
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