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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801760/the-need-for-authenticity-based-autonomy-in-medical-ethics
#1
Lucie White
The notion of respect for autonomy dominates bioethical discussion, though what qualifies precisely as autonomous action is notoriously elusive. In recent decades, the notion of autonomy in medical contexts has often been defined in opposition to the notion of autonomy favoured by theoretical philosophers. Where many contemporary theoretical accounts of autonomy place emphasis on a condition of "authenticity", the special relation a desire must have to the self, bioethicists often regard such a focus as irrelevant to the concerns of medical ethics, and too stringent for use in practical contexts...
August 11, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780527/assessment-of-orientation-practices-for-ethics-consultation-at-harvard-medical-school-affiliated-hospitals
#2
Danish Zaidi, Jennifer C Kesselheim
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted to assess the quality of orientation practices for ethics advisory committees that conduct ethics consultation. This survey study focused on several Harvard teaching hospitals, exploring orientation quality and committee members' self-evaluation in the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) ethics consultation competencies. METHODS: We conducted a survey study that involved 116 members and 16 chairs of ethics advisory committees, respectively (52% and 62...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760245/hymenoplasty-and-muslim-patients-islamic-ethico-legal-perspectives
#3
Mohammad H Bawany, Aasim I Padela
BACKGROUND: Hymenoplasty, commonly called "revirginization," is a controversial procedure that pushes the scope of medical practice to satisfy cultural and/or religious "needs." AIM: To outline the sociocultural contexts underlying patient requests for hymenoplasty and present Islamic juridical views on the moral status of hymenoplasty for Muslim patients. METHODS: Narrative review of the extant bioethics literature and leading Islamic ethico-legal verdicts...
August 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716389/biomedical-ethics-and-clinical-oversight-in-multisite-observational-neuroimaging-studies-with-children-and-adolescents-the-abcd-experience
#4
REVIEW
Duncan B Clark, Celia B Fisher, Susan Bookheimer, Sandra A Brown, John H Evans, Christian Hopfer, James Hudziak, Ivan Montoya, Margaret Murray, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667766/shared-decision-making-value-pluralism-and-the-zone-of-parental-discretion
#5
Joseph W Kaempf, Nicholas Kockler, Mark W Tomlinson
"Good ethics start with good facts" wrote John Lantos and William Meadow in a 2009 editorial addressing periviability controversies - debates that continue to generate lively discussion amongst neonatologists, obstetricians, ethicists, and families (1). How do we best promote shared decision making with pregnant women who, through no fault of their own, might deliver an extremely premature infant? Unfortunately, the recent "A Different View" in this journal by Dr. Patrick Marmion regarding periviability issues in general, and specifically our shared decision making model at Providence St...
July 1, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638969/introduction-childhood-and-disability
#6
EDITORIAL
Erica K Salter
From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care...
June 21, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617193/are-contact-precautions-ethically-justifiable-in-contemporary-hospital-care
#7
Joanna Harris, Kenneth Walsh, Susan Dodds
Hospital infection control practices known as Contact Precautions are recommended for the management of people with pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. BACKGROUND: The patient is isolated, and staff are required to wear gloves, and a gown or apron when providing care. A notice is displayed to remind staff of these requirements and an 'alert' message is placed in the patient's medical record. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to discuss and explore whether practices used in hospitals to reduce the transmission of endemic antibiotic-resistant organisms are ethically justified in today's healthcare environment in the developed world...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601921/the-history-of-autonomy-in-medicine-from-antiquity-to-principlism
#8
Toni C Saad
Respect for Autonomy (RFA) has been a mainstay of medical ethics since its enshrinement as one of the four principles of biomedical ethics by Beauchamp and Childress' in the late 1970s. This paper traces the development of this modern concept from Antiquity to the present day, paying attention to its Enlightenment origins in Kant and Rousseau. The rapid C20th developments of bioethics and RFA are then considered in the context of the post-war period and American socio-political thought. The validity and utility of the RFA are discussed in light of this philosophical-historical account...
June 10, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562274/ethical-controversy-about-hysterectomy-for-a-minor
#9
Alyssa M Burgart, Julie Strickland, Dena Davis, Arlene B Baratz, Katrina Karkazis, John D Lantos
One of the most complicated ethical issues that arises in children's hospitals today is the issue of whether it is ever permissible to perform a procedure for a minor that will result in permanent sterilization. In most cases, the answer is no. The availability of good, safe, long-acting contraception allows surgical options to be postponed when the primary goal of such surgical options is to prevent pregnancy. But what if a minor has congenital urogenital anomalies or other medical conditions for which the best treatment is a hysterectomy? In those cases, the primary goal of therapy is not to prevent pregnancy...
May 12, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555303/the-evolution-of-spina-bifida-treatment-through-a-biomedical-ethics-lens
#10
Tal Levin-Decanini, Amy Houtrow, Aviva Katz
Spina bifida is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results in a broad range of disability. Over the last few decades, there have been significant advances in diagnosis and treatment of this condition, which have raised concerns regarding how clinicians prognosticate the extent of disability, determine quality of life, and use that information to make treatment recommendations. From the selective treatment of neonates in the 1970s, to the advent of maternal-fetal surgery today, the issues that have been raised surrounding spina bifida intervention invoke principles of medical bioethics such as beneficence and nonmaleficence, while also highlighting how quality of life judgments may drive care decisions...
May 29, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550382/same-principles-different-worlds-a-critical-discourse-analysis-of-medical-ethics-and-nursing-ethics-in-finnish-professional-texts
#11
Salla Saxén
This qualitative social scientific study explores professional texts of healthcare ethics to understand the ways in which ethical professionalism in medicine and nursing are culturally constructed in Finland. Two books in ethics, published by Finnish national professional organizations-one for nurses and one for physicians-were analyzed with the method of critical discourse analysis. Codes of ethics for each profession were also scrutinized. Analysis of the texts sought to reveal what is taken for granted in the texts as well as to speculate what appeared to be relegated to the margins of the texts or left entirely invisible...
May 26, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543661/building-the-next-bioethics-commission
#12
Alexander M Capron
At every moment, somewhere in the world, a group of men and women are sitting around a table deliberating about an ethical issue posed by medicine and research, whether as a research ethics committee; a hospital or clinical ethics committee; a stem-cell review committee; a gene transfer research committee; a biobank ethics committee; an ethics advisory committee for a medical or nursing association or nongovernmental organization; a state, provincial, national, or intergovernmental bioethics committee; or an ad hoc panel examining a particular development or case...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543658/the-virtues-of-national-ethics-committees
#13
Jonathan Montgomery
The United Kingdom has many bodies that play their part in carrying out the work of national ethics committees, but its nearest equivalent of a U.S. presidential bioethics commission is the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, established in 1991. The Council is charged with examining ethical questions raised by developments in biological and medical research, publishing reports, and making representations to appropriate bodies in order to respond to or anticipate public concern. It is a nongovernment organization with no defined or guaranteed channels of influence...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511609/why-the-history-of-nursing-ethics-matters
#14
Marsha D Fowler
Modern American nursing has an extensive ethical heritage literature that extends from the 1870s to 1965 when the American Nurses Association issued a policy paper that called for moving nursing education out of hospital diploma programs and into colleges and universities. One consequence of this move was the dispersion of nursing libraries and the loss of nursing ethics textbooks, as they were largely not brought over into the college libraries. In addition to approximately 100 nursing ethics textbooks, the nursing ethics heritage literature also includes hundreds of journal articles that are often made less accessible in modern databases that concentrate on the past 20 or 30 years...
May 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459009/bioethics-a-brief-review
#15
Jharna Mandal, Dinoop Korol Ponnambath, Subhash Chandra Parija
Medical and life sciences research is a key driver in development, which leads to better quality of life. These pursuits can lead to discrimination, human rights violation, and injustice. The field of bioethics explores the ethical issues arising due to these advances in research and encompasses social, judicial, and environmental aspects affecting human beings. This brief review discusses the origin of bioethics, its principles, various international organizations, and their network involved in the development and propagation of guidelines on conducting biomedical research...
January 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417921/bioethics-of-clinical-applications-of-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Carlo Petrini
The clinical applications of stem cells pose a multitude of problems, including safety, efficacy, information and consent, the right to unproven treatments, the "right to try", costs, access, sustainability, scientific scrupulousness, patents and regulatory aspects, to name but a few. This article does not address individual issues, but rather introduces and discusses some of the possible approaches to solving the problems. The first part compares the consequentialist and deontological approaches, offering an overview of "top-down" and "bottom-up" models and proposing the principles of personalism as applied in clinical settings...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398847/traceback-a-proposed-framework-to-increase-identification-and-genetic-counseling-of-brca1-and-brca2-mutation-carriers-through-family-based-outreach
#17
Goli Samimi, Marcus Q Bernardini, Lawrence C Brody, Charlisse F Caga-Anan, Ian G Campbell, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Fergus J Couch, Michael Dean, Joanne A de Hullu, Susan M Domchek, Ronny Drapkin, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Michael Friedlander, Mia M Gaudet, Marline G Harmsen, Karen Hurley, Paul A James, Janice S Kwon, Felicitas Lacbawan, Stephanie Lheureux, Phuong L Mai, Leah E Mechanic, Lori M Minasian, Evan R Myers, Mark E Robson, Susan J Ramus, Lisa F Rezende, Patricia A Shaw, Thomas P Slavin, Elizabeth M Swisher, Masataka Takenaka, David D Bowtell, Mark E Sherman
In May 2016, the Division of Cancer Prevention and the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, convened a workshop to discuss a conceptual framework for identifying and genetically testing previously diagnosed but unreferred patients with ovarian cancer and other unrecognized BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers to improve the detection of families at risk for breast or ovarian cancer. The concept, designated Traceback, was prompted by the recognition that although BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are frequent in women with ovarian cancer, many such women have not been tested, especially if their diagnosis predated changes in testing guidelines...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385619/medical-students-assessment-of-eduard-pernkopf-s-atlas-topographical-anatomy-of-man
#18
Demetrius M Coombs, Steven J Peitzman
INTRODUCTION: To date, there has been no study examining the perceptions of first-year medical students regarding Eduard Pernkopf's atlas, particularly during their study of gross anatomy and prior to coursework in medical ethics. We present a discussion of Pernkopf's Atlas: Topographical Anatomy of Man from the perspective of U.S. medical students, and sought to determine whether medical students view Pernkopf's Topographical Anatomy of Man as a resource of greater accuracy, detail, and potential educational utility as compared to Netter's Atlas of Human Anatomy...
April 3, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384104/development-of-bioethics-and-clinical-ethics-in-bulgaria
#19
Silviya S Aleksandrova-Yankulovska
BACKGROUND: Bioethics and clinical ethics emerged from the classical medical ethics in the 1970s of the 20th century. Both fields are new for the Bulgarian academic tradition. AIM: The aims of this paper were to demarcate the subject fields of medical ethics, bioethics, and clinical ethics, to present the developments in the field of medical ethics in Bulgaria, to delineate the obstacles to effective ethics education of medical professionals, and to present the results of the application of an adapted bottom-up methodology for clinical ethics consultation in several clinical units in Bulgaria...
March 1, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381714/status-and-problems-of-humanities-education-with-respect-to-pharmacy-education
#20
REVIEW
Satoko Ishikawa
 In 2006, a model core curriculum in pharmaceutical studies was developed prior to the outset of the 6-year pharmacy degree. In the 10 years that followed, medical care and life science technology has progressed, pharmaceutical laws have been revised, and the responsibilities of pharmacists have increased. In response to such social changes and needs, the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmacy Education was revised in December 2013. In order to play an active role as a pharmacist in any medical workplace, it is important for pharmacy students to develop their communication skills and attitudes in order to foster the trust of their patients and other medical professionals...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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