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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776669/-the-role-of-end-of-life-palliative-sedation-medical-and-ethical-aspects-review
#1
REVIEW
Miriam S Menezes, Maria das Graças Mota da Cruz de Assis Figueiredo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Palliative sedation is a medical procedure that has been used for more than 25 years to relieve refractory symptoms not responsive to any previous treatment in patients with no possibility of cure and near the end of life. Many uncertainties persist on the issue regarding definition, indications, decision making, most appropriate place to perform the procedure, most used drugs, need for monitoring, fluids and nutritional support, and possible ethical dilemmas...
May 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766727/-human-life-as-goodness-why-euthanasia-is-morally-unacceptable
#2
David Černý
The current discussion of the moral admissibility or inadmissibility of euthanasia should, in my opinion, consider the greatest possible number of the shared premises of the two opinion camps. That is why I followed a thesis in this paper that the question of the good life is the focus of ethical interest, as this is what connects the advocates and the opponents to euthanasia. In the first part of the paper I critically discuss the two main theories of the good life widely embraced among the advocates of euthanasia: hedonism and desire-fulfilment theory...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742044/end-of-life-decision-making-in-palliative-care-and-recommendations-of-the-council-of-europe-qualitative-secondary-analysis-of-interviews-and-observation-field-notes
#3
Sandra Martins Pereira, Emília Fradique, Pablo Hernández-Marrero
BACKGROUND: End-of-life decisions (ELDs) are embedded in clinical, sociocultural, political, economic, and ethical concerns. In 2014, the Council of Europe (CoE) through its Committee on Bioethics launched the "Guide on the decision-making process regarding medical treatment in end-of-life situations," aiming at improving decision-making processes and empowering professionals in making ELDs. OBJECTIVE: To analyze if end-of-life decision making in palliative care (PC) is consistent with this Guide and to identify if disputed/controversial issues are part of current ELDs...
May 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738040/nephrologists-between-power-and-vulnerability-in-times-of-technology
#4
José Miguel Viscarra Obregón, Marcio Fabri Dos Anjos
The doctor-patient relationship is often discussed from the perspective of patient vulnerability. Little attention is given to the vulnerability of nephrologists in their professional practice, a reality often affected by profound cultural transformation arising from technological development. Nephrology is based on research and procedure instrumentalization, both permeated with technology. In addition, the relationship between nephrologists and institutions is governed by market rules. Recent data showed a shortage of new nephrologists and the need to improve the technical training of new professionals, foster the establishment of interventional nephrology, and attract more graduating physicians to this medical specialty...
May 3, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725893/moral-conflicts-and-religious-convictions-what-role-for-clinical-ethics-consultants
#5
John C Moskop
Moral conflicts over medical treatment that are the result of differences in fundamental moral commitments of the stakeholders, including religiously grounded commitments, can present difficult challenges for clinical ethics consultants. This article begins with a case example that poses such a conflict, then examines how consultants might use different approaches to clinical ethics consultation in an effort to facilitate the resolution of conflicts of this kind. Among the approaches considered are the authoritarian approach, the pure consensus approach, and the ethics facilitation approach described in the Core Competencies for Healthcare Ethics Consultation report of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, as well as a patient advocate approach, a clinician advocate approach, and an institutional advocate approach...
May 3, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697399/-legal-regulation-of-transplantology-at-the-present-stage-ukrainian-issue-and-experience-of-foreign-states
#6
O Sovgyria
The objective of the research is to analyze the legal regulation in the transplantology field at the present stage in Ukraine. To address identified challenges, the author investigates the foreign countries experience and suggests ways of improving certain mechanism for legal regulation in the field of organ transplantation and anatomical materials. The empiric material of the study included a wide range of legal instruments regulating this sphere of legal relationships, information regarding the problems of their application, statistics, expert analysis of Ukrainian and foreign researchers...
March 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697324/why-bioethics-should-be-concerned-with-medically-unexplained-symptoms
#7
Diane O'Leary
Biomedical diagnostic science is a great deal less successful than we've been willing to acknowledge in bioethics, and this fact has far-reaching ethical implications. In this article I consider the surprising prevalence of medically unexplained symptoms, and the term's ambiguous meaning. Then I frame central questions that remain answered in this context with respect to informed consent, autonomy, and truth-telling. Finally, I show that while considerable attention in this area is given to making sure not to provide biological care to patients without a need, comparatively little is given to the competing, ethically central task of making sure never to obstruct access to biological care for those with diagnostically confusing biological conditions...
May 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694525/-the-use-of-animal-assisted-therapy-a-bioethical-question
#8
Marta Luciane Fischer, Maria Fernanda Turbay Palodeto, Erica Costa Dos Santos
This paper addresses ethical questions concerning animal-assisted therapy (zootherapy). While it has been documented for centuries in several cultures and is resistant to urban and technological developments, it combines multiple moral and vulnerable agents, constituting a dilemma whose fair and consensual solution calls for new perspectives, like environmental bioethics. Through analyses of scientific texts, the arguments and values intrinsic to decisions about how and when to use animals as medical resources are systematized...
March 2018: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657177/when-professional-rightness-is-personal
#9
Arthur W Frank
This commentary discusses twelve stories in which physicians tell what happened when they were involved in the care of a family member. The stories display considerable differences in attitude toward the ethics and usefulness of physicians treating members of their own families. But the more significant tension is between the analytical or objective attitude that all the writers presuppose as necessary for doing good medical work, opposed to the emotions aroused by seeing a loved one suffer. The commentary explores the implications of assuming this binary opposition, whether it is correct, and how far it is actually necessary...
2018: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627144/-assessing-bioethics-education-teaching-to-be-virtuous-doctors-or-just-doctors-with-practical-ethical-skills
#10
Montse Esquerda, Josep Pifarré, Helena Roig, Ester Busquets, Oriol Yuguero, Joan Viñas
OBJECTIVE: In the last decades, bioethics has been incorporated into the academic training of the Medical Schools. Some studies analyze the ethical-moral development of medical students and the effect of ethical education in other countries. This evaluation is done by measuring Kohlberg's moral reasoning (virtuous doctors), or ethical sensitivity to resolve clinical cases (physicians with ethical skills). The following study is proposed to assess the impact of bioethics training on these two variables, in Spanish medical students...
April 4, 2018: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572338/institute-of-medical-ethics-guidelines-for-confirmation-of-appointment-promotion-and-recognition-of-uk-bioethics-and-medical-ethics-researchers
#11
Lucy Frith, Carwyn Hooper, Silvia Camporesi, Thomas Douglas, Anna Smajdor, Emma Nottingham, Zoe Fritz, Merryn Ekberg, Richard Huxtable
This document is designed to give guidance on assessing researchers in bioethics/medical ethics. It is intended to assist members of selection, confirmation and promotion committees, who are required to assess those conducting bioethics research when they are not from a similar disciplinary background. It does not attempt to give guidance on the quality of bioethics research, as this is a matter for peer assessment. Rather it aims to give an indication of the type, scope and amount of research that is the expected in this field...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561957/threats-to-bioethical-principles-in-medical-practice-in-brazil-new-medical-ethics-code-period
#12
G C L Gracindo, J H da Silva Gallo, R Nunes
We aimed to outline the profile of medical professionals in Brazil who have violated the deontological norms set forth in the ethics code of the profession, and whose cases were judged by the higher tribunal for medical ethics between 2010 and 2016. This survey was conducted using a database formed from professional ethics cases extracted from the plenary of the medical ethics tribunal of the Federal Council of Medicine. These were disciplinary ethics cases that were judged at appeal level between 2010 and 2016...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550748/teaching-bioethics-just-a-passing-fad
#13
Nazli Hossain
Biomedical ethics is not taught as a subject in undergraduate or postgraduate studies in our country. Recently governing bodies have introduced the subject in medical school in a limited manner. A majority of doctors are unable to appreciate the importance of the subject in the curriculum. This article emphasises the importance of this subject by sharing the author's personal experiences after attaining a diploma in the subject.
February 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516332/a-morally-permissible-moral-mistake-reinterpreting-a-thought-experiment-as-proof-of-concept
#14
Nathan Emmerich, Bert Gordjin
This paper takes the philosophical notion of suberogatory acts or morally permissible moral mistakes and, via a reinterpretation of a thought experiment from the medical ethics literature, offers an initial demonstration of their relevance to the field of medical ethics. That is, at least in regards to this case, we demonstrate that the concept of morally permissible moral mistakes has a bearing on medical decision-making. We therefore suggest that these concepts may have broader importance for the discourse on medical ethics and should receive fuller consideration by those working the field...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509129/ethics-of-virtual-reality-in-medical-education-and-licensure
#15
Kenneth V Iserson
The aim of this section is to expand and accelerate advances in curriculum developments and in methods of teaching bioethics.
April 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490543/novel-horizontal-and-vertical-integrated-bioethics-curriculum-for-medical-courses
#16
Russell F D'Souza, Mary Mathew, Derek S J D'Souza, Princy Palatty
Studies conducted by the University of Haifa, Israel in 2001, evaluating the effectiveness of bioethics being taught in medical colleges, suggested that there was a significant lack of translation in clinical care. Analysis also revealed, ineffectiveness with the teaching methodology used, lack of longitudinal integration of bioethics into the undergraduate medical curriculum, and the limited exposure to the technology in decision making when confronting ethical dilemmas. A modern novel bioethics curriculum and innovative methodology for teaching bioethics for the medical course was developed by the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics, Haifa...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460473/when-a-physician-and-a-clinical-ethicist-collaborate-for-better-patient-care
#17
Thalia Arawi, Lama Charafeddine
Bioethics is a relatively new addition to bedside medical care in Arab world which is characterized by a special culture that often makes blind adaptation of western ethics codes and principles; a challenge that has to be faced. To date, the American University of Beirut Medical Center is the only hospital that offers bedside ethics consultations in the Arab Region aiming towards better patient-centered care. This article tackles the role of the bedside clinical ethics consultant as an active member of the medical team and the impact of such consultations on decision-making and patient-centered care...
February 20, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458791/the-ethical-plausibility-of-the-right-to-try-laws
#18
REVIEW
D Carrieri, F A Peccatori, G Boniolo
'Right To Try' (RTT) laws originated in the USA to allow terminally ill patients to request access to early stage experimental medical products directly from the producer, removing the oversight and approval of the Food and Drug Administration. These laws have received significant media attention and almost equally unanimous criticism by the bioethics, clinical and scientific communities. They touch indeed on complex issues such as the conflict between individual and public interest, and the public understanding of medical research and its regulation...
February 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424409/-does-therapeutic-privilege-have-a-place-in-modern-medicine
#19
Rodrigo R Salinas, Carlos Echeverría B, Anamaría Arriagada U, Alejandro Goic G, Carlos Quintana V, Alberto Rojas O, Alejandro Serani M, Paulina Taboada R, Ricardo Vacarezza Y
During the last years, bioethical discussion has highlighted the role of the patients' autonomy, being informed consent its particular expression, about decisions that they should make about their own health. The Hippocratic tradition, the deontological positions of the Geneva Declaration of the World Medical Association and numerous codes of ethics in various countries, require that the physician, above all, should ensure patients' health. In this context the discussion on pros and cons for the so-called "therapeutic privilege" are discussed...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415709/an-update-on-the-empirical-turn-in-bioethics-analysis-of-empirical-research-in-nine-bioethics-journals
#20
Tenzin Wangmo, Sirin Hauri, Eloise Gennet, Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Veerle Provoost, Bernice S Elger
BACKGROUND: A review of literature published a decade ago noted a significant increase in empirical papers across nine bioethics journals. This study provides an update on the presence of empirical papers in the same nine journals. It first evaluates whether the empirical trend is continuing as noted in the previous study, and second, how it is changing, that is, what are the characteristics of the empirical works published in these nine bioethics journals. METHOD: A review of the same nine journals (Bioethics; Journal of Medical Ethics; Journal of Clinical Ethics; Nursing Ethics; Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics; Hastings Center Report; Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics; Christian Bioethics; and Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal) was conducted for a 12-year period from 2004 to 2015...
February 7, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
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