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preadipocyte AND obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088621/4-hydroxynonenal-causes-impairment-of-human-subcutaneous-adipogenesis-and-induction-of-adipocyte-insulin-resistance
#1
Mohamed Elrayess, Shamma Al-Muraikhy, Wael Kafienah, Afnan Al-Menhali, Fatima Al-Khalaifi, Moataz Bashah, Kamelija Zarkovic, Neven Zarkovic, Georg Waeg, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Morana Jaganjac
OBJECTIVE: Increased adipose production of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a bioreactive aldehyde, directly correlates with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of 4-HNE in mediating adipocyte differentiation and function in two metabolically distinct obese groups; the insulin sensitive (IS) and the insulin resistant (IR). METHODS: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissues were obtained from eighteen clinically well characterized obese premenopausal women undergoing weight reduction surgery...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076839/chemotherapy-can-induce-weight-normalization-of-morbidly-obese-mice-despite-undiminished-ingestion-of-high-fat-diet
#2
Cheryl E Myers, Dominique B Hoelzinger, Tiffany N Truong, Lindsey A Chew, Arpita Myles, Leena Chaudhuri, Jan B Egan, Jun Liu, Sandra J Gendler, Peter A Cohen
Morbidly obese patients who accomplish substantial weight loss often display a long-term decline in their resting metabolism, causing even relatively restrained caloric intake to trigger a relapse to the obese state. Paradoxically, we observed that morbidly obese mice receiving chemotherapy for cancer experienced spontaneous weight reduction despite unabated ingestion of their high fat diet (HFD). This response to chemotherapy could also be achieved in morbidly obese mice without cancer. Optimally dosed methotrexate (MTX) or cyclophosphamide (CY) enabled the mice to completely and safely normalize their body weight despite continued consumption of obesogenic quantities of HFD...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067305/gomisin-n-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#3
Min-Kyung Jang, Ye-Rang Yun, Ji-Hyun Kim, Mi-Hee Park, Myeong Ho Jung
Gomisin N (GN) is a physiological lignan derived from Schisandra chinensis. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of GN on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the anti-obesity effects of GN in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Incubation with GN significantly inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect primarily occurred at an early adipogenic stage through impairment of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) caused by cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase transition...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042862/hydrogen-sulfide-in-the-adipose-tissue-physiology-pathology-and-a-target-for-pharmacotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Jerzy Bełtowski, Anna Jamroz-Wiśniewska
Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is synthesized in the adipose tissue mainly by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). Several studies have demonstrated that H₂S is involved in adipogenesis, that is the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes, most likely by inhibiting phosphodiesterases and increasing cyclic AMP concentration. The effect of H₂S on adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake is controversial. Some studies suggest that H₂S inhibits insulin-induced glucose uptake and that excess of H₂S contributes to adipose tissue insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome...
December 31, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976976/antiadipogenic-effects-and-mechanisms-of-combinations-of-genistein-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-or-resveratrol-in-preadipocytes
#5
Bulbul Ahmed, Siqin Liu, Hongwei Si
Natural bioactive compounds are considered an excellent alternative strategy for developing effective, safe, and cost-effective antiobesity agents. The aim of this study was to investigate if combinations of soy bean genistein (G), green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (E), and/or grape resveratrol (R) at low dosages synergistically inhibit preadipocyte differentiation both in 3T3-L1 cells and human primary preadipocytes (HPAs). Our results show that combinations of G, E, and/or R additively inhibited preadipocyte differentiation (39-56% of control) both in 3T3-L1 cells at 30 μM and HPAs at 15 μM, while the individual compounds have no antiadipogenic effect at the selected concentrations...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967236/pka-riib-deficiency-induces-brown-fat-like-adipocytes-in-inguinal-wat-and-promotes-energy-expenditure-in-male-fvb-nj-mice
#6
Su Jing, Wei Wu, Shan Huang, Ruidan Xue, Yi Wang, Yun Wan, Lv Zhang, Lang Qin, Qiongyue Zhang, Xiaoming Zhu, Zhaoyun Zhang, Hongying Ye, Xiaohui Wu, Yiming Li
Obesity has become the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue formation, hence, a functional increase in energy expenditure may counteract obesity. Mice lacking type II-beta regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-RIIB) display reduced adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity (DIO). PKA-RIIB, encoded by the Prkar2b gene, is most abundant in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brain. In this study, we show that mice lacking PKA-RIIB have increased energy expenditure, limited weight gain, and improved glucose metabolism...
December 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959437/traditional-medicine-sobokchukeo%C3%A2-tang-modulates-the-inflammatory-response-in-adipocytes-and-macrophages
#7
Hoyoung Lee, Eun Hyoung Shim, Myeong Soo Lee, Chang-Seon Myung
Sobokchukeo-Tang (ST) is a well-known formula that is used for treating primary dysmenorrhea caused by blood stasis syndrome (BSS) in Korea and China. The current study investigated the anti‑inflammatory and anti‑adipogenesis effects of ST on adipocytes and macrophages. The anti‑inflammatory efficacy of ST was evaluated in RAW 264.7 cells and differentiated THP‑1 cells. To induce inflammation, the cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 µg/ml). Following the induction of inflammation, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) and tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) in the cell supernatant were detected using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941615/mechanisms-of-body-weight-reduction-by-black-tea-polyphenols
#8
REVIEW
Haibo Pan, Ying Gao, Youying Tu
Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols...
December 7, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940362/stat3-stimulates-adipogenic-stem-cell-proliferation-and-cooperates-with-hmga2-during-the-early-stage-of-differentiation-to-promote-adipogenesis
#9
Yanyan Yuan, Yang Xi, Jiayi Chen, Pan Zhu, Jinyu Kang, Zuquan Zou, Fuyan Wang, Shizhong Bu
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is abundantly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese mice and humans, but the role of STAT3 in adipogenesis is still not fully understood. In the present study, we discovered an activation of STAT3 during the early differentiation stage of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Stat3 knockdown using siRNA blocked cell cycle progression of both preadipoctes and early differentiating cells. Moreover, accumulation of lipid droplets was inhibited by Stat3 knockdown...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940057/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-inhibits-adipogenesis-through-down-regulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-fas-expression-mediated-by-pi3k-akt-signaling-in-3t3-l1-cells
#10
Mengqing Wu, Dan Liu, Rong Zeng, Tao Xian, Yi Lu, Guohua Zeng, Zhangzetian Sun, Bowei Huang, Qiren Huang
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component in green tea, functions as extensive bioactivities including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-cancer. However, little is known about its anti-adipogenesis and underlying mechanisms. The purport of this study sought to investigate effects of EGCG on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and to explore its possible mechanisms. The 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate under the condition of pro-adipogenic cocktail with or without indicated EGCG concentrations (10, 50, 100, 200µM) for 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, respectively...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939617/hypoxia-mimetic-induces-lipid-accumulation-through-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-stimulates-autophagy-in-murine-preadipocyte-cell-line
#11
Ana Patrícia Marques, Joana Rosmaninho-Salgado, Marta Estrada, Vera Cortez, Rui Jorge Nobre, Cláudia Cavadas
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia occurs within adipose tissue of obese human and mice. However, its role in adipose tissue regulation is still controversial. METHODS: We used murine preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells and hypoxia was induced by using hypoxia mimetic agents, as CoCl2. To study adipocyte differentiation, we evaluated the adipocyte markers (PPARγ, C/EBPα and aP2), and a preadipocyte marker (Pref-1) by qPCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. Lipid accumulation was evaluated by Oil red-O assay and by analyzing perilipin levels by western blotting and immunofluorescence...
December 8, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935133/modulation-of-brown-adipocyte-activity-by-milk-by-products-stimulation-of-brown-adipogenesis-by-buttermilk
#12
Hiroki Asano, Ryosuke Kida, Kengo Muto, Takayuki Y Nara, Ken Kato, Osamu Hashimoto, Teruo Kawada, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928650/cytoglobin-a-potential-marker-for-adipogenic-differentiation-in-preadipocytes-in-vitro
#13
Ayşegül Doğan, Selami Demirci, Binnur Kıratlı, Fikrettin Şahin
Obesity, mainly characterized by the excess fat storage, is a global health problem resulting in serious morbidity and mortality. Identification of molecular mechanisms in adipogenic differentiation pathway might lead to development of new strategies for diagnosis, prevention and therapy of obesity and associated diseases. Discovery of new genes and proteins in the differentiation pathway could help to understand the key specific regulators of the adipogenesis. Cytoglobin (Cygb), identified as a new globin family member protein, is expressed in various tissues...
December 7, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879248/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-regulates-mmp3-to-modulate-depot-and-sex-dependent-adipose-expansion-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#14
Yuanyuan Wu, Mi-Jeong Lee, Yasuo Ido, Susan K Fried
Increased adipocyte size is hypothesized to signal the recruitment of adipose progenitor cells (APCs) to expand tissue storage capacity. To investigate depot and sex differences in adipose growth, male and female C57BL/6J mice (10 wk-old) were challenged with high-fat (HF) or low-fat (LF) diets (D) for 14 wk. The HFD increased gonadal (GON) depot weight by adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia in females but hypertrophy alone in males. In both sexes, inguinal (ING) adipocytes were smaller than GON, and depot expansion was due to hypertrophy...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867269/platyphylloside-isolated-from-betula-platyphylla-inhibit-adipocyte-differentiation-and-induce-lipolysis-via-regulating-adipokines-including-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#15
Mina Lee, Sang Hyun Sung
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865158/increasing-camp-levels-of-preadipocytes-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-treatment-induces-the-formation-of-beige-phenotypes-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#16
Toshiya Matsukawa, Myra O Villareal, Hideko Motojima, Hiroko Isoda
Obesity is a serious health problem and a major risk factor for the onset of several diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer. The conversion of white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes, also called beige or brite adipocytes, by pharmacological and dietary compounds has gained attention as an effective treatment for obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), a polyphenolic compound contained in black soybean, blueberry and grape, has several antiobesity effects. However, there are no reports on the role of Cy3G in the induction of differentiation of preadipocytes to beige adipocytes and corresponding phenotypes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864366/siah2-protein-mediates-early-events-in-commitment-to-an-adipogenic-pathway
#17
Gail Kilroy, David H Burk, Z Elizabeth Floyd
Adipose tissue expansion occurs by increasing the size of existing adipocytes or by increasing the number of adipocytes via adipogenesis. Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired adipogenesis. We recently demonstrated that deletion of the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is associated with enlarged adipocytes in lean or obese mice. In this study, we find that adipogenesis is impaired in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes stably transfected with Siah2 shRNA and that overexpression of Siah2 in non-precursor fibroblasts promotes adipogenesis...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843198/regulation-of-autophagy-related-protein-and-cell-differentiation-by-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-in-adipocytes
#18
Huanhuan Feng, Lili Yu, Guojun Zhang, Guoyan Liu, Can Yang, Hui Wang, Xiangfeng Song
High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a molecule related to the development of inflammation. Autophagy is vital to maintain cellular homeostasis and protect against inflammation of adipocyte injury. Our recent work focused on the relationship of HMGB1 and autophagy in 3T3-L1 cells. In vivo experimental results showed that, compared with the normal-diet group, the high-fat diet mice displayed an increase in adipocyte size in the epididymal adipose tissues. The expression levels of HMGB1 and LC3II also increased in epididymal adipose tissues in high-fat diet group compared to the normal-diet mice...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830366/maturation-of-adipocytes-is-suppressed-by-fluid-shear-stress
#19
Jongyun Choi, Sei Young Lee, Yeong-Min Yoo, Chi Hyun Kim
Preadipocytes are mechano-responsive cells and their differentiation to adipocytes may be regulated by various types of physical stimulation. Understanding the mechanism of differentiation, which increases the number of adipocytes and lipid accumulation is important in the study of obesity-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of physical stimulation at different stages of adipogenic differentiation using physiological levels of fluid shear stress. Preadipocytes were treated with dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and insulin for 3 days (induction period) and incubated for additional 6 days for maturation...
November 9, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802075/kinase-inactive-tyrosine-kinase-tyk2-supports-differentiation-of-brown-fat-cells
#20
Vidisha Raje, Marta Derecka, Marc Cantwell, Jeremy Meier, Karol Szczepanek, Jennifer D Sisler, Birgit Strobl, Ana Gamero, Thurl E Harris, Andrew C Larner
It has been known for decades that brown adipose tissue plays a central role in maintaining body temperature in hibernating animals, and human infants. Recently it has become evident that there are also depots of brown fat in adult humans, and the mass of brown fat is inversely correlated with body weight. There are a variety of transcription factors implicated in the differentiation of classical Myf5+ brown preadipocytes, one of the most important of which is PRDM16. We have recently identified that in addition to PRDM16, the tyrosine kinase Tyk2 and the STAT3 transcription factor are required for the differentiation of Myf5 positive brown preadipocytes both in cell culture and in mice...
November 1, 2016: Endocrinology
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