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preadipocyte AND obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655677/an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-of-a-4-herb-formula-on-the-management-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Elaine Wat, Yanping Wang, Ken Chan, Hon Wai Law, Chi Man Koon, Kit Man Lau, Ping Chung Leung, Choly Yan, Clara Bik San Lau
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of risk factors that leads to increased episodes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These risk factors include but are not limited to obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Since the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome has multiple metabolic origins, there is no single treatment for it. Pharmacological approaches consist of separate drugs which target at individual risk factors which pose various side effects...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626799/lipid-reducing-activity-and-toxicity-profiles-of-a-library-of-polyphenol-derivatives
#2
Ralph Urbatzka, Sara Freitas, Andreia Palmeira, Tiago Almeida, João Moreira, Carlos Azevedo, Carlos Afonso, Marta Correia-da-Silva, Emilia Sousa, Madalena Pinto, Vitor Vasconcelos
Obesity is an increasing epidemic worldwide and novel treatments are urgently needed. Polyphenols are natural compounds derived from plants, which are known in particular for their antioxidant properties. However, some polyphenols were described to possess anti-obesity activities in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to screen a library of 85 polyphenol derivatives for their lipid reducing activity and toxicity. Compounds were analyzed at 5 μM with the zebrafish Nile red fluorescence fat metabolism assay and for general toxicity in vivo...
March 23, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611347/activation-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-suppresses-mouse-white-adipose-tissue-hyperplasia-through-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptor
#3
Mary K Schneider, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi
Adipose tissue (AT) expands via both hypertrophy and hyperplasia during the development of obesity. While AT hypertrophy involves the increase in size of existing adipocytes, hyperplasia is the process of creating new adipocytes from the pool of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs), which includes adipocyte progenitor cells and preadipocytes. Prior studies have implicated a role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in regulation of hyperplasia in white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, we aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying SNS regulation of APC proliferation in mouse WAT...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606342/what-can-brown-ing-do-for-you
#4
REVIEW
Amar M Singh, Stephen Dalton
Human stem cell-based models of thermogenic adipocytes provide an opportunity for the establishment of new therapeutics, modeling of disease mechanisms, and understanding of development. Pluripotent stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells/preadipocytes, and programming-reprogramming-based approaches have been used to develop cell-based platforms for drug screening and transplantable therapeutics in the metabolic disease arena. Here we provide a detailed overview of these approaches, the latest advances in this field, and the opportunities and shortcomings they present...
March 29, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604586/inhibitory-effect-of-sinigrin-on-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells-involvement-of-ampk-and-mapk-pathways
#5
Hee-Weon Lee, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Byung-Oh Kim, Suhkneung Pyo
Adipocyte differentiation is a critical adaptive response to nutritional overload and affects the metabolic outcome of obesity. Sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) is a glucosinolate belong to the glucoside contained in broccoli, brussels sprouts, and black mustard seeds. We investigated the effects of sinigrin on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and its underlying mechanisms. Sinigrin remarkably inhibited the accumulation of lipid droplets and adipogenesis by downregulating the expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), leptin and aP2...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576843/modulation-of-adipocyte-differentiation-and-proadipogenic-gene-expression-by-sulforaphane-genistein-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-as-a-first-step-to-counteract-obesity
#6
Veronica Valli, Katharina Heilmann, Francesca Danesi, Alessandra Bordoni, Clarissa Gerhäuser
Obesity is characterized by excess body fat accumulation due to an increase in the size and number of differentiated mature adipocytes. Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by genetic and environmental factors, and its inhibition could represent a strategy for obesity prevention and treatment. The current study was designed with two aims: (i) to evaluate the changes in the expression of adipogenic markers (C/EBP α , PPAR γ variant 1 and variant 2, and GLUT4) in 3T3-L1 murine preadipocytes at four stages of the differentiation process and (ii) to compare the effectiveness of sulforaphane, genistein, and docosahexaenoic acid in reducing lipid accumulation and modulating C/EBP α , PPAR γ 1, PPAR γ 2, and GLUT4 mRNA expression in mature adipocytes...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560554/effects-of-exosomes-from-lps-activated-macrophages-on-adipocyte-gene-expression-differentiation-and-insulin-dependent-glucose-uptake
#7
Nicolás De Silva, Mirian Samblas, J Alfredo Martínez, Fermín I Milagro
Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which determines the appearance of comorbidities like atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue are partly responsible of this inflammatory condition. Numerous studies point to the existence of close intercommunication between macrophages and adipocytes and pay particular attention to the proinflammatory cytokines released by both cell types. However, it has been recently described that in both, circulation and tissue level, there are extracellular vesicles (including microvesicles and exosomes) containing miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins that can influence the inflammatory response...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550483/strigolactone-gr24-and-pinosylvin-attenuate-adipogenesis-and-inflammation-of-white-adipocytes
#8
Shalem Modi, Nagendra Yaluri, Tarja Kokkola
Obesity is characterized by excess fat accumulation in white adipose tissue, which triggers chronic low-grade inflammation through secretion of pro-inflammatory factors by the enlarged adipocytes and infiltrated macrophages. This affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, inducing type 2 diabetes. NAD+ -dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is known to inhibit adipogenesis through the regulation of the key adipogenic transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα. SIRT1 activators such as resveratrol inhibit adipogenesis and exert anti-inflammatory responses in the adipose tissue...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545541/toosendanin-inhibits-adipogenesis-by-activating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#9
Tian-Xing Chen, Xiao-Ying Cheng, Yun Wang, Wu Yin
Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities. However, its anti-adipogenic effect remains unknown. Here, we found that TSN dose-dependently attenuated lipid accumulation in preadipocytes 3T3-L1 as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. TSN also significantly downregulated mRNA and protein levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipocytes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541908/differential-effects-of-dietary-flavonoids-on-adipogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Manizheh Khalilpourfarshbafi, Khadijeh Gholami, Dharmani Devi Murugan, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar, Nor Azizan Abdullah
PROPOSE: Obesity is a fast growing epidemic worldwide. During obesity, the increase in adipose tissue mass arise from two different mechanisms, namely, hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Hyperplasia which is the increase in adipocyte number is characteristic of severe obese patients. Recently, there has been much interest in targeting adipogenesis as therapeutic strategy against obesity. Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520860/antiadipogenic-effects-of-a-standardized-quassinoids-enriched-fraction-and-eurycomanone-from-eurycoma-longifolia
#11
D Balan, Kit-Lam Chan, D Murugan, Sazaly AbuBakar, Pooi-Fong Wong
Bioactive compounds of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) jack were previously shown to reduce omentum fat mass and oestradiol-induced fatty uterine adhesion in rats. However, the exact role of EL on adipogenesis remains unknown. This study sought to investigate the effects of an EL standardized quassinoids-enriched fraction (SQEL) and the pure compound, eurycomanone, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate and treated for 8 days. The treatment reduced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and triglycerides in the differentiating adipocytes and induced lipolysis in matured adipocytes...
March 9, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514876/adipogenesis-in-fish
#12
REVIEW
Cristina Salmerón
White adipose tissue (AT) is the main lipid storage depot in vertebrates. Initially considered to be a simple lipid store, AT has recently been recognized as playing a role as an endocrine organ that is implicated in processes such as energy homeostasis and as a rich source of stem cells. Interest in adipogenesis has increased not only because of the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in humans, but also in aquaculture because of the excessive fat deposition experienced in some cultured fish species, which may compromise both their welfare and their final product quality...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511320/preadipocytes-from-obese-humans-with-type-2-diabetes-are-epigenetically-reprogrammed-at-genes-controlling-adipose-tissue-function
#13
Emil Andersen, Lars Roed Ingerslev, Odile Fabre, Ida Donkin, Ali Altıntaş, Soetkin Versteyhe, Thue Bisgaard, Viggo B Kristiansen, David Simar, Romain Barrès
BACKGROUND: Deterioration of the adipogenic potential of preadipocytes may contribute to adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we hypothesized that extracellular factors in obesity epigenetically reprogram adipogenesis potential and metabolic function of preadipocytes. METHODS: The transcriptomic profile of visceral adipose tissue preadipocytes collected from Lean, Obese and Obese with T2D was assessed throughout in vitro differentiation using RNA sequencing...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501495/pink1-parkin-alleviates-metabolic-stress-induced-by-obesity-in-adipose-tissue-and-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#14
Chen Cui, Jingting Qiao, Li Qing, Lingshu Wang, Tianyi He, Chuan Wang, Fuqiang Liu, Lei Gong, Li Chen, Xinguo Hou
Mitochondria play an important role in cellular metabolism and are closely related with metabolic stress. Recently, several studies have shown that mitophagy mediated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin may play a critical role in clearing the damaged mitochondria and maintaining the overall balance of intracellular mitochondria in quality and quantity. A previous study showed that PINK1 and Parkin were overexpressed in adipose tissue in obese subjects. However, it is still unclear whether a direct relationship exists between obesity and mitophagy...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497032/de-novo-adipocyte-differentiation-from-pdgfr%C3%AE-preadipocytes-protects-against-pathologic-visceral-adipose-expansion-in-obesity
#15
Mengle Shao, Lavanya Vishvanath, Napoleon C Busbuso, Chelsea Hepler, Bo Shan, Ankit X Sharma, Shiuhwei Chen, Xinxin Yu, Yu A An, Yi Zhu, William L Holland, Rana K Gupta
Pathologic expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity is characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis; however, factors triggering this maladaptive remodeling are largely unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that the potential to recruit new adipocytes from Pdgfrβ+ preadipocytes determines visceral WAT health in obesity. We manipulate levels of Pparg, the master regulator of adipogenesis, in Pdgfrβ+ precursors of adult mice. Increasing the adipogenic capacity of Pdgfrβ+ precursors through Pparg overexpression results in healthy visceral WAT expansion in obesity and adiponectin-dependent improvements in glucose homeostasis...
March 1, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493813/rapid-adipose-tissue-expansion-triggers-unique-proliferation-and-lipid-accumulation-profiles-in-adipose-tissue-macrophages
#16
Lindsey A Muir, Samadhi Kiridena, Cameron Griffin, Jennifer B DelProposto, Lynn Geletka, Gabriel Martinez-Santibañez, Brian F Zamarron, Hannah Lucas, Kanakadurga Singer, Robert W O' Rourke, Carey N Lumeng
Obesity-related changes in adipose tissue leukocytes, in particular adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and dendritic cells (ATDCs), are implicated in metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered regulation of adipocyte function. We evaluated stromal cell and white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion dynamics with high fat diet (HFD) feeding for 3-56 days, quantifying ATMs, ATDCs, endothelial cells (ECs), and preadipocytes (PAs) in visceral epididymal WAT and subcutaneous inguinal WAT. To better understand mechanisms of the early response to obesity, we evaluated ATM proliferation and lipid accumulation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486135/transcriptional-regulation-of-tcf-lef-and-ppar%C3%AE-by-daidzein-and-genistein-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#17
Jeremy E Davis, Darcie Hastings
Adipogenesis is central to adipose tissue plasticity and lipid homeostasis. Regulation of adipogenic signaling by phytoestrogens has been implicated as a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity-related disease. However, it remains unclear how these compounds directly impact transcriptional control of adipogenesis. As such, the focus of this study was to determine how daidzein and genistein effect transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and TCF/LEF in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483204/mir-103-107-promote-er-stress-mediated-apoptosis-via-targeting-the-wnt3a-%C3%AE-catenin-atf6-pathway-in-preadipocytes
#18
Zhenzhen Zhang, Song Wu, Saeed Muhammad, Qian Ren, Chao Sun
Both miR-103 and 107 have been demonstrated to restrain cell proliferation, regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation. However, the effects of miR-103/107 on preadipocytes apoptosis remain unknown. In the present research, we have investigated how miR-103/107 regulated preadipocytes apoptosis. We found that miR-103/107 aggravated Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress mediated apoptosis in preadipocytes. We confirmed that miR-103/107 targeted Wnt3a (WNT family member 3a) in preadipocytes. It was found that overexpressing Wnt3a resulted in suppression of ER stress mediated apoptosis, while restoration of miR-103/107 counteracted the effects of Wnt3a in preadipocytes...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466054/the-role-of-rpgrip1l-a-component-of-the-primary-cilium-in-adipocyte-development-and-function
#19
Jayne F Martin Carli, Charles A LeDuc, Yiying Zhang, George Stratigopoulos, Rudolph L Leibel
Genetic variants within the FTO (α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase) gene have been strongly associated with a modest increase in adiposity as a result of increased food intake. These risk alleles are associated with decreased expression of both FTO and neighboring RPGRIP1L (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein 1 like). RPGRIP1L encodes a protein that is critical to the function of the primary cilium, which conveys extracellular information to the cell. Rpgrip1l+/- mice exhibit increased adiposity, in part, as a result of hyperphagia...
February 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464872/time-dependent-effect-of-phytocannabinoid-treatments-in-fat-cells
#20
S Ramlugon, R-A Levendal, C L Frost
The objectives of this paper is to investigate, demonstrate, and compare the mechanism of action of phytocannabinoids as antidiabetic and anti-obesity agents in preadipocytes and adipocytes, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin. Briefly, cannabis extract, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (in very low dosages) were shown to promote glucose uptake higher or to equivalent levels, reduce fat accumulation, and reverse the insulin-resistant state of 3T3-L1 cells more effectively, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin...
February 21, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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