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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334683/combined-metformin-and-insulin-treatment-reverses-metabolically-impaired-omental-adipogenesis-and-accumulation-of-4-hydroxynonenal-in-obese-diabetic-patients
#1
Morana Jaganjac, Shamma Almuraikhy, Fatima Al-Khelaifi, Mashael Al-Jaber, Moataz Bashah, Nayef A Mazloum, Kamelija Zarkovic, Neven Zarkovic, Georg Waeg, Wael Kafienah, Mohamed A Elrayess
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-associated impaired fat accumulation in the visceral adipose tissue can lead to ectopic fat deposition and increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated whether impaired adipogenesis of omental (OM) adipose tissues and elevated 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) accumulation contribute to this process, and if combined metformin and insulin treatment in T2DM patients could rescue this phenotype. METHODS: OM adipose tissues were obtained from forty clinically well characterized obese individuals during weight reduction surgery...
March 16, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319137/the-h3k27-demethylase-utx-regulates-adipogenesis-in-a-differentiation-stage-dependent-manner
#2
Kazushige Ota, Kit I Tong, Kouichiro Goto, Shuta Tomida, Akiyoshi Komuro, Zhong Wang, Kazuto Nishio, Hitoshi Okada
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive adipogenesis is important in developing new treatments for obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic regulations determine the capacity of adipogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of a histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein on the X chromosome (Utx), in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to adipocytes. Using gene trapping, we examined Utx-deficient male mESCs to determine whether loss of Utx would enhance or inhibit the differentiation of mESCs to adipocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242381/antidiabetic-effect-of-sn158-through-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-dual-activation-in-ob-ob-mice
#3
Yujung Jung, Yongkai Cao, Suresh Paudel, Goo Yoon, Seung Hoon Cheon, Gyu-Un Bae, Li Tai Jin, Yong Kee Kim, Su-Nam Kim
In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the antidiabetic potential of (E)-N-(4-(3-(5-bromo-4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl)acryloyl) phenyl)-4-tert-butylbenzamide (SN158) through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α/γ dual activation. SN158 interacted with both PPARα and PPARγ, and increased their transcriptional activities. Simultaneously, SN158 treatment led to an increase in adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes. In addition, glucose uptake in myotubes was significantly increased by SN158 treatment...
February 24, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231178/stimulatory-effects-of-cinnamon-extract-cinnamomum-cassia-during-the-initiation-stage-of-3t3-l1-adipocyte-differentiation
#4
Sang Gil Lee, Joanna A Siaw, Hye Won Kang
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has an anti-diabetic effect by possibly increasing the lipid storage capacity of white adipocytes; however, this effect remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine which stage of adipogenesis is critical for the stimulatory effect of cinnamon in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 cells. Cells were treated with cinnamon extract during three different stages of adipogenesis. We found that genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis were enhanced when cinnamon extract was administered during the initiation stage of differentiation but not when administered during the preadipocyte and post stages of differentiation...
December 6, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123943/systemic-insulin-sensitivity-is-regulated-by-gps2-inhibition-of-akt-ubiquitination-and-activation-in-adipose-tissue
#5
Carly T Cederquist, Claudia Lentucci, Camila Martinez-Calejman, Vanessa Hayashi, Joseph Orofino, David Guertin, Susan K Fried, Mi-Jeong Lee, M Dafne Cardamone, Valentina Perissi
OBJECTIVE: Insulin signaling plays a unique role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and the impairment of insulin action is associated with altered lipid metabolism, obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes. The main aim of this study was to provide further insight into the regulatory mechanisms governing the insulin signaling pathway by investigating the role of non-proteolytic ubiquitination in insulin-mediated activation of AKT. METHODS: The molecular mechanism of AKT regulation through ubiquitination is first dissected in vitro in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and then validated in vivo using mice with adipo-specific deletion of GPS2, an endogenous inhibitor of Ubc13 activity (GPS2-AKO mice)...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867269/platyphylloside-isolated-from-betula-platyphylla-inhibit-adipocyte-differentiation-and-induce-lipolysis-via-regulating-adipokines-including-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#6
Mina Lee, Sang Hyun Sung
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865158/increasing-camp-levels-of-preadipocytes-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-treatment-induces-the-formation-of-beige-phenotypes-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#7
Toshiya Matsukawa, Myra O Villareal, Hideko Motojima, Hiroko Isoda
Obesity is a serious health problem and a major risk factor for the onset of several diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer. The conversion of white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes, also called beige or brite adipocytes, by pharmacological and dietary compounds has gained attention as an effective treatment for obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), a polyphenolic compound contained in black soybean, blueberry and grape, has several antiobesity effects. However, there are no reports on the role of Cy3G in the induction of differentiation of preadipocytes to beige adipocytes and corresponding phenotypes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780754/ppar%C3%AE-agonists-induce-adipocyte-differentiation-by-modulating-the-expression-of-lipin-1-which-acts-as-a-ppar%C3%AE-phosphatase
#8
Jina Kim, Yu-Jin Lee, Jung Min Kim, So Young Lee, Myung-Ae Bae, Jin Hee Ahn, Dong Cho Han, Byoung-Mog Kwon
PPARγ agonists induced obesity in animal models as a side effect. Microarray experiments reveal that PPARγ agonist upregulates the expression of lipin-1 and this upregulation is correlated with the activity of the agonists. Lipin-1 induced by PPARγ agonists decreased the levels of PPARγ and ERK1/2 phosphorylation through direct interaction with these proteins in 3T3-L1 cells. In PPARγ agonist-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the knockdown of lipin-1 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited the adipogenesis that was induced by PPARγ agonists...
December 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753812/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#9
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741233/extracellular-redox-regulation-of-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-generation-mitochondrial-function-and-lipid-turnover-in-cultured-human-adipocytes
#10
Albert R Jones Iv, Tova Meshulam, Marcus F Oliveira, Nathan Burritt, Barbara E Corkey
BACKGROUND: Many tissues play an important role in metabolic homeostasis and the development of diabetes and obesity. We hypothesized that the circulating redox metabolome is a master metabolic regulatory system that impacts all organs and modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, energy production and changes in lipid turnover in many cells including adipocytes. METHODS: Differentiated human preadipocytes were exposed to the redox couples, lactate (L) and pyruvate (P), β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) and acetoacetate (Acoc), and the thiol-disulfides cysteine/ cystine (Cys/CySS) and GSH/GSSG for 1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706920/oncostatin-m-impairs-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenic-function-and-the-browning-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue
#11
David Sánchez-Infantes, Rubén Cereijo, Marion Peyrou, Irene Piquer-Garcia, Jacqueline M Stephens, Francesc Villarroya
OBJECTIVE: Since oncostatin m (OSM) is elevated in adipose tissue in conditions of obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice and humans, the aim of this study was to determine whether this cytokine plays a crucial role in the impairment of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and browning capacity that has been observed in people with obesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice rendered obese by high-fat diet, their lean controls, and C57BL/6J mice fed a standard diet and implanted subcutaneously with a mini pump through a surgical procedure to deliver OSM or placebo were used...
January 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667512/epimedium-koreanum-nakai-and-its-main-constituent-icariin-suppress-lipid-accumulation-during-adipocyte-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#12
Yunk-Yung Han, Mi-Young Song, Min-Sub Hwang, Ji-Hye Hwang, Yong-Ki Park, Hyo-Won Jung
Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities such as type 2 diabetes and has become a major health problem worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Herba Epimedii, HE) and its main constituent icariin on the adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. HE extract and icariin significantly reduced lipid accumulation and suppressed the expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. They also inhibited fatty acid synthase (FAS), acyl-Co A synthase (ACS1), and perilipin...
September 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660614/calcium-sensing-receptor-as-a-novel-mediator-of-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-mechanisms-and-potential-clinical-implications
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Pamela Mattar, Ximena Díaz, Sergio Lavandero, Mariana Cifuentes
Obesity is currently a serious worldwide public health problem, reaching pandemic levels. For decades, dietary and behavioral approaches have failed to prevent this disease from expanding, and health authorities are challenged by the elevated prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Understanding how obesity-associated diseases develop from a basic science approach is recognized as an urgent task to face this growing problem. White adipose tissue (WAT) is an active endocrine organ, with a crucial influence on whole-body homeostasis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650856/ionizing-radiation-potentiates-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-reprograms-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-progenitor-cells
#14
Vibe Nylander, Lars R Ingerslev, Emil Andersen, Odile Fabre, Christian Garde, Morten Rasmussen, Kiymet Citirikkaya, Josephine Bæk, Gitte L Christensen, Marianne Aznar, Lena Specht, David Simar, Romain Barrès
Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of chronic metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes later in life. We hypothesized that irradiation reprograms the epigenome of metabolic progenitor cells, which could account for impaired metabolism after cancer treatment. C57Bl/6 mice were treated with a single dose of irradiation and subjected to high fat diet (HFD). RNA Sequencing and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing were used to create transcriptomic and epigenomic profiles of preadipocytes and skeletal muscle satellite cells collected from irradiated mice...
September 20, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643352/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#15
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575855/pkc-aldh2-pathway-plays-a-novel-role-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#16
Yu-Hsiang Yu, Pei-Ru Liao, Chien-Jung Guo, Che-Hong Chen, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Lee-Ming Chuang
The ALDH2 gene encodes the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a critical enzyme involved in ethanol clearance through acetaldehyde metabolism. ALDH2 also catalyzes the metabolism of other bioreactive aldehydes, including propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and 4-hydroxykenals (4-HNE). Increased levels of 4-HNE in adipose tissue positively correlate with obesity and insulin resistance. However, it remains unclear whether ALDH2 is involved in regulation of adipocyte differentiation. Here, we found that ALDH2 protein levels were lower in white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice and ob/ob mice relative to lean mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566575/peptidome-analysis-of-human-milk-from-women-delivering-macrosomic-fetuses-reveals-multiple-means-of-protection-for-infants
#17
Xianwei Cui, Yun Li, Lei Yang, Lianghui You, Xing Wang, Chunmei Shi, Chenbo Ji, Xirong Guo
Breastfeeding is associated with a lower incidence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. While macrosomic infants have a higher risk of developing obesity and other metabolic disorders. Breast milk may contain special nutrients to meet the different growth needs of different infants. Whether mothers make breast milk different to meet the requirement of macrosomic infants is still unknown. Here, we conducted a comparison between mothers delivering macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants in colostrum endogenous peptides...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506747/physical-exercise-alleviates-er-stress-in-obese-humans-through-reduction-in-the-expression-and-release-of-grp78-chaperone
#18
Abdelkrim Khadir, Sina Kavalakatt, Jehad Abubaker, Preethi Cherian, Dhanya Madhu, Irina Al-Khairi, Mohamed Abu-Farha, Samia Warsame, Naser Elkum, Mohammed Dehbi, Ali Tiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has emerged as one of the prominent features of obesity and diabetes. This occurs when the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) fails to restore ER function in key metabolic tissues. We previously reported increased inflammation and impaired heat shock response (HSR) in obese human subjects that were restored by physical exercise. Here, we investigated the status of ER stress chaperone; glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and its downstream UPR pathways in human obese, and their modulation by a supervised 3-month physical exercise...
September 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465988/enhanced-biglycan-gene-expression-in-the-adipose-tissues-of-obese-women-and-its-association-with-obesity-related-genes-and-metabolic-parameters
#19
Jimin Kim, Seul Ki Lee, Ji-Min Shin, Un-Woo Jeoun, Yeon Jin Jang, Hye Soon Park, Jong-Hyeok Kim, Gyung-Yub Gong, Taik Jong Lee, Joon Pio Hong, Yeon Ji Lee, Yoon-Suk Heo
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling dynamically occurs to accommodate adipose tissue expansion during obesity. One non-fibrillar component of ECM, biglycan, is released from the matrix in response to tissue stress; the soluble form of biglycan binds to toll-like receptor 2/4 on macrophages, causing proinflammatory cytokine secretion. To investigate the pattern and regulatory properties of biglycan expression in human adipose tissues in the context of obesity and its related diseases, we recruited 21 non-diabetic obese women, 11 type 2 diabetic obese women, and 59 normal-weight women...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434863/magnesium-and-calcium-enriched-deep-sea-water-promotes-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-ampk-activated-signals-pathway-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#20
Byung Geun Ha, Deok-Soo Moon, Hyeon Ju Kim, Yun Hee Shon
Recent studies showed that deficiencies of essential minerals including Mg, Ca, and K, and trace minerals including Se, Zn, and V, have implications for the development, prevention, and treatment of several chronic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW), which is composed of desalinated water enriched with Mg and Ca, has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, to determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, expression of key transcription factors and mitochondria-specific genes, phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
October 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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