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Bone density

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161460/wnt-signaling-related-to-subchondral-bone-density-and-cartilage-degradation-in-oa
#1
EDITORIAL
David B Burr, Achint Utreja
The role of subchondral bone in the progression of osteoarthritis has been controversial for nearly 50 years.((1,2)) The observation that subchondral sclerosis was nearly always present in end-stage disease led to the conclusion that the increased stiffness caused by a thicker subchondral bone plate detracted from the bone's ability to attenuate the loads imposed on the joint cartilage, increasing cartilage stresses and initiating the process of joint deterioration. Because cartilage damage does not always progress to full thickness cartilage loss and OA, Radin and Rose((3)) proposed that the initiation and the progression of cartilage deterioration were separate processes...
November 21, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161288/switch-to-maraviroc-with-darunavir-r-both-qd-in-patients-with-suppressed-hiv-1-was-well-tolerated-but-virologically-inferior-to-standard-antiretroviral-therapy-48-week-results-of-a-randomized-trial
#2
Barbara Rossetti, Roberta Gagliardini, Genny Meini, Gaetana Sterrantino, Vincenzo Colangeli, Maria Carla Re, Alessandra Latini, Manuela Colafigli, Francesca Vignale, Stefano Rusconi, Valeria Micheli, Antonio Di Biagio, Giancarlo Orofino, Valeria Ghisetti, Alessandra Fantauzzi, Vincenzo Vullo, Pierfrancesco Grima, Daniela Francisci, Claudio Mastroianni, Andrea Antinori, Michele Trezzi, Lucia Lisi, Pierluigi Navarra, Benedetta Canovari, Antonella D'Arminio Monforte, Silvia Lamonica, Alessandro D'Avino, Maurizio Zazzi, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Andrea De Luca
OBJECTIVES: Primary study outcome was absence of treatment failure (virological failure, VF, or treatment interruption) per protocol at week 48. METHODS: Patients on 3-drug ART with stable HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL and CCR5-tropic virus were randomized 1:1 to maraviroc with darunavir/ritonavir qd (study arm) or continue current ART (continuation arm). RESULTS: In June 2015, 115 patients were evaluable for the primary outcome (56 study, 59 continuation arm)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161121/research-design-and-analysis-of-a-low-stiffness-porous-hip-stem
#3
Ibrahim Eldesouky, Hassan El-Hofy, Ola Harrysson
Two major problems are associated with total hip replacement: 1) stress shielding and 2) the adverse tissue reaction to certain elements of the implant material. In this regard, a porous implant provides lower stiffness and vacancies for bone ingrowth, making it more suitable for the human bone compared with a solid stem. Moreover, second-generation titanium biomedical alloys, such as TNZT (Ti35Nb7Zr5Ta) and TMZF (Ti12Mo6Zr2Fe), have been introduced to prevent the adverse tissue reactions related to aluminum and vanadium elements of the popular Ti6Al4V alloy...
November 2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160901/dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-have-sex-and-age-dependent-effects-on-vertebral-bone-microstructure-and-mechanical-function-in-mice
#4
Svenja Illien-Jünger, Paolo Palacio-Mancheno, William F Kindschuh, Xue Chen, Grazyna E Sroga, Deepak Vashishth, James C Iatridis
Back pain is a leading cause of global disability that can arise from vertebral fracture and osteoporosis. While poor general health and obesity are among the strongest risk factors for back pain, there is remarkably little known about how diet influences spinal diseases. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are implicated in increased fracture risk, yet no studies investigated how dietary AGEs affect spinal health. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary AGE ingestion will diminish vertebral structure and function in a sex- and age-dependent manner...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159925/the-use-of-micro-ct-imaging-to-examine-and-illustrate-fetal-skeletal-abnormalities-in-dutch-belted-rabbits-and-to-prove-concordance-with-alizarin-red-stained-skeletal-examination
#5
Howard M Solomon, Stacia Murzyn, Joyce Rendemonti, Sharon Chapman, Tinamarie Skedzielewski, Beat M Jucker, Dinesh Stanislaus, Hasan Alsaid
OBJECTIVES: In our laboratory we evaluated the use of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) using a high resolution acquisition protocol and fetuses obtained on Gestation Day (GD) 29 (mating = GD 0). METHODS: To show concordance between traditional Alizarin Red S stain and micro-CT skeletal examination methods, 103 fetuses from 19 untreated Dutch belted rabbits were obtained by cesarean section and stored frozen. The fetuses were thawed, imaged and examined digitally by micro-CT, then stained and re-examined using traditional methods...
November 21, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159533/reduced-bone-mineral-density-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-a-meta-analysis-of-its-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#6
S S L Goh, P S M Lai, A T B Tan, S Ponnampalavanar
A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was significantly higher than respective controls. Evidence regarding bone loss within first year of HIV infection or ART initiation was preliminary. PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to systematically review published literature on the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis and its associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals...
November 20, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158675/transplantation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-angiogenesis-and-improves-neurological-function-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mouse
#7
Shewei Guo, Yingwei Zhen, Anran Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has emerged as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Transplantation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has emerged as a promising treatment for various central nervous system diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of BMSCs transplantation by intravenous injection on neurological function and angiogenesis of the TBI mice. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham, TBI, and BMSC. Functional neurological evaluation was performed 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days after TBI using neurological severity scores...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158666/tenofovir-alafenamide-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Eiichi Ogawa, Norihiro Furusyo, Mindie H Nguyen
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a novel prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), has been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. TAF has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HBV replication at a low dose, with high intracellular concentration and more than 90% lower systemic TFV concentration than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). In two randomized, double-blind, multinational, Phase 3, non-inferiority trials for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative patients (primary analysis: 48 weeks), TAF 25 mg orally once-daily was not inferior to TDF 300 mg in achieving an HBV DNA level <29 IU/mL at week 48...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158518/mirnas-in-bone-tissue-correlate-to-bone-mineral-density-and-circulating-mirnas-are-gender-independent-in-osteoporotic-patients
#9
Sarah Kelch, Elizabeth R Balmayor, Claudine Seeliger, Helen Vester, Jan S Kirschke, Martijn van Griensven
We previously demonstrated the aberrant expression of nine specific miRNAs in serum from osteoporotic patients. In the present study, we further evaluated the expression of these miRNAs in bone tissue, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts from 28 patients. We hypothesize that miRNA expression in serum from osteoporotic patients may be gender-independent. A further hypothesis is that the miRNA expression in bone could be correlated with BMD values. Moreover, intracellular expression of these osteoporosis-related miRNAs may indicate the role of these molecules during osteoporosis...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157265/the-impact-of-dual-energy-ct-imaging-on-dose-calculations-for-pre-clinical-studies
#10
Ana Vaniqui, Lotte E J R Schyns, Isabel P Almeida, Brent van der Heyden, Stefan J van Hoof, Frank Verhaegen
BACKGROUND: To investigate the feasibility of using dual-energy CT (DECT) for tissue segmentation and kilovolt (kV) dose calculations in pre-clinical studies and assess potential dose calculation accuracy gain. METHODS: Two phantoms and an ex-vivo mouse were scanned in a small animal irradiator with two distinct energies. Tissue segmentation was performed with the single-energy CT (SECT) and DECT methods. A number of different material maps was used. Dose calculations were performed to verify the impact of segmentations on the dose accuracy...
November 21, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157086/abdominal-aortic-calcification-score-among-several-vascular-calcification-scores-of-plain-radiograph-is-the-most-reliable-predictor-of-severe-coronary-artery-calcification-in-dialysis-patients
#11
Su Mi Lee, Hye Won Lee, Young Ki Son, Seong Eun Kim, Won Suk An
AIM: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on computed tomography (CT) or vascular calcification (VC) scores on plain radiographs are associated with cardiovascular events and fracture. We investigated which VC score among several VC scores on plain radiographs is predictor of CAC, and whether VC scores are related with bone mineral density (BMD) in dialysis patients. METHODS: We checked several plain radiographs (hands and pelvis [HP], feet and lateral lumbar spine), BMD and multidetector CT scans of 55 patients maintaining dialysis in this cross-sectional study...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156943/assessment-of-biochemical-bone-turnover-markers-and-bone-mineral-density-in-thin-and-normal-weight-children
#12
Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Joanna Gajewska, Grazyna Rowicka, Witold Klemarczyk, Magdalena Chelchowska
Objective There is scant research examining the prevalence of thinness in early childhood, despite its potential negative consequences for health and development across the life course. The objective of this study was to assess bone status through measurement of bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers, with special attention paid to carboxylated (c-OC) as well as undercarboxylated (uc-OC) forms of osteocalcin, in the groups of thin and normal-weight children. Design The study included 80 healthy prepubertal children (median age 7...
January 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156930/-benefits-of-soy-in-women-s-health
#13
Carmen Martín Salinas, Ana M López-Sobaler
A great interest has been developed last decades on the role of phytoestrogens as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy. In fact, numerous studies have shown the effects of soy isoflavones on climacteric symptomatology by significantly reducing the frequency and intensity of hot flashes, as well on cardiovascular health. The aim of this paper was to review the last studies, mainly randomized controlled trials, on the effect of isoflavones on climacteric symptoms and their impact on women's quality of life, as well as on other health markers...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156149/quantitative-evaluation-of-vertebral-microvascular-permeability-and-fat-fraction-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rabbits
#14
Lei Hu, Yun Fei Zha, Li Wang, Liang Li, Dong Xing, Wei Gong, Jiao Wang, Yuan Lin, Fei Fei Zeng, Xue Song Lu
Purpose To determine longitudinal relationships between lumbar vertebral bone marrow permeability and marrow adipose tissue in a rabbit diabetes model by using quantitative dynamic contrast agent-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and iterative decomposition of water and fat with the echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation quantitation (IDEAL IQ) sequence. Materials and Methods Twenty rabbits were randomly assigned to the diabetic (n = 10) or control (n = 10) group. All rabbits underwent sagittal MR imaging of the lumbar region at fixed time points (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after alloxan injection)...
November 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155868/tocilizumab-potentially-prevents-bone-loss-in-patients-with-anticitrullinated-protein-antibody-positive-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Yi-Ming Chen, Hsin-Hua Chen, Wen-Nan Huang, Tsai-Ling Liao, Jun-Peng Chen, Wen-Cheng Chao, Ching-Tsai Lin, Wei-Ting Hung, Chia-Wei Hsieh, Tsu-Yi Hsieh, Yi-Hsing Chen, Der-Yuan Chen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a high risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors may suppress osteoclast activation. Anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) titers are inversely associated with bone mineral density (BMD). However, the differential effect of ACPA on bone turnover marker (BTM) and BMD changes after IL-6 inhibition remains unclear. This prospective study recruited patients with active RA with inadequate response to methotrexate or biologics. BMD was measured before and after 2-year tocilizumab (TCZ) treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155243/the-24-25-to-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-ratio-and-fracture-risk-in-older-adults-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#16
Charles Ginsberg, Ronit Katz, Ian H de Boer, Bryan R Kestenbaum, Michel Chonchol, Michael G Shlipak, Mark J Sarnak, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Dena E Rifkin, Pranav S Garimella, Joachim H Ix
25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] may not optimally indicate vitamin D receptor activity. Higher concentrations of its catabolic product 24,25-dihydroxyvitmin D [24,25(OH)2D] and a higher ratio of 24,25(OH)2D to 25(OH)D (the vitamin D metabolite ratio [VMR]) may provide additional information on receptor activity. We compared the strength of associations of these markers with serum PTH concentrations, hip bone mineral density (BMD), and risk of incident hip fracture in community-living older participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study...
November 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154969/adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-have-deficits-in-bone-structure-and-strength-at-the-distal-tibia-despite-similar-size-and-measuring-standard-and-relative-sites
#17
Kyle K Nishiyama, Sanchita Agarwal, Anna Kepley, Fernando Rosete, Yizhong Hu, X Edward Guo, Claire L Keating, Emily A DiMango, Elizabeth Shane
Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have lower bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA and are at higher risk of fracture than healthy controls. However, the 2-dimensional measurement of areal BMD (aBMD) provided by DXA is influenced by bone size and the true extent of the bone deficit is unclear. Our objective was to use high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analysis to compare volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture and estimated strength at the distal radius and tibia in 26 young adults with CF and 26 controls matched for age, gender, and race...
November 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154968/non-traumatic-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-is-associated-with-low-bone-mass
#18
Valérie Gangji, Muhammad S Soyfoo, Audrey Heuschling, Violaine Afzali, Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes, Joanne Rasschaert, Céline Gillet, Jean-Francois Fils, Jean-Philippe Hauzeur
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis (OP) and osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) share common clinical and pathophysiological features we sought to determine whether ONFH was associated with an increased prevalence of OP and whether the increased prevalence of OP was related to the stage of ONFH at diagnosis. METHODS: We included 243 patients with ONFH and 399 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Data was gathered including demography, risk factors, ARCO staging of ONFH and bone mineral density (BMD)...
November 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154898/evaluation-of-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-biomarkers-for-stratified-cancer-medicine-how-do-permeability-and-perfusion-vary-between-human-tumours
#19
Ross A Little, Hervé Barjat, Jennifer I Hare, Mary Jenner, Yvonne Watson, Susan Cheung, Katherine Holliday, Weijuan Zhang, James P B O'Connor, Simon T Barry, Sanyogitta Puri, Geoffrey J M Parker, John C Waterton
BACKGROUND: Solid tumours exhibit enhanced vessel permeability and fenestrated endothelium to varying degree, but it is unknown how this varies in patients between and within tumour types. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI provides a measure of perfusion and permeability, the transfer constant K(trans), which could be employed for such comparisons in patients. AIM: To test the hypothesis that different tumour types exhibit systematically different K(trans). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DCE-MRI data were retrieved from 342 solid tumours in 230 patients...
November 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154780/the-feedback-loop-of-emmprin-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-worsens-atherosclerotic-plaque-via-suppressing-autophagy-in-macrophage
#20
Xing Liang, Xianhua Hou, Yang Yang, Hong Liu, Ruiwei Guo, Zhihua Yang, Lixia Yang
This study examined the significance of macrophage autophagy in extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN)-mediated atherosclerosis (AS). Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were fed a western diet to establish an AS model. EMMPRIN and p62/Sequestosome-1(SQSTM1) expression were evaluated in plaque macrophages from the AS mice using immunofluorescence. The EMMPRIN and p62/SQSTM1 protein expression levels in macrophages increased with the increasing vulnerability of the atherosclerotic plaques...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
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