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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727345/-denosumab-in-clinical-practice-beware-before-during-and-after
#1
Olivier Lamy, Elena Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Delphine Stoll, Bérengère Aubry-Rozier
Denosumab is a very effective treatment of osteoporosis, easy to use and very well tolerated. Due to some associated risks, a close clinical follow-up is necessary. Before the first injection, it is necessary to correct hypocalcaemia or vitamin D deficiency when present. Calcemia has to be followed in case of renal insufficiency. Injections of denosumab should be done scrupulously every 6 months (± 3 weeks). Discontinuation of denosumab is associated with a severe rebound effect characterized by increased markers of bone remodeling, a rapid decrease of bone density values, and a risk of multiple spontaneous vertebral fractures...
April 19, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727342/-obesity-fat-and-bones-friends-or-foes
#2
Emmanuel Biver
Low fat mass is associated with an increased risk of fracture because of low bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone micro-architecture. Conversely, overweight and obese patients also have an increased risk of fracture, particularly of the humerus and ankle, despite greater BMD. Visceral abdominal fat, which is the most metabolically active, may be associated with poorer quality of bone tissue properties, as suggested in diabetes. Other factors may contribute to higher fracture risk in overweight patients, notably higher frequency of falls and lower bioavailability of vitamin D stoked in fat...
April 19, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727341/-use-of-trabecular-bone-score-as-a-complementary-approach-to-dxa-for-fracture-risk-assessment-in-clinical-practice
#3
Didier Hans, Enisa Shevroja, Olivier Lamy
Physicians can assess the risk of fracture based on bone density (BMD) and several risk factors. Some of them and BMD are incorporated into FRAX, an assessment tool that estimates the 10-years probability of fracture. BMD didn't take into account the microarchitecture. TBS is a texture parameter related to bone microarchitecture. A low TBS is associated with a history of fracture and the incidence of new fracture independently of BMD, clinical risk factors and FRAX. TBS is yet integrated in the FRAX tool, and this effect is of greatest utility for individuals who are close to an intervention threshold...
April 19, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727179/overexpression-of-g%C3%AE-s-in-murine-osteoblasts-in-vivo-leads-to-increased-bone-mass-and-decreased-bone-quality
#4
Lucia Zhang, Kim S Sugamori, Colin Claridge, Ariana Dela Cruz, Marc D Grynpas, Jane Mitchell
GαS is a heterotrimeric G protein that transduces signals from activated G protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface to stimulate adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP signaling. GαS plays a central role in mediating numerous growth and maintenance processes including osteogenesis and bone turnover. Decreased GαS expression or activating mutations in GαS both affect bone suggesting that modulating GαS protein levels may be important for bone health and development. To examine the effects of increased osteoblastic GαS expression on bone development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with GαS over-expression in osteoblasts (HOM-Gs mice) driven by the 3...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726876/bioceramic-nanocomposite-thiol-acrylate-polyhipe-scaffolds-for-enhanced-osteoblastic-cell-culture-in-3d
#5
Aaron Lee, Caitlin R Langford, Luis M Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Helmut Thissen, Neil R Cameron
Emulsion-templated (polyHIPE) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering were produced by photopolymerisation of a mixture of trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate) and dipentaerythritol penta-/hexa-acrylate in the presence of hydroxyapatite (HA) or strontium-modified hydroxyapatite (SrHA) nanoparticles. Porous and permeable polyHIPE materials were produced regardless of the type or incorporation level of the bioceramic, although higher loadings resulted in a larger average pore diameter. Inclusion of HA and SrHA into the scaffolds was confirmed by EDX-SEM, FTIR and XPS and quantified by thermogravimetry...
July 20, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726652/investigation-of-bone-mineralization-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-complicated-by-chronic-heart-failure-stage-ii-a
#6
I Krynytska, M Marushchak, T Zaets, I Savchenko, H Habor
The majority of the studies have shown that individuals with cardiovascular diseases have a higher risk of experiencing bone loss and thus greater predisposition to risk of fracture. On the other hand there is growing evidence that individuals with low bone mass have higher mortality for cardiovascular events compared to patients with cardiovascular disease with normal bone mass. This research aims to investigate bone mineralization in patients with coronary heart disease complicated by stage II-A chronic heart failure...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726527/the-comparison-and-estimation-of-the-prognostic-value-of-lipid-profiles-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-depends-on-cancer-stage-advancement
#7
Edyta Idalia Wolny-Rokicka, Andrzej Tukiendorf, Jerzy Wydmański, Agnieszka Zembroń-Łacny
Lipid profiles and prostate cancer have a controversial relationship, and the predictive ability of lipids in determining cancer risk estimation is still questionable. This study demonstrates a significance assessment of the plasma lipid profiles of subjects with prostate cancer. Locoregional subjects irradiated with external beam therapy were compared to prostate cancer subjects with bone metastases. The histopathologic diagnosis of 103 subjects (71 locoregional [Group 1] and 32 palliative [Group 2]) were analyzed and compared using their blood samples, total cholesterol (CHL), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725987/gene-mutation-spectrum-and-genotype-phenotype-correlation-in-a-cohort-of-chinese-osteogenesis-imperfecta-patients-revealed-by-targeted-next-generation-sequencing
#8
Y Liu, Asan, D Ma, F Lv, X Xu, J Wang, W Xia, Y Jiang, O Wang, X Xing, W Yu, J Wang, J Sun, L Song, Y Zhu, H Yang, J Wang, M Li
The achievement of more accurate diagnosis would greatly benefit the management of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). In this study, we present the largest OI sample in China as screened by next generation sequencing. In particular, we successfully identified 81 variants, which included 45 novel variants. We further did a genotype-phenotype analysis, which helps make a better understanding of OI. INTRODUCTION: This study aims to reveal the gene mutation spectrum and the genotype-phenotype relationship among Chinese OI patients by next generation sequencing (NGS)...
July 19, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725977/the-effect-of-vitamin-d-and-calcium-supplementation-in-pediatric-steroid-sensitive-nephrotic-syndrome
#9
Sushmita Banerjee, Surupa Basu, Ananda Sen, Jayati Sengupta
BACKGROUND: Low serum levels of total 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) occur in nephrotic syndrome (NS). We aimed to assess the effects of vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation on 25(OH)D levels, bone mineralization, and NS relapse rate in children with steroid-sensitive NS. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed in children with steroid-sensitive NS. The treatment group received vitamin D3 (60,000 IU orally, weekly for 4 weeks) and calcium supplements (500 to 1,000 mg/day for 3 months) after achieving NS remission...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725949/tubulointerstitial-nephritis-induced-hypophosphatemic-osteomalacia-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Yan Geng, Youlu Zhao, Zhuoli Zhang
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that typically affects the salivary and lacrimal glands. Renal involvement is relatively uncommon and may precede other complaints. Tubulointestitial nephritis (TIN) is the most common renal involvement in SS. Osteomalacia occurring as the first manifestation of renal tubular disorder due to SS is very rare. We report a 39-year-old male who presented with polydipsia, polyuria, and multiple bone pain. Bone density test showed severe osteoporosis, and laboratory findings suggested hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, and vitamin D deficiency, which supported the diagnosis of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723934/the-relationship-between-adiposity-and-bone-density-in-u-s-children-and-adolescents
#11
Cecilia Gállego Suárez, Benjamin H Singer, Achamyeleh Gebremariam, Joyce M Lee, Kanakadurga Singer
OBJECTIVE: In adults, obesity has been associated with several health outcomes including increased bone density. Our objective was to evaluate the association between percent body fat and fat mass with bone mineral density (BMD) in a nationally representative population of children and adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 8,348 participants 8-18 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 had whole body DXA scans performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723729/wnt-signaling-in-cardiovascular-disease-opportunities-and-challenges
#12
Austin Gay, Dwight A Towler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiometabolic diseases increasingly afflict our aging, dysmetabolic population. Complex signals regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and frizzled protein family members - the plasma membrane receptors for the cadre of Wnt polypeptide morphogens - contribute to the control of cardiovascular homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Both canonical (β-catenin-dependent) and noncanonical (β-catenin-independent) Wnt signaling programs control vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell phenotypic modulation in cardiometabolic disease...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722834/effects-of-gip-glp-1-and-glp-1ras-on-bone-cell-metabolism
#13
Morten S S Hansen, Michaela Terencova, Jacob Frølich, Moustapha Kassem, Morten Frost
The relationship between gut and skeleton is increasingly recognised as part of the integrated physiology of the whole organism. The incretin hormones gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted from the intestine in response to nutrient intake and exhibit several physiological functions including regulation of islet hormone secretion and glucose levels. A number of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are currently used in treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, GIP and GLP-1 cognate receptors are widely expressed suggesting that incretin hormones mediate effects beyond control of glucose homeostasis, and reports on associations between incretin hormones and bone metabolism have emerged...
July 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722766/comparative-analysis-of-the-radiology-of-osteoporotic-vertebral-fractures-in-women-and-men-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-observations-from-the-canadian-multicentre-osteoporosis-study-camos
#14
Brian C Lentle, Claudie Berger, Linda Probyn, Jacques P Brown, Lisa Langsetmo, Ben Fine, Kevin Lian, Arvind K Shergill, Jacques Trollip, Stuart Jackson, William D Leslie, Jerilynn C Prior, Stephanie M Kaiser, David A Hanley, Jonathan D Adachi, Tanveer Towheed, K Shawn Davison, Angela M Cheung, David Goltzman
We compared two methods for osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VF) assessment on lateral spine radiographs, the Genant semi-quantitative (GSQ) technique and a modified algorithm-based qualitative (mABQ) approach. We evaluated 4465 women and 1771 men > 50 years old from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study with available X-ray images at baseline. Observer agreement was lowest for grade 1 VFs determined by GSQ. Among physician readers, agreement was greater for VFs diagnosed by mABQ [ranging from 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722691/structural-basis-of-bone-fragility-in-young-subjects-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-high-resolution-pqct-study-of-the-swiss-ibd-cohort-sibdc
#15
Jessica Pepe, Sophie Zawadynski, Francois R Herrmann, Pascal Juillerat, Pierre Michetti, Sylvie Ferrari-Lacraz, Dominique Belli, Osman Ratib, René Rizzoli, Thierry Chevalley, Serge L Ferrari
BACKGROUND: The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during childhood/adolescence compromises peak bone mass acquisition and predisposes to fractures later in life. However, the structural basis for bone fragility in young adults with IBD remains unknown. METHODS: One hundred two young subjects from the Swiss IBD cohort were included. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at distal radius, hip, and spine as well as morphometric vertebral fractures were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique...
August 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722129/bone-strength-estimated-by-micro-finite-element-analysis-%C3%A2%C2%B5fea-is-heritable-and-shares-genetic-predisposition-with-areal-bmd-the-framingham-study
#16
David Karasik, Serkalem Demissie, Darlene Lu, Kerry E Broe, Steven K Boyd, Ching-Ti Liu, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Mary L Bouxsein, Douglas P Kiel
Genetic factors contribute to the risk of bone fractures, partly because of effects on bone strength. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) estimates bone strength using micro-finite element analysis (µFEA). The goal of this study was to investigate if the bone failure load estimated by HR-pQCT-based µFEA is heritable and to what extent it shares genetic regulation with areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Bone microarchitecture was measured by HR-pQCT at the ultradistal tibia and ultradistal radius in adults from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1087, mean age 72 years; 57% women)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721134/osteoporosis-in-men
#17
REVIEW
Waldemar Misiorowski
Osteoporotic fractures are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among aging men. 30% of all hip fractures occur in men, and mortality resulting from not only the hip fracture, but also the spine and other major osteoporotic fractures, is significantly higher in men than in women. As in women, hypogonadism is the best documented risk factor for developing osteoporosis in men. In older men, testosterone levels are negatively correlated with the risk of fractures, and it seems that this age-related testosterone deficiency should not be considered as one of the many causes of secondary osteoporosis, rather one of the major and most important mechanisms of senile osteoporosis...
June 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720522/patients-with-non-ambulatory-cerebral-palsy-have-higher-sclerostin-levels-and-lower-bone-mineral-density-than-patients-with-ambulatory-cerebral-palsy
#18
Yoon-Kyum Shin, Young Kwon Yoon, Kyung Bae Chung, Yumie Rhee, Sung-Rae Cho
Bone loss is a serious clinical issue in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Sclerostin has garnered interest as a key mechanosensor in osteocytes, leading to considerations of the therapeutic utilization of anti-sclerostin medications. This study was undertaken to determine associations among mechanical unloading, sclerostin levels, and bone imbalance in patients with CP. A total of 28 patients with CP participated in this cross-sectional study. The following measurements were taken: anthropometrics, clinical diagnosis of CP subtype and ambulatory status, bone mineral density (BMD) z-scores at the lumbar spine and hip, and blood biochemical markers, including sclerostin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, creatinine, calcium, and phosphorus...
July 15, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720137/cortical-thickness-in-the-intertrochanteric-region-may-be-relevant-to-hip-fracture-type
#19
Huafeng Zhuang, Yizhong Li, Jinkuang Lin, Donglu Cai, Siqing Cai, Lisheng Yan, Xuedong Yao
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the differences in femoral geometry and bone mineral density between femoral neck fragility fractures and trochanteric fractures. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen patients were divided into femoral neck and trochanteric fracture groups. There were 69 patients with femoral neck fractures, 20 men and 49 women with an average age of 75.1 ± 9.6 years and an average body mass index (BMI) value of 21.6 ± 4.1 kg/m(2). The trochanteric group consisted of 48 patients, 16 men and 32 women with an average age of 78...
July 18, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719727/the-ability-of-a-single-bmd-and-fracture-history-assessment-to-predict-fracture-over-25-years-in-postmenopausal-women-the-study-of-osteoporotic-fractures
#20
Dennis M Black, Jane A Cauley, Rachel Wagman, Kristine Ensrud, Howard A Fink, Teresa A Hillier, Li-Yung Lui, Steven R Cummings, John T Schousboe, Nicola Napoli
The ability of bone mineral density (BMD) and other risk factors to predict fracture risk is well-established for as long as 5 to 10 years. However, their value to predict risk over a longer term has not been directly studied. We investigated whether a single assessment of femoral neck BMD and fracture history can predict fracture risk over 20 to 25 years. We used data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) that assessed BMD and risk factors in 7959 women age ≥67 (mean = 73.4) in 1988-1990. Follow-up for fractures continued for 25 years for hip fracture, and for 20 years for any nonvertebral fracture...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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