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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938451/antibody-mediated-targeting-of-the-fgfr1c-isoform-increases-glucose-uptake-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-in-male-mice
#1
Jo E Lewis, Ricardo J Samms, Scott Cooper, Jeni C Luckett, Alan C Perkins, James D Dunbar, Dennis P Smith, Paul J Emmerson, Andrew C Adams, Francis J P Ebling, Kostas Tsintzas
The increased prevalence of obesity and its cardiometabolic implications demonstrates the imperative to identify novel therapeutic targets able to effect meaningful metabolic changes in this population. Antibody-mediated targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c isoform (FGFR1c) has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycaemia and protect from diet- and genetically-induced obesity in rodents and non-human primates. However, it is currently unknown which tissue(s) contribute to this glucose lowering effect...
August 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938143/contribution-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-assessment-of-brain-connectivity-and-networks
#2
REVIEW
Mark Hallett, Riccardo Di Iorio, Paolo Maria Rossini, Jung E Park, Robert Chen, Pablo Celnik, Antonio P Strafella, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Ugawa
The goal of this review is to show how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques can make a contribution to the study of brain networks. Brain networks are fundamental in understanding how the brain operates. Effects on remote areas can be directly observed or identified after a period of stimulation, and each section of this review will discuss one method. EEG analyzed following TMS is called TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). A conditioning TMS can influence the effect of a test TMS given over the motor cortex...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937983/-18f-fdopa-standardized-uptake-values-of-brain-tumors-are-not-exclusively-dependent-on-lat1-expression
#3
Bérengère Dadone-Montaudié, Damien Ambrosetti, Maxime Dufour, Jacques Darcourt, Fabien Almairac, John Coyne, Thierry Virolle, Olivier Humbert, Fanny Burel-Vandenbos
[18F]-FDOPA is a labeled amino acid (AA) analog used for positron emission tomography (PET) which is gaining increasing interest in the evaluation of brain tumors (BT). The AA-transporter LAT1 has been shown to be involved in [18F]-FDOPA uptake. The aim of this study was to determine whether the [18F]-FDOPA uptake was correlated with level of LAT1 expression in BT. Twenty-eight BT (including 19 gliomas and 9 metastases) were investigated by [18F]-FDOPA-PET prior to surgery and by anti-LAT1 immunohistochemistry on surgical specimens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937415/biomarkers-in-vasculitis
#4
Gulen Hatemi, Sinem N Esatoglu, Yusuf Yazici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biomarkers are considered to be helpful in diagnosing, monitoring, predicting treatment response, and prognosis in clinical practice and as outcomes in clinical trials. In this article, we review the recent literature on new biomarkers and the expanding use of older ones in vasculitic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis patients antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody type may be useful as a predictor of relapse and response to rituximab...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936429/clinical-pet-mri-in-neurooncology-opportunities-and-challenges-from-a-single-institution-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Lisbeth Marner, Otto M Henriksen, Michael Lundemann, Vibeke Andrée Larsen, Ian Law
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in neurooncology, i.e., for diagnosis, treatment evaluation and detection of recurrence. However, standard MRI cannot always separate malignant tissue from other pathologies or treatment-induced changes. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, perfusion imaging and spectroscopy show promising results in discriminating malignant from benign lesions. Further, supplemental imaging with amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) has been shown to increase accuracy significantly and is used routinely at an increasing number of sites...
2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936404/-18-f-fdg-pet-for-assessing-biological-viability-and-prognosis-in-liver-transplant-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Arno Kornberg, Martina Schernhammer, Helmut Friess
Liver transplantation (LT) has become standard of care in patients with non-resectable early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in liver cirrhosis. Currently, patient selection for LT is strictly based on tumor size and number, provided by the Milan criteria. This may, however, exclude patients with advanced tumor load but favourable biology from a possibly curative treatment option. It became clear in recent years that biological tumor viability rather than tumor macromorphology determines posttransplant outcome...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935898/pd-l1-is-an-activation-independent-marker-of-brown-adipocytes
#7
Jessica R Ingram, Michael Dougan, Mohammad Rashidian, Marko Knoll, Edmund J Keliher, Sarah Garrett, Scott Garforth, Olga S Blomberg, Camilo Espinosa, Atul Bhan, Steven C Almo, Ralph Weissleder, Harvey Lodish, Stephanie K Dougan, Hidde L Ploegh
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on a number of immune and cancer cells, where it can downregulate antitumor immune responses. Its expression has been linked to metabolic changes in these cells. Here we develop a radiolabeled camelid single-domain antibody (anti-PD-L1 VHH) to track PD-L1 expression by immuno-positron emission tomography (PET). PET-CT imaging shows a robust and specific PD-L1 signal in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We confirm expression of PD-L1 on brown adipocytes and demonstrate that signal intensity does not change in response to cold exposure or β-adrenergic activation...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935840/test-retest-reliability-of-the-sert-imaging-agent-11-c-homadam-in-healthy-humans
#8
Vikram Adhikarla, Boadie W Dunlop, Nachwa Jarkas, Mark Goodman, Helen Mayberg, Michael J Owens, Jonathon A Nye
The aim of this study was to measure the test-retest reliability of (11)C-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-4'-hydroxymethylphenylthio)benzylamine ([(11)C]HOMADAM) imaging of serotonin transporter (SERT) density in healthy control subjects. Methods: Two female and two male volunteers participated in the study and underwent three [(11)C]HOMADAM Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans each of 90 min in duration. Time-activity curves were derived from SERT rich structures and fit to two models: 1) a simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) and 2) a multi-linear graphical model (MRTM)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935838/decreased-pretreatment-amygdalae-serotonin-transporter-binding-in-unipolar-depression-remitters-a-prospective-pet-study
#9
Mala Ananth, Christine DeLorenzo, Jie Yang, J John Mann, Ramin Parsey
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a debilitating condition that affects over 14 million Americans. Remission only occurs in a minority of individuals following first-line antidepressant treatment (~35%); predictors of treatment outcome are therefore needed. Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging with a radiotracer specific for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), (11)C-McN5652, we found that patients with MDD who did not achieve remission following 12 months of naturalistic treatment had lower pre-treatment midbrain and amygdala binding compared to healthy volunteers...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935835/total-body-pet-maximizing-sensitivity-to-create-new-opportunities-for-clinical-research-and-patient-care
#10
Simon R Cherry, Terry Jones, Joel S Karp, Jinyi Qi, William Moses, Ramsey Badawi
Positron emission tomography (PET) is widely considered as the most sensitive technique available for non-invasively studying physiology, metabolism and molecular pathways in the living human being. However, the utility of PET, being a photon deficient modality, remains constrained by factors including low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), long imaging times and concerns regarding radiation dose. Two developments offer the potential to dramatically increase the effective sensitivity of PET. First by increasing the geometric coverage to encompass the entire body, sensitivity can be increased by a factor of ~40 for total-body imaging or a factor of ~4-5 for imaging a single organ such as the brain or heart...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935420/down-syndrome-beta-amyloid-and-neuroimaging
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth Head, Alex Helman, David Powell, Frederick Schmitt
This review focuses on the role of Aβ in AD pathogenesis in Down syndrome and current approaches for imaging Aβ in vivo. We will describe how Aβ deposits with age, the posttranslational modifications that can occur, and detection in biofluids. Three unique case studies describing partial trisomy 21 cases without APP triplication, and the occurrences of low level mosaic trisomy 21 in an early onset AD patient are presented. Brain imaging for Aβ includes those by positron emission tomography and ligands (Pittsburgh Compound B, Florbetapir, and FDDNP) that bind Aβ have been published and are summarized here...
September 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934935/treatment-and-outcomes-of-tumor-induced-osteomalacia-associated-with-phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumors-retrospective-review-of-12-patients
#12
Qing-Yao Zuo, Hong Wang, Wei Li, Xiao-Hui Niu, Yan-Hong Huang, Jia Chen, Yu-Hua You, Bao-Yue Liu, Ai-Min Cui, Wei Deng
BACKGROUND: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by severe hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Nonspecific symptoms make the diagnosis elusive. In addition, locating the responsible tumor(s) is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical management and outcomes of TIO. METHODS: The clinical features, diagnostic procedures, treatment, and outcomes of 12 patients were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: The cohort comprised six men and six women (mean age 45...
September 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934619/distinct-brain-metabolic-patterns-separately-associated-with-cognition-motor-function-and-aging-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#13
Ji Hyun Ko, Audrey Katako, Maram Aljuaid, Andrew L Goertzen, Andrew Borys, Douglas E Hobson, Seok Min Kim, Chong Sik Lee
We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis...
August 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934254/deep-reconstruction-model-for-dynamic-pet-images
#14
Jianan Cui, Xin Liu, Yile Wang, Huafeng Liu
Accurate and robust tomographic reconstruction from dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) acquired data is a difficult problem. Conventional methods, such as the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm for reconstructing the activity distribution-based on individual frames, may lead to inaccurate results due to the checkerboard effect and limitation of photon counts. In this paper, we propose a stacked sparse auto-encoder based reconstruction framework for dynamic PET imaging. The dynamic reconstruction problem is formulated in a deep learning representation, where the encoding layers extract the prototype features, such as edges, so that, in the decoding layers, the reconstructed results are obtained through a combination of those features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934176/positron-emission-tomographic-imaging-elucidates-the-complex-relationship-between-glucose-uptake-and-tissue-blood-flow-mechanism-in-squamous-cell-oral-cancer-patients
#15
Ping Xu, Yan Li, Shuyong Yang, Mingzhe Li, Chenjun Li
BACKGROUND Through the clinical use of positron emission tomography, we aimed to elucidate the complex relationship between glucose uptake and squamous cell oral cancer (ScOC) growth, along with its mechanism with respect to tissue blood flow (tBF). MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed a total of 69 newly diagnosed ScOC patients by Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Maximum and mean standard uptake values (SUV↑ and SUV) were recorded to assess glucose uptake...
September 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933999/minimal-residual-disease-assessment-in-lymphoma-methods-and-applications
#16
Alex F Herrera, Philippe Armand
Standard methods for disease response assessment in patients with lymphoma, including positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans, are imperfect. In other hematologic malignancies, particularly leukemias, the ability to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) is increasingly influencing treatment paradigms. However, in many subtypes of lymphoma, the application of MRD assessment techniques, like flow cytometry or polymerase chain reaction-based methods, has been challenging because of the absence of readily detected circulating disease or canonic chromosomal translocations...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933068/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity-research
#17
Liliana Letra, Daniela Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g., striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), sensory and motor processing (e...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933018/-18-f-fluoromisonidazole-pet-in-rectal-cancer
#18
Tanuj Puri, Tessa A Greenhalgh, James M Wilson, Jamie Franklin, Lia Mun Wang, Victoria Strauss, Chris Cunningham, Mike Partridge, Tim Maughan
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in developing predictive biomarkers of tissue hypoxia using functional imaging for personalised radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer that are considered for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The study explores [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole ([(18)F]FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for predicting clinical response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant CRT. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma were imaged at 0-45 min, 2 and 4 h, at baseline and after 8-10 fractions of CRT (week 2)...
September 20, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932562/standardized-uptake-value-and-radiological-density-attenuation-as-predictive-and-prognostic-factors-in-patients-with-solitary-pulmonary-nodules-our-experience-on-1-592-patients
#19
Duilio Divisi, Mirko Barone, Luca Bertolaccini, Gaetano Rocco, Piergiorgio Solli, Roberto Crisci
BACKGROUND: Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) increased detection of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs), changing the management based on radiological and clinical factors. When 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) was considered for the evaluation of nodules, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) more than 2.5 is used frequently as a cut off for malignancy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate SUVmax PET/CT and pulmonary attenuation patterns at MSCT in patients with SPN according to morphological and pathological characteristics of the lesion...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932548/predictors-of-conversion-to-thoracotomy-during-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-lobectomy-in-lung-cancer-additional-predictive-value-of-fdg-pet-ct-in-a-tuberculosis-endemic-region
#20
Chun Geun Lim, Kyung Min Shin, Ji Seun Lim, Jae Kwang Lim, Hye Jung Kim, Won Hwa Kim, Seung Hyun Cho, Seung Ick Cha, Eung Bae Lee, Yangki Seock, Shin Young Jeong
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the added clinical value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans to chest CT imaging in predicting the conversion to thoracotomy during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 235 consecutive patients who underwent planned VATS lobectomy for primary lung cancer between 2011 and 2015. CT images were interpreted in terms of the presence and the attenuation of peribronchial lymph nodes (PLN) and peribronchial cuffs of soft (PCS) tissue, pleural calcification, and parenchymal calcified nodule...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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