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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352451/involvement-of-tsukushi-in-diverse-developmental-processes
#1
Shah Adil Ishtiyaq Ahmad, Mohammad Badrul Anam, Naofumi Ito, Kunimasa Ohta
Tsukushi (TSK) is a small signaling molecule which takes part in different developmental processes of multiple vertebrate organisms. The diverse activity of TSK depends on its ability to bind various intermediate molecules from different major signaling pathways. Interactions of TSK with BMP, FGF, TGF-β and Wnt pathways have already been confirmed. In this review, we will introduce the latest information regarding the involvement of TSK in developmental events. We suggest a fine tuning role for TSK in multiple signaling cascades...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352121/efficient-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-skeletal-muscle-cells-by-combining-rna-based-myod1-expression-and-pou5f1-silencing
#2
Tomohiko Akiyama, Saeko Sato, Nana Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Atsumi Soma, Hiromi Kimura, Shunichi Wakabayashi, Shigeru B H Ko, Minoru S H Ko
Direct generation of skeletal muscle cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) would be beneficial for drug testing, drug discovery, and disease modelling in vitro. Here we show a rapid and robust method to induce myogenic differentiation of hPSCs by introducing mRNA encoding MYOD1 together with siRNA-mediated knockdown of POU5F1 (also known as OCT4 or OCT3/4). This integration-free approach generates functional skeletal myotubes with sarcomere-like structure and a fusion capacity in several days. The POU5F1 silencing facilitates MYOD1 recruitment to the target promoters, which results in the significant activation of myogenic genes in hPSCs...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350613/fgf-mediated-mapk-and-pi3k-akt-signals-make-distinct-contributions-to-pluripotency-and-the-establishment-of-neural-crest
#3
Lauren Geary, Carole LaBonne
Early vertebrate embryos possess cells with the potential to generate all embryonic cell types. While this pluripotency is progressively lost as cells become lineage restricted, Neural Crest cells retain broad developmental potential. Here, we provide novel insights into signals essential for both pluripotency and neural crest formation in Xenopus. We show that FGF signaling controls a subset of genes expressed by pluripotent blastula cells, and find a striking switch in the signaling cascades activated by FGF signaling as cells lose pluripotency and commence lineage restriction...
January 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344510/ablation-of-fgfr2-in-fibroblasts-ameliorates-kidney-fibrosis-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#4
Zhuo Xu, Chunsun Dai
Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are heparin-binding proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. However, the role and mechanisms of FGF/FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis need further investigation. Methods: In this study, a mouse model with fibroblast-specific FGFR2 gene disruption was generated. The knockouts were born normal and no kidney dysfunction or histological abnormality was found within 2 months after birth...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342870/biomarkers-of-progression-after-hiv-acute-early-infection-nothing-compares-to-cd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cell-count
#5
Gabriela Turk, Yanina Ghiglione, Macarena Hormanstorfer, Natalia Laufer, Romina Coloccini, Jimena Salido, César Trifone, María Julia Ruiz, Juliana Falivene, María Pía Holgado, María Paula Caruso, María Inés Figueroa, Horacio Salomón, Luis D Giavedoni, María de Los Ángeles Pando, María Magdalena Gherardi, Roberto Daniel Rabinovich, Pedro A Pury, Omar Sued
Progression of HIV infection is variable among individuals, and definition disease progression biomarkers is still needed. Here, we aimed to categorize the predictive potential of several variables using feature selection methods and decision trees. A total of seventy-five treatment-naïve subjects were enrolled during acute/early HIV infection. CD4⁺ T-cell counts (CD4TC) and viral load (VL) levels were determined at enrollment and for one year. Immune activation, HIV-specific immune response, Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) genotypes, and plasma levels of 39 cytokines were determined...
January 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342370/fgf8-signaling-alters-the-osteogenic-cell-fate-in-the-hard-palate
#6
J Xu, Z Huang, W Wang, X Tan, H Li, Y Zhang, W Tian, T Hu, Y P Chen
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has been implicated in the regulation of osteogenesis in both intramembranous and endochondral ossifications. In the developing palate, the anterior bony palate forms by direct differentiation of cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived mesenchymal cells, but the signals that regulate the osteogenic cell fate in the developing palate remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of FGF signaling in osteogenic fate determination of the palatal mesenchymal cells...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342138/%C3%AE-klotho-is-a-non-enzymatic-molecular-scaffold-for-fgf23-hormone-signalling
#7
Gaozhi Chen, Yang Liu, Regina Goetz, Lili Fu, Seetharaman Jayaraman, Ming-Chang Hu, Orson W Moe, Guang Liang, Xiaokun Li, Moosa Mohammadi
The ageing suppressor α-klotho binds to the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). This commits FGFR to respond to FGF23, a key hormone in the regulation of mineral ion and vitamin D homeostasis. The role and mechanism of this co-receptor are unknown. Here we present the atomic structure of a 1:1:1 ternary complex that consists of the shed extracellular domain of α-klotho, the FGFR1c ligand-binding domain, and FGF23. In this complex, α-klotho simultaneously tethers FGFR1c by its D3 domain and FGF23 by its C-terminal tail, thus implementing FGF23-FGFR1c proximity and conferring stability...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342135/structures-of-%C3%AE-klotho-reveal-a-zip-code-like-mechanism-for-endocrine-fgf-signalling
#8
Sangwon Lee, Jungyuen Choi, Jyotidarsini Mohanty, Leiliane P Sousa, Francisco Tome, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, Mark A Lemmon, Irit Lax, Joseph Schlessinger
Canonical fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) activate FGF receptors (FGFRs) through paracrine or autocrine mechanisms in a process that requires cooperation with heparan sulfate proteoglycans, which function as co-receptors for FGFR activation. By contrast, endocrine FGFs (FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23) are circulating hormones that regulate critical metabolic processes in a variety of tissues. FGF19 regulates bile acid synthesis and lipogenesis, whereas FGF21 stimulates insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure and weight loss...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342121/%C3%AE-escin-effectively-modulates-huvecs-proliferation-and-tube-formation
#9
Lenka Varinská, Lenka Fáber, Martin Kello, Eva Petrovová, Ľudmila Balážová, Peter Solár, Matúš Čoma, Peter Urdzík, Ján Mojžiš, Emil Švajdlenka, Pavel Mučaji, Peter Gál
In the present study we evaluated the anti-angiogenic activities of β-escin (the major active compound of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seeds). Human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used as an in vitro model for studying the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of β-escin. We investigated the in vitro effects on proliferation, migration, and tube formation of HUVECs and in vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341894/protective-effects-of-antioxidin-rl-from-odorrana-livida-against-ultraviolet-b-irradiated-skin-photoaging
#10
Di Qin, Wen-Hui Lee, Zhiqin Gao, Weifen Zhang, Meiyu Peng, Tongyi Sun, Yuanyuan Gao
The unavoidable daily exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is proven to have deleterious effects. The action mechanism of antioxidin-RL, an antioxidant peptide purified from skin secretions of frog Odorrana livida with amino acid sequence of AMRLTYNRPCIYAT, is well characterized by NMR titration and mutation based on ABTS+ scavenging activities. In order to explore the protective effects of antioxidin-RL against UVB-irradiated skin photoaging, cell uptake assay was used to detect the location of antioxidin-RL molecules serving various biological functions in the cells...
January 13, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337115/purification-of-gfr%C3%AE-1-and-gfr%C3%AE-1-spermatogonial-stem-cells-reveals-a%C3%A2-niche-dependent-mechanism-for-fate-determination
#11
Alina Garbuzov, Matthew F Pech, Kazuteru Hasegawa, Meena Sukhwani, Ruixuan J Zhang, Kyle E Orwig, Steven E Artandi
Undifferentiated spermatogonia comprise a pool of stem cells and progenitor cells that show heterogeneous expression of markers, including the cell surface receptor GFRα1. Technical challenges in isolation of GFRα1+ versus GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia have precluded the comparative molecular characterization of these subpopulations and their functional evaluation as stem cells. Here, we develop a method to purify these subpopulations by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and show that GFRα1+ and GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia both demonstrate elevated transplantation activity, while differing principally in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cell cycle...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337106/loss-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-osteoblasts-increases-basic-fgf-and-promotes-prostate-cancer-bone-metastasis
#12
Xiangqi Meng, Alexandra Vander Ark, Paul Daft, Erica Woodford, Jie Wang, Zachary Madaj, Xiaohong Li
TGF-β plays a central role in prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis, and it is crucial to understand the bone cell-specific role of TGF-β signaling in this process. Thus, we used knockout (KO) mouse models having deletion of the Tgfbr2 gene specifically in osteoblasts (Tgfbr2Col1CreERT KO) or in osteoclasts (Tgfbr2LysMCre KO). We found that PCa-induced bone lesion development was promoted in the Tgfbr2Col1CreERT KO mice, but was inhibited in the Tgfbr2LysMCre KO mice, relative to their respective control Tgfbr2FloxE2 littermates...
January 11, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337067/the-impact-of-growth-factors-on-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-differentiation-into-cardiomyocytes
#13
Marianne E Yassa, Iman A Mansour, Nadia I Sewelam, Hala Hamza, Taghrid Gaafar
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) act as a promising therapeutic alternative for cardiovascular diseases. They yield a large number of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from autologous cell sources without ethical or immunological problems. However, significant limitations still remain in terms of line-to-line variability in CM yield and reproducibility. AIM: To efficiently enhance NP0040 hiPSCs differentiation into CMs. MAIN METHODS: Following a standard cardiac differentiation protocol using small molecules targeting the canonical Wnt signaling, growth factors (BMP4 and FGF2) and ascorbic acid were added further in order to increase the cardiac differentiation efficiency...
January 11, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334610/phase-ii-study-of-dovitinib-in-patients-with-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-kcsg-gu11-05
#14
Yoon Ji Choi, Hye Sook Kim, Se Hoon Park, Bong-Seog Kim, Kyoung Ha Kim, Hyo Jin Lee, Hong Suk Song, Dong-Yeop Shin, Ha Young Lee, Hoon-Gu Kim, Kyung Hee Lee, Jae Lyun Lee, Kyong Hwa Park
Purpose: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signals are important in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. Dovitinib is an oral, pan-class inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of dovitinib in men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Materials and Methods: This study was a single-arm, phase II, open-label, multicenter trial of dovitinib 500mg/day (5-days-on/2-days-off schedule)...
January 2, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332568/fgf-21-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-mitochondrial-diseases
#15
Leila Motlagh Scholle, Diana Lehmann, Marcus Deschauer, Torsten Kraya, Stephan Zierz
The diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases is still challenging due to clinical and genetical heterogeneity. The development of advanced technologies including Whole-Exome-Sequencing (WES) and Whole-Genome-Sequencing (WGS) have led to improvements in genetic diagnosis. However, a reliable biomarker in serum could enhance and ease the diagnosis and indeed reduce the need for muscle biopsy. Several studies suggest Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) as a biomarker for diagnosis in mitochondrial disorders. It is known, that in patients with mitochondrial disorders, the expression of FGF-21 gets elevated in an effort to counteract the underlying metabolic deficiency...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#16
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that Zeb2 (a.k.a. Sip1 or Zfhx1b), a Mowat-Wilson-syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325796/lcz696-sacubitril-valsartan-an-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-fibrosis-and-vasculopathy-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Yasunori Suematsu, Wanghui Jing, Ane Nunes, Moti L Kashyap, Mahyar Khazaeli, Nosratola D Vaziri, Hamid Moradi
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. LCZ696 (Sacubitril/valsartan) is a promising agent which has shown significant potential in treatment of heart failure. We hypothesized that LCZ696 is more effective than valsartan alone in treatment of cardiovascular abnormalities associated with experimental CKD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Sprague Dawley rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy and were subsequently randomized to no treatment (CKD), 30 mg/kg valsartan (VAL), or 60 mg/kg LCZ696 (LCZ)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325128/relationship-between-twelve-adipocytokines-and-distinct-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Thomas Ebert, Claudia Gebhardt, Markus Scholz, Tobias Wohland, Dorit Schleinitz, Mathias Fasshauer, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Peter Kovacs, Anke Tönjes
Objective: Adipose tissue-derived signals potentially link obesity and adipose tissue dysfunction with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Although some adipocytokines have been closely related to metabolic and cardiovascular traits, it remains open which adipocytokine or adipocytokine cluster serve as meaningful marker of metabolic syndrome (MS) components. Therefore, this study investigates the associations of twelve adipocytokines with components of the MS to identify the most relevant cytokines potentially related to specific metabolic profiles...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323161/lack-of-fgf18-causes-abnormal-clustering-of-motor-nerve-terminals-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-with-reduced-acetylcholine-receptor-clusters
#19
Kenyu Ito, Bisei Ohkawara, Hideki Yagi, Hiroaki Nakashima, Mikito Tsushima, Kyotaro Ota, Hiroyuki Konishi, Akio Masuda, Shiro Imagama, Hiroshi Kiyama, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno
FGF receptor 2 is involved in the formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), but its in vivo ligand remains to be determined. Laser capture microdissection of the mouse spinal motor neurons (SMNs) revealed that Fgf18 mRNA is highly expressed in SMNs in adults. Expression of Fgf18 mRNA was the highest in the spinal cord at embryonic day (E) 15.5, which gradually decreased to postnatal day 7. FGF18 protein was localized at the NMJs of the tibialis anterior muscle at E18.5 and in adults. Fgf18-/- mice at E18...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319804/effects-of-agricultural-organic-dusts-on-human-lung-resident-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-function
#20
Tara M Nordgren, Kristina L Bailey, Art J Heires, Dawn Katafiasz, Debra J Romberger
Agricultural organic dust exposures trigger harmful airway inflammation, and workers experiencing repetitive dust exposures are at increased risk for lung disease. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) regulate wound repair processes in the lung, and may contribute to either pro-resolution or pro-fibrotic lung responses. It is unknown how organic dust exposures alter lung-resident MSC activation and pro-inflammatory versus pro-repair programs in the lung. To address this gap in knowledge, we isolated human lung-resident MSC from lung tissue...
January 8, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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