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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822563/effect-of-pericardial-fat-volume-and-density-on-markers-of-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#1
Chris T Longenecker, Seunghee Margevicius, Yiying Liu, Mark D Schluchter, Chun-Ho Yun, Hiram G Bezerra, Grace A McComsey
Treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by ectopic fat deposition, a persistent inflammatory state, and increased cardiometabolic risk. In this secondary analysis of a placebo controlled trial of rosuvastatin among 147 HIV+ subjects (median age 46; 78% men) on stable antiretroviral therapy, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal associations between computed tomography (CT) measures of pericardial fat (PCF) volume and density, insulin resistance, and inflammation. We measured PCF volume and density (mean attenuation in Hounsfield units) by noncontrast gated CT at baseline and week 96...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821264/impact-of-early-initiation-versus-national-standard-of-care-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-swaziland-s-public-sector-health-system-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomized-trial
#2
Fiona J Walsh, Till Bärnighausen, Wim Delva, Yvette Fleming, Gavin Khumalo, Charlotte L Lejeune, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Charmaine Khudzie Mlambo, Ria Reis, Donna Spiegelman, Mandisa Zwane, Velephi Okello
BACKGROUND: There is robust clinical evidence to support offering early access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to both improve patient health outcomes and reduce HIV incidence. However, as the global treatment guidelines shift to meet this evidence, it is still largely unknown if early access to ART for all (also referred to as "treatment as prevention" or "universal test and treat") is a feasible intervention in the resource-limited countries where this approach could have the biggest impact on the course of the HIV epidemics...
August 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819499/multiple-jejunal-perforation-secondary-to-intestinal-tuberculosis-infection-a-case-report
#3
Anthony Lyonga Ngonge, Domin Sone Majunda Ekaney, Carlson-Babila Sama, Joffi Musonge-Effoe, Valery Sammah Effoe, Gerald Ekwen
Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. There is an increase in the incidence of abdominal TB favored by the emergence of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and immunosuppression especially from HIV co-infection. Our case is that of a 31 year old HIV-positive woman, adherent to antiretroviral therapy, who presented with a 2 month history of progressive abdominal distention, drenching night sweat and fatigue, but without fever...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818767/recent-advances-of-pyrazole-containing-derivatives-as-anti-tubercular-agents
#4
Zhi Xu, Chuan Gao, Qing-Cheng Ren, Xu-Feng Song, Lian-Shun Feng, Zao-Sheng Lv
One-third of the world's population infected tuberculosis (TB), and more than 1 million deaths annually. The co-infection between the mainly pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and HIV, and the incidence of drug-resistant TB, multi-drug resistant TB, extensively drug-resistant TB as well as totally drug-resistant TB have further aggravated the mortality and spread of this disease. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel anti-TB agents against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB. The wide spectrum of biological activities and successful utilization of pyrazole-containing drugs in clinic have inspired more and more attention towards this kind of heterocycles...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818036/ecccl-parallelized-gpu-implementation-of-ensemble-classifier-chains
#5
Mona Riemenschneider, Alexander Herbst, Ari Rasch, Sergei Gorlatch, Dominik Heider
BACKGROUND: Multi-label classification has recently gained great attention in diverse fields of research, e.g., in biomedical application such as protein function prediction or drug resistance testing in HIV. In this context, the concept of Classifier Chains has been shown to improve prediction accuracy, especially when applied as Ensemble Classifier Chains. However, these techniques lack computational efficiency when applied on large amounts of data, e.g., derived from next-generation sequencing experiments...
August 17, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817934/mannose-surfaces-exhibit-self-latching-water-structuring-and-resilience-to-chaotropes-implications-for-pathogen-virulence
#6
Hashanthi K Abeyratne-Perera, Preethi L Chandran
Several viral and fungal pathogens, including HIV, SARS, Dengue, Ebola and Cryptococcus neoformans, display a preponderance of mannose residues on their surface, particularly during the infection cycle or in harsh environments. The innate immune system, on the other hand, abounds in mannose receptors which recognize mannose residues on pathogens and trigger their phagocytosis. We pose the question if there is a surface advantage for pathogens to display mannose on their surface, despite these residues being recognized by the immune system...
August 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817720/targeting-of-cdk9-with-indirubin-3-monoxime-safely-and-durably-reduces-hiv-viremia-in-chronically-infected-humanized-mice
#7
Sandra Medina-Moreno, Thomas C Dowling, Juan C Zapata, Nhut M Le, Edward Sausville, Joseph Bryant, Robert R Redfield, Alonso Heredia
Successful propagation of HIV in the human host requires entry into a permissive cell, reverse transcription of viral RNA, integration into the human genome, transcription of the integrated provirus, and assembly/release of new virus particles. Currently, there are antiretrovirals against each of these viral steps, except for provirus transcription. An inhibitor of HIV transcription could both increase potency of treatment and suppress drug-resistant strains. Cellular cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) serves as a cofactor for the HIV Tat protein and is required for effective transcription of the provirus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817643/peripheral-clinic-versus-centralized-laboratory-based-xpert-mtb-rif-performance-experience-gained-from-a-pragmatic-stepped-wedge-trial-in-botswana
#8
Tefera Agizew, Rosanna Boyd, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Andrew Auld, Joyce Basotli, Sambayawo Nyirenda, Zegabriel Tedla, Anikie Mathoma, Unami Mathebula, Chawangwa Lesedi, Sherri Pals, Anand Date, Heather Alexander, Thomas Kuebrich, Alyssa Finlay
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Botswana National Tuberculosis Program adopted World Health Organization guidelines and introduced Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay to support intensified case finding among people living with HIV enrolling in care. An evaluation was designed to assess performance under operational conditions to inform the national Xpert scale-up. METHODS: Xpert was implemented from August 2012 through November 2014 with 13 GeneXpert instruments (GeneXpert) deployed in a phased approach over nine months: nine centralized laboratory and four point-of-care (POC) peripheral clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816644/cyp2b6-haplotype-predicts-efavirenz-plasma-concentration-in-black-south-african-hiv-1-infected-children-a-longitudinal-pediatric-pharmacogenomic-study
#9
Riaan Reay, Collet Dandara, Michelle Viljoen, Malie Rheeders
South Africa has the highest burden of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection globally. Efavirenz (EFV), a frequently used drug against HIV infection, displays a relationship between drug concentration and pharmacodynamics effects clinically. However, haplotype-based genetic variation in drug metabolism in a pediatric sample has been little considered in a longitudinal long-term context. CYP2B6 plays a key role in variation of EFV plasma concentration through altered drug metabolism. We report here on a prospective clinical pharmacogenomics/pharmacokinetic study of Bantu-speaking children, importantly, over a period of 24 months post-initiation of EFV-based treatment in South Africa...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814231/hiv-type-1-integrase-natural-polymorphisms-in-viral-variants-circulating-in-fsu-countries
#10
Ilya Lapovok, Vita Laga, Elena Kazennova, Marina Bobkova
BACKGROUND: Natural variability of integrase (IN) across HIV-1 variants may influence the emergence of resistant viruses. The most apparent explanation of these fact is the IN polymorphism and the associated differences in codon usage, which, in turn, influence the probability and the terms of DRMs acquisition. Possible mechanisms by which polymorphisms affect DRMs emergence remain disputed and should still be clarified because these substitutions may be associated with a reduced activity of some INSTIs and may impact on ART regimen choice depending of HIV-1 subtype...
August 15, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814161/significant-rates-of-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-patients-failing-first-line-art-a-sub-study-of-the-europe-africa-research-network-for-the-evaluation-of-second-line-therapy-trial
#11
Jane N Wanyama, Maria S Nabaggala, Bonnie Wandera, Agnes N Kiragga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Ivan K Mambule, Josephine Nakajubi, Andrew D Kambugu, Nicholas I Paton, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Robert Colebunders, Philippa Easterbrook
There are limited data on the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours in individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes in sexual behaviour after switch to second-line ART. We undertook a sexual behaviour sub-study of Ugandan adults enrolled in the Europe-Africa Research Network for the Evaluation of Second-line Therapy trial. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect sexual behaviour data and, in particular, risky sexual behaviours (defined as additional sexual partners to main sexual partner, inconsistent use of condoms, non-disclosure to sexual partners, and exchange of money for sex)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814159/surviving-surveillance-how-pregnant-women-and-mothers-living-with-hiv-respond-to-medical-and-social-surveillance
#12
Saara Greene, Allyson Ion, Gladys Kwaramba, Lisa Lazarus, Mona Loutfy
Pregnant women and mothers living with HIV are under surveillance of service providers, family members, and the community at large. Surveillance occurs throughout the medical management of their HIV during pregnancy, preventing HIV transmission to their baby, infant feeding practices, and as part of assessments related to their ability to mother. Enacted and anticipatory HIV-related stigma can exacerbate the negative impact that being under surveillance has on mothers living with HIV as they move through their pregnancy, birthing, and mothering experiences...
August 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812457/from-half-dead-to-being-free-resistance-to-hiv-stigma-self-disclosure-and-support-for-pmtct-hiv-care-among-couples-living-with-hiv-in-kenya
#13
Sydney A Spangler, Lisa L Abuogi, Eliud Akama, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Anna Helova, Pamela Musoke, Wafula Z Nalwa, Thomas A Odeny, Maricianah Onono, Iris Wanga, Janet M Turan
In sub-Saharan Africa, self-disclosure of HIV-positive status may be a pivotal action for improving access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission services. However, understanding of HIV stigma and disclosure, and their effects on demand for care remains incomplete - particularly in the current context of new antiretroviral therapy guidelines. The purpose of this study was to explore these issues among self-disclosed couples living in southwest Kenya. We conducted 38 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive pregnant or postpartum women and their male partners...
August 16, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812250/miv-150-and-zinc-acetate-combination-provides-potent-and-broad-activity-against-hiv-1
#14
Olga Mizenina, Mayla Hsu, Ninochka Jean-Pierre, Meropi Aravantinou, Keith Levendosky, Gabriela Paglini, Thomas M Zydowsky, Melissa Robbiani, José A Fernández-Romero
We previously showed that the combination of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 with zinc acetate (ZA) formulated in a carrageenan (CG; MZC) gel provided macaques significant protection against vaginal simian-human immunodeficiency virus-RT (SHIV-RT) challenge, better than either MIV-150/CG or ZA/CG. The MZC gel was shown to be safe in a phase 1 clinical trial. Herein, we used in vitro approaches to study the antiviral properties of ZA and the MIV-150/ZA combination, compared to other NNRTIs...
August 15, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811600/exploring-leishmania-secretory-proteins-to-design-b-and-t-cell-multi-epitope-subunit-vaccine-using-immunoinformatics-approach
#15
Nazia Khatoon, Rajan Kumar Pandey, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal form of leishmaniasis which affects 70 countries, worldwide. Increasing drug resistance, HIV co-infection, and poor health system require operative vaccination strategy to control the VL transmission dynamics. Therefore, a holistic approach is needed to generate T and B memory cells to mediate long-term immunity against VL infection. Consequently, immunoinformatics approach was applied to design Leishmania secretory protein based multi-epitope subunit vaccine construct consisting of B and T cell epitopes...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#16
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810840/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-in-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-western-sub-district-of-the-cape-metropole-region-south-africa-a-combined-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#17
Lauren Philips, Janicke Visser, Daan Nel, Renée Blaauw
BACKGROUND: The existence of a bi-directional relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and insulin resistance (IR)/diabetes has been alluded to in literature. Although diabetes has been linked to increased tuberculosis risk, the relationship between tuberculosis as a causative factor for IR remains unclear. The study aimed to determine if an association existed between tuberculosis and IR development in adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis at baseline. It was additionally aimed to document changes in IR status during TB follow-up periods...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810826/improving-fold-resistance-prediction-of-hiv-1-against-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-using-artificial-neural-networks
#18
Olivier Sheik Amamuddy, Nigel T Bishop, Özlem Tastan Bishop
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in HIV treatment is still a worldwide problem. Predicting resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) before starting any treatment is important. Prediction accuracy is essential, as low-accuracy predictions increase the risk of prescribing sub-optimal drug regimens leading to patients developing resistance sooner. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a powerful tool that would be able to assist in drug resistance prediction. In this study, we constrained the dataset to subtype B, sacrificing generalizability for a higher predictive performance, and demonstrated that the predictive quality of the ANN regression models have definite improvement for most ARVs...
August 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808447/predictors-for-mortality-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-tanzania
#19
Edson W Mollel, Jaffu O Chilongola
PROBLEM: Factors related to MDRTB mortality in Tanzania have not been adequately explored and reported. OBJECTIVES: To determine demographic, clinical, radiographic, and laboratory factors associated with MDRTB mortality in a Tanzanian TB Referral Hospital. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study with 193 participants. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected, and their associations with mortality among MDRTB patients were determined...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807730/development-of-a-dual-reporter-screening-assay-for-distinguishing-the-inhibition-of-hiv-tat-mediated-transcription-from-off-target-effects
#20
YoungHyun Shin, Byeong-Sun Choi, Kyung-Chang Kim, Chun Kang, Kisoon Kim, Cheol-Hee Yoon
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encodes a transcription trans-activator (Tat) with an essential role in the transcriptional elongation of viral RNA based on the viral promoter long terminal repeat (LTR). Tat-mediated transcription is conserved and can be distinguished from host transcription, so it is a therapeutic target for combating HIV replication. Traditional screening assays for Tat-mediated transcriptional inhibitors are based on the biochemical properties of Tat and transactivation-responsive RNA...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
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