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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036618/unsuccessful-treatment-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-factors-and-a-consequent-predictive-model
#1
Ana Costa-Veiga, Teodoro Briz, Carla Nunes
Background: Cure is particularly valuable in pulmonary cases (PTB), as unsuccessful treatment fuels incidence and resistance to antibiotics. This study aims to identify individual factors of PTB unsuccessful treatment in Portugal and to develop a consequent predictive model. Methods: Using the Portuguese TB surveillance database (SVIG-TB), PTB cases older than 15 years notified from 2000 to 2012 in Continental Portugal were analyzed. Unsuccessful treatment included the WHO categories (failure, default, death and transferred out)...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035325/advanced-prodrug-strategies-in-nucleoside-and-non-nucleoside-antiviral-agents-a-review-of-the-recent-five-years
#2
REVIEW
Hanadi Sinokrot, Tasneem Smerat, Anas Najjar, Rafik Karaman
Background: Poor pharmacokinetic profiles and resistance are the main two drawbacks from which currently used antiviral agents suffer, thus make them excellent targets for research, especially in the presence of viral pandemics such as HIV and hepatitis C. Methods: The strategies employed in the studies covered in this review were sorted by the type of drug synthesized into ester prodrugs, targeted delivery prodrugs, macromolecular prodrugs, other nucleoside conjugates, and non-nucleoside drugs. Results: Utilizing the ester prodrug approach a novel isopropyl ester prodrug was found to be potent HIV integrase inhibitor...
October 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031905/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-decreases-after-liver-fat-reduction-via-growth-hormone-augmentation
#3
Laurie R Braun, Meghan N Feldpausch, Natalia Czerwonka, Martin Torriani, Steven K Grinspoon, Takara L Stanley
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) ameliorates steatohepatitis but is increased in humans with fatty liver, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms and/or FGF21 resistance. Further, animal models suggest that GH increases serum FGF21. Tesamorelin, a growth hormone releasing hormone agonist, reduces liver fat in HIV-infected individuals. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes in FGF21 during tesamorelin treatment, to elucide the interplay between FGF21, GH augmentation, and liver fat reduction in humans...
October 7, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029317/the-critical-role-of-supply-chains-in-preventing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-in-low-and-middle-income-settings
#4
Thomas Minior, Meaghan Douglas, Dianna Edgil, Meena Srivastava, John Crowley, Jacqueline Firth, Ilana Lapidos-Salaiz, Jason Williams, Lana Lee
The functioning of the supply chain may be a driving factor behind the development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (HIVDR) in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Additionally, the effectiveness of supply chains will likely impact the scale-up of both viral-load monitoring and HIVDR testing. This article describes the complexities of global supply chains relevant for LMICs and presents early data on stock-outs and drug substitutions in several countries supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029178/expansion-of-viral-load-testing-and-the-potential-impact-on-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance
#5
Helen M Chun, Yaa F Obeng-Aduasare, Laura N Broyles, Dennis Ellenberger
Increasing the volume, strengthening the quality, and proactively using data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load testing are pivotal to limiting the threat of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) accumulation,and allow for optimal case-based HIVDR surveillance. Triangulation of viral load (VL) and HIVDR testing data could be pursued to answer key questions and translate data and results for program and public policy. Identification of virologic failure and early management mitigates the greater risk of HIVDR...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029155/the-role-of-phylogenetics-as-a-tool-to-predict-the-spread-of-resistance
#6
Anna Zhukova, Teresa Cutino-Moguel, Olivier Gascuel, Deenan Pillay
Drug resistance mutations emerge in genetic sequences of HIV through drug-selective pressure. Drug resistance can be transmitted. In this review we discuss phylogenetic methods used to study the emergence of drug resistance and the spread of resistant viruses.
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029130/alternative-sample-types-for-hiv-1-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-testing
#7
Dolly Singh, Adit Dhummakupt, Lilly Siems, Deborah Persaud
Monitoring human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance is critical for assessing ART effectiveness and treatment outcomes for HIV-1-infected individuals, including children, worldwide. Traditionally, testing for HIV-1 drug resistance has primarily been performed on plasma samples, and with commercially available, clinically validated assays that are costly and difficult to access. While plasma is the preferred sample for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping, plasma analysis requires sophisticated laboratory equipment, personnel, space, and stringent storage conditions for maintenance of sample integrity and transport...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029095/identification-of-novel-bifunctional-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#8
Ming-Tain Lai, Paul Tawa, Anick Auger, Deping Wang, Hua-Poo Su, Youwei Yan, Daria J Hazuda, Michael D Miller, Ernest Asante-Appiah, Roman A Melnyk
Objectives: The increasing prevalence of mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) that confer resistance to existing NRTIs and NNRTIs underscores the need to develop RT inhibitors with novel mode-of-inhibition and distinct resistance profiles. Methods: Biochemical assays were employed to identify inhibitors of RT activity and characterize their mode of inhibition. The antiviral activity of the inhibitors was assessed by cell-based assays using laboratory HIV-1 isolates and MT4 cells...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028993/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-mycoplasma-genitalium-in-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-alabama
#9
J Dionne-Odom, W M Geisler, K J Aaron, K B Waites, A O Westfall, B Van Der Pol, L Xiao
We tested for Mycoplasma genitalium in 157 HIV-infected men in Alabama who were mostly asymptomatic. Urogenital and rectal prevalence were 10.8% and 6.4%, respectively. Macrolide resistance mutations were detected in 70.6% and 80% of urogenital and rectal samples and fluoroquinolone resistance mutations in 26.7% and 40% of samples, respectively.
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028223/are-scientific-research-outputs-aligned-with-national-policy-makers-priorities-a-case-study-of-tuberculosis-in-cambodia
#10
Lydia Boudarene, Richard James, Richard Coker, Mishal S Khan
With funding for tuberculosis (TB) research decreasing, and the high global disease burden persisting, there are calls for increased investment in TB research. However, justification of such investments is questionable, when translation of research outputs into policy and health care improvements remains a challenge for TB and other diseases. Using TB in Cambodia as a case study, we investigate how evidence needs of national policy makers are addressed by topics covered in research publications. We first conducted a systematic review to compile all studies on TB in Cambodia published since 2000...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026792/antiretroviral-drug-resistance-mutations-among-hiv-treatment-failure-patients-in-tehran-iran
#11
Molood Farrokhi, Samaneh Moallemi, Reza Shirkoohi, Reza Golmohammadi, Sara Ahsani-Nasab, Sara Sardashti, Ladan Abbasian, Kazem Baesi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine drug resistance mutations in patients with virological failure and find correlation between HIV drug resistance test and viral load. METHODS: Blood sample was collected from 51 patients who suspicious treatment failure in the center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2015. Viral voluntary counseling and testing load test was done and the patients with viral load above 1000 copies choose for detection of drug resistance mutations by genotyping method (29 patients)...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025482/tb-and-hiv-stigma-compounded-by-threatened-masculinity-implications-for-tb-health-care-seeking-in-malawi
#12
J Chikovore, G Hart, M Kumwenda, G Chipungu, N Desmond, E L Corbett
SETTING: Urban Blantyre, Malawi. OBJECTIVE: To understand why men with tuberculosis (TB) in the community remain undiagnosed. DESIGN: A multi-method qualitative study applying a modified grounded theory approach. Data were gathered from March 2011 to March 2012 from 134 men and women taking part in 1) focus group discussions with community members (n = 6) and health care workers (n = 2), and 2) in-depth interviews with TB patients (n = 20, females n = 14) and chronic coughers (n = 20, women n = 8)...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024587/discovery-of-a-distinct-chemical-and-mechanistic-class-of-allosteric-hiv-1-integrase-inhibitors-with-antiretroviral-activity
#13
Christine Burlein, Cheng Wang, Xu Min, Triveni Bhatt, Mark Stahlhut, Yangsi Ou, Gregory C Adam, Jeffrey Heath, Daniel J Klein, John Sanders, Kartik Narayan, Pravien Abeywickrema, Mee Ra Heo, Steven S Carroll, Jay A Grobler, Sujata Sharma, Tracy L Diamond, Antonella Converso, Daniel J Krosky
Allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) bind to the lens epithelial-derived growth factor (LEDGF) pocket on HIV-1 integrase (IN) and possess potent antiviral effects. Rather than blocking proviral integration, ALLINIs trigger IN conformational changes that have catastrophic effects on viral maturation, rendering the virions assembled in the presence of ALLINIs non-infectious. A high-throughput screen for compounds that disrupt the IN·LEDGF interaction was executed, and extensive triage led to the identification of a t-butylsulfonamide series, as exemplified by 1...
October 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022859/a-community-based-study-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-and-molecular-characterization-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#14
Nina S Leung, Michelle L Vidoni, D Ashley Robinson, Paige Padgett, Eric L Brown
PURPOSE: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization, evaluate community-related behavioral risk factors, and utilize staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing for epidemiological surveillance among community-based men who have sex with men from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in Houston, Texas. METHODS: Descriptive methods and logistic analyses were used to determine associations with nasal colonization...
October 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022528/diagnostic-accuracy-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-in-musculoskeletal-tuberculosis-high-sensitivity-in-tissue-samples-of-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-patients
#15
M Held, M Laubscher, L Workman, H J Zar, R Dunn
BACKGROUND: GeneXpert MTB/RIF is useful for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in adults, but there is limited evidence on its usefulness in extrapulmonary TB. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with suspected musculoskeletal TB. METHODS: A prospective study of patients with suspected musculoskeletal (bone and joint) TB was undertaken. The diagnostic accuracy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF was compared with the reference standards of culture and histopathology...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021409/hiv-1-viral-load-and-resistance-in-genital-secretions-in-patients-taking-protease-inhibitor-based-second-line-therapy-in-africa
#16
Anne Hoppe, Marina Giuliano, Abbas Lugemwa, Jennifer A Thompson, Marco Floridia, Ann S Walker, Ismail Senoga, Mary C Abwola, Maria F Pirillo, Cissy M Kityo, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Nicholas I Paton
BACKGROUND: HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse, and the objective of this study was therefore to assess whether there is occult viral replication and resistance in genital secretions in patients on protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line therapy. METHODS: HIV-infected adults taking ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with either two NRTIs, raltegravir, or as monotherapy for 96 weeks were enrolled at seven clinical sites in Uganda. Viral load (VL) was measured in cervico-vaginal secretions or semen and in a corresponding plasma sample...
October 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021396/quiescence-promotes-latent-hiv-infection-and-resistance-to-reactivation-from-latency-with-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#17
Mark M Painter, Thomas D Zaikos, Kathleen L Collins
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) establishes transcriptionally silent latent infections in many cell types, including resting memory T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which allow the virus to persist in infected individuals despite antiretroviral therapy. Developing in vitro models of HIV-1 latency that recapitulate the characteristics of latently-infected cells in vivo is crucial to identifying and developing effective latency-reversing therapies. HSPCs exist in a quiescent state in vivo, and quiescence is correlated with latent infections in T cells...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020335/hiv-drug-resistance-in-african-infants-and-young-children-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-a-multicounty-analysis
#18
Michael R Jordan, Martina Penazzato, Amandine Cournil, Adolfo Vubil, Ilesh Jani, Gillian Hunt, Sergio Carmona, Gugu Maphalala, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Christine Watera, Pontiano Kaleebu, Christine Chakanyuka Musanhu, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Janet Dzangare, Martine Peeters, Chunfu Yang, Neil Parkin, Silvia Bertagnolio
Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs have been scaled-up in many low- and middle-income countries; however, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) data amongst HIV-1-infected young children remain limited. Methods: Surveys of pre-treatment HIVDR amongst children younger than 18 months of age who were diagnosed with HIV through Early Infant Diagnosis were conducted in five sub-Saharan African countries (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe) between 2011 and 2014 following World Health Organization guidance...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020319/tuberculosis-case-finding-with-combined-rapid-point-of-care-assays-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-and-lam-in-hiv-positive-individuals-starting-antiretroviral-treatment-in-mozambique
#19
Marco Floridia, Fausto Ciccacci, Mauro Andreotti, Archa Hassane, Zita Sidumo, Nurja A Magid, Horacio Sotomane, Muhlavasse David, Elsa Mutemba, Junia Cebola, Remigio Josè Mugunhe, Fabio Riccardi, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Marina Giuliano, Leonardo Palombi, Sandro Mancinelli
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health concern in several countries, and effective diagnostic algorithms in HIV+ patients are urgently needed. Methods: At prescription of antiretroviral therapy (ART), all patients of three Mozambican health centres were screened for TB, with a combined approach: the WHO 4-symptom screening (fever, cough, night sweats, weight loss) (WHO-4SS), a rapid test detecting mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan in urine (LAM), and a molecular assay on sputum (Xpert® MTB/RIF, repeated if first result was negative)...
July 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020293/dual-therapy-with-darunavir-and-ritonavir-plus-lamivudine-versus-triple-therapy-with-darunavir-and-ritonavir-plus-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-emtricitabine-or-abacavir-and-lamivudine-for-maintenance-of-hiv-1-viral-suppression-randomised-open-label-non
#20
Federico Pulido, Esteban Ribera, María Lagarde, Ignacio Pérez-Valero, Rosario Palacios, José A Iribarren, Antoni Payeras, Pere Domingo, José Sanz, Miguel Cervero, Adrián Curran, Francisco J Rodríguez-Gómez, María J Téllez, Pablo Ryan, Pilar Barrufet, Hernando Knobel, Antonio Rivero, Belén Alejos, María Yllescas, José R Arribas
Background: Our objective was to assess the therapeutic non-inferiority of dual therapy with darunavir/ritonavir and lamivudine compared to triple therapy with darunavir/ritonavir plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine or abacavir and lamivudine for maintenance of HIV-1 viral suppression. Methods: 48-week, multicenter, open-label, non-inferiority trial (margin 12%). Patients with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for ≥6 months on triple therapy with darunavir/ritonavir and two nucleos(t)ides (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine or abacavir and lamivudine), with no resistance, were randomized to continue therapy (n=128) or switch to darunavir/ritonavir and lamivudine (n=129)...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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