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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231058/efaverinz-and-nano-gold-loaded-mannosylated-niosomes-a-host-cell-targeted-topical-hiv-1-prophylaxis-via-thermogel-system
#1
Tanushree Malik, Gaurav Chauhan, Goutam Rath, Rohan N Kesarkar, Abhay S Chowdhary, Amit K Goyal
Sexual dissemination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) is the prime mode of its spread. Topical microbicidal approach has gained much attention, but no real success is observed till date, either due to toxicity or resistance of active moieties and the lack of efficient drug delivery approaches. In this research protocol, a unique combination approach of a standard drug moiety, that is, Efaverinz (EFV) and a nanometal, that is, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was tried. Both these candidates were delivered through a mannosylated niosomal system, to exploit protein (lectins present on HIV host cells) - carbohydrate (oligosaccharides such as mannan present on HIV gp-120 receptor) interaction...
December 12, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230203/ibalizumab-targeting-cd4-receptors-an-emerging-molecule-in-hiv-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Simona A Iacob, Diana G Iacob
The HIV infection is responsible for the most devastating global pandemic of the last century. More than 39 million people have died of HIV/AIDS since 1981. The development of the antiretroviral (ARV) treatment begins with the discovery of zidovudine a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. This breakthrough was followed by other ARV drug classes and representatives. Presently, HIV treatment employs 27 ARV representatives belonging to five different classes. Despite the proven benefits of ARV treatment and its long-term control of the HIV infection, there is an increasing concern about the numerous adverse effects and resistance to current ARV drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229373/paper-based-detection-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-using-isothermal-amplification-and-an-oligonucleotide-ligation-assay
#3
Mary E Natoli, Brittany A Rohrman, Carolina de Santiago, Gert U van Zyl, Rebecca R Richards-Kortum
Regular HIV-1 viral load monitoring is the standard of care to assess antiretroviral therapy effectiveness in resource-rich settings. Persistently elevated viral loads indicate virologic failure (VF), which warrants HIV drug resistance testing (HIVDRT) to allow individualized regimen switches. However, in settings lacking access to HIVDRT, clinical decisions are often made based on symptoms, leading to unnecessary therapy switches and increased costs of care. This work presents a proof-of-concept assay to detect M184V, the most common drug resistance mutation after first-line antiretroviral therapy failure, in a paper format...
December 8, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226216/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-tuberculosis-in-prisons-settings-of-east-gojjam-zone-northwest-ethiopia
#4
Mucheye Gizachew Beza, Emirie Hunegnaw, Moges Tiruneh
Background: Tuberculosis, mainly in prisoners, is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where there is no medical screening during prison admission. This creates scarcity of TB data in such settings. Objective: To determine prevalence and associated factors of TB in prisons in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2016 among 265 prisoners in three prison sites. Sputum was processed using GeneXpert MTB/RIF...
2017: International Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226191/time-to-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-a-prospective-south-african-cohort
#5
Brittney J van de Water, Janet Prvu Bettger, Susan Silva, Janice Humphreys, Coleen K Cunningham, Jason E Farley
This study examined time to treatment initiation by age among a prospective cohort with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Participants aged 13 years or older nested within a cluster-randomized trial in 2 South African provinces were evaluated. Outcomes were treatment initiation within 5 days of DR-TB diagnosis (National Tuberculosis Program guidelines) and days from diagnosis to treatment. A total of 521 participants met inclusion criteria. Eighty-two patients (16%) met national guidelines; median time to treatment was 11 days (range = 0-180)...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225131/role-of-tenofovir-alafenamide-taf-in-the-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-hiv-and-hbv-infections
#6
REVIEW
Erik De Clercq
Tenofovir (TFV) is the cornerstone in the treatment and prophylaxis of HIV infections. It has been routinely used in its prodrug form TDF (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) combined with emtricitabine ((-)FTC) and other antiretroviral agents. TDF has now been replaced by TAF (tenofovir alafenamide) which allows better uptake by the lymphoid tissue. In combination with elvitegravir (E), cobicistat (C), emtricitabine (F), TAF can be advocated as an STR (single tablet regimen, Genvoya®) for the treatment of HIV infections...
December 7, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222332/stabilization-of-the-gp120-v3-loop-through-hydrophobic-interactions-reduces-the-immunodominant-v3-directed-non-neutralizing-response-to-hiv-1-envelope-trimers
#7
Steven W de Taeye, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Andrea Vecchione, Enzo Scutigliani, Kwinten Sliepen, Judith A Burger, Patricia van der Woude, Anna Schorcht, Edith E Schermer, Marit J van Gils, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Ian A Wilson, John P Moore, Andrew B Ward, Rogier W Sanders
To provide protective immunity against circulating primary HIV-1 strains, a vaccine most likely has to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein spike. Recombinant Env trimers such as the prototype BG505 SOSIP.664 that closely mimic the native Env spike can induce autologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against relatively resistant (tier-2) primary viruses. Ideally, Env immunogens should present bNAb epitopes, but limit the presentation of immunodominant non-NAb epitopes that might induce off-target and potentially interfering responses...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219895/effect-of-8-week-of-hospital-based-resistance-training-program-on-tcd4-cell-count-and-anthropometric-characteristic-of-hiv-patients-in-tehran-iran-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Morteza Ghayomzadeh, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi, Sajjad Rezaei, Conrad P Earnest, Sima Akbarnejad, Leila Taj, Minoo Mohraz, James Wilfred Navalta, Peyman Ghasemi, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli
We examined the effects of an 8 w circuit resistance training (RES) program using elastic bands and body weight on TCD4+ cell counts and anthropometry in HIV patients. Patients (N=21) receiving antiretroviral therapy were randomly assigned to resistance training (RES; n=14) or control group (CON; n=7) groups. RES (3/w) consisted of training with elastic bands and bodyweight training focusing on major muscle groups. CON received standard care. Statistical analyses were performed using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, length of infection and respective baseline measures...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219248/-my-mother-told-me-that-i-should-not-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-restrictions-placed-on-adolescent-girls-living-with-hiv-in-zambia
#9
Constance Rs Mackworth-Young, Virginia Bond, Alison Wringe, Katongo Konayuma, Sue Clay, Chipo Chiiya, Mutale Chonta, Kirsty Sievwright, Anne L Stangl
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV due to a range of social and structural factors. As they transition to adulthood, they are recipients of increasing blame for HIV infection and 'improper' sex, as well as increasing scrutiny, restrictions and surveillance. This study used a qualitative and participatory approach to explore the messaging and restrictions imposed on adolescent girls living with HIV in Zambia. METHODS: Thirty-four in-depth interviews and four participatory workshops were carried out with 24 adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years old living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216346/darunavir-ritonavir-monotherapy-at-a-low-dose-600-100%C3%A2-mg-day-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-with-suppressed-hiv-viraemia
#11
S Seang, L Schneider, T Nguyen, M P Lê, C Soulie, R Calin, F Caby, M-A Valantin, R Tubiana, L Assoumou, A-G Marcelin, G Peytavin, C Katlama
Background: Darunavir/ritonavir is a potent PI with a high genetic barrier and pharmacological robustness favourably investigated as monotherapy. Whether darunavir could be dose reduced in the context of monotherapy deserves investigation. Methods: Patients with HIV suppressed viraemia (plasma viral load <50 copies/mL for 12 months) under ART who had switched to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy at 600/100 mg/day between 2013 and 2015 were included in this observational 48 week single-centre study...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216183/presentation-of-life-threatening-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-disease-in-malawian-children-a-prospective-observational-study
#12
Calman A MacLennan, Chisomo L Msefula, Esther N Gondwe, James J Gilchrist, Paul Pensulo, Wilson L Mandala, Grace Mwimaniwa, Meraby Banda, Julia Kenny, Lorna K Wilson, Amos Phiri, Jenny M MacLennan, Elizabeth M Molyneux, Malcolm E Molyneux, Stephen M Graham
Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause invasive disease in African children that is often fatal. The clinical diagnosis of these infections is hampered by the absence of a clear clinical syndrome. Drug resistance means that empirical antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and currently no vaccine is available. The study objective was to identify risk factors for mortality among children presenting to hospital with invasive Salmonella disease in Africa. We conducted a prospective study enrolling consecutive children with microbiologically-confirmed invasive Salmonella disease admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, in 2006...
December 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215329/chemotherapeutics-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-present-and-future-developments
#13
Shyam Sundar, Anup Singh
Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected tropical disease, is very challenging with few treatment options. Long duration of treatment and drug toxicity further limit the target of achieving VL elimination. Chemotherapy remains the treatment of choice. Single dose of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) and multidrug therapy (LAmB + miltefosine, LAmB + paromomycin (PM), or miltefosine + PM) are recommended treatment regimen for treatment of VL in Indian sub-continent. Combination therapy of pentavalent antimonials (Sbv) and PM in East Africa and LAmB in the Mediterranean region/South America remains the treatment of choice...
December 7, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213274/natural-killer-cells-in-antifungal-immunity
#14
REVIEW
Stanislaw Schmidt, Lars Tramsen, Thomas Lehrnbecher
Invasive fungal infections are still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as patients suffering from hematological malignancies or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantion. In addition, other populations such as human immunodeficiency virus-patients are at higher risk for invasive fungal infection. Despite the availability of new antifungal compounds and better supportive care measures, the fatality rate of invasive fungal infection remained unacceptably high...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213206/hiv-transmission-clusters-among-injecting-drug-users-in-romania
#15
Aura Temereanca, Cristiana Oprea, Joel O Wertheim, Irina Ianache, Emanoil Ceausu, Costin Cernescu, Sanjay R Mehta, Simona Ruta
Injection drug use is increasingly an important route of HIV transmission in Romania (from 1.5% of the newly diagnosed cases prior to 2010 to 31% in 2013). In this study we investigated the viral characteristics and relationships in newly HIV infected persons who inject drugs in Bucharest, Romania. Results: HIV-1 pol sequencing, followed by phylogenetic and clustering analysis was performed on blood from 37 injecting drug users (IDUs) newly diagnosed with HIV infection. While HIV subtype F1, the dominant strain in Romania since 1990, remains prevalent, new subtypes were found including G, B, B/G and B/F recombinants...
January 2017: Romanian Biotechnological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212076/resistance-associated-mutations-and-polymorphisms-among-integrase-inhibitor-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-1-patients-in-kuwait
#16
Wassim Chehadeh, Osama Albaksami, Sonia Elezebeth John, Widad Al-Nakib
OBJECTIVES: Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in the integrase of different HIV-1 subtypes were investigated in a cohort of patients never exposed to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). METHODS: The viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples of 53 INSTI-naïve patients, and the integrase genetic region was sequenced and analyzed for subtype assignment and drug resistance. RESULTS: The median viral load at sampling was 5.28 × 104 RNA copies/mL...
December 7, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210152/hbahp-25-attenuates-hiv-1-gp120-mediated-inflammation-and-barrier-dysfunction
#17
T Bashir, Kvr Reddy
OBJECTIVES: Development of HbAHP-25, a peptide that prevents HIV-1 entry into cells by blocking gp120-CD4 interaction, as a topical anti-HIV drug, necessitates that it is first tested for toxic or abrasive effects on genital epithelial cells and also on the vaginal microbiome. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to investigate whether: (1) HbAHP-25 has any adverse effect on growth and membrane integrity of various cell lines, and (2) HbAHP-25 neutralizes gp120 mediated insults on genital epithelial cells...
December 6, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207498/steppogenin-isolated-from-cudrania-tricuspidata-shows-antineuroinflammatory-effects-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-pathways-in-lps-stimulated-bv2-and-primary-rat-microglial-cells
#18
Dong-Cheol Kim, Tran Hong Quang, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim
Excessive microglial stimulation has been recognized in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS), HIV-associated dementia (HAD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and stroke. When microglia are stimulated, they produce proinflammatory mediators and cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) derived from cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
December 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207001/the-role-of-hiv-1-drug-resistant-minority-variants-in-treatment-failure
#19
Natalia Stella-Ascariz, José Ramón Arribas, Roger Paredes, Jonathan Z Li
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance genotyping is recommended to help in the selection of antiretroviral therapy and to prevent virologic failure. There are several ultrasensitive assays able to detect HIV-1 drug-resistance minority variants (DRMVs) not detectable by standard population sequencing-based HIV genotyping assays. Presence of these DRMVs has been shown to be clinically relevant, but its impact does not appear to be uniform across drug classes. In this review, we summarize key evidence for the clinical impact of DRMVs across drug classes for both antiretroviral treatment-naive and antiretroviral treatment-experienced patients, and highlight areas where more supporting evidence is needed...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207000/key-factors-influencing-the-emergence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#20
Carole L Wallis, Catherine Godfrey, Joseph E Fitzgibbon, John W Mellors
The emergence and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance from antiretroviral roll-out programs remain a threat to long-term control of the HIV-AIDS epidemic in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The patterns of drug resistance and factors driving emergence of resistance are complex and multifactorial. The key drivers of drug resistance in LMICs are reviewed here, and recommendations are made to limit their influence on antiretroviral therapy efficacy.
December 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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