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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427454/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-africa-current-and-future-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426273/preclinical-development-of-bcg-hiva-2auxo-int-harboring-an-integrative-expression-vector-for-a-hiv-tb-pediatric-vaccine-enhancement-of-stability-and-specific-hiv-1-t-cell-immunity
#2
Aakash Mahant, Narcís Saubi, Yoshiki Eto, Núria Guitart, Josep M ª Gatell, Tomáš Hanke, Joan Joseph
One of the critical issues that should be addressed in the development of a BCG-based HIV vaccine is genetic plasmid stability. Therefore, to address this issue we have considered using integrative vectors and the auxotrophic mutant of BCG complemented with a plasmid carrying a wild-type complementing gene. In this study, we have constructed an integrative E. coli-mycobacterial shuttle plasmid, p2auxo.HIVA(int), expressing the HIV-1 clade A immunogen HIVA. This shuttle vector employs an antibiotic resistance-free mechanism for plasmid selection and maintenance...
April 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422610/joint-bent-cable-tobit-models-for-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data
#3
Getachew A Dagne
In this article, we show how to estimate a transition period for the evolvement of drug resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drug or other related treatments in the framework of developing a Bayesian method for jointly analyzing time to event and longitudinal data. For HIV/AIDS longitudinal data, developmental trajectories of viral loads tend to show a gradual change from a declining trend after initiation of treatment to an increasing trend without an abrupt change. Such characteristics of trajectories are also associated with a time-to-event process...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422513/reducing-susceptibility-to-courtesy-stigma
#4
Catherine L Bachleda, Leila El Menzhi
In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family)...
April 19, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419314/adverse-drug-reactions-during-drug-resistant-tb-treatment-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Kathryn Schnippel, Cynthia Firnhaber, Rebecca Berhanu, Liesl Page-Shipp, Edina Sinanovic
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of adverse drug reactions or events (ADR) during drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) treatment in the context of settings with high HIV prevalence (at least 20% of patients). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles in PubMed and Scopus. Pooled proportions of patients experiencing adverse events and relative risk with 95% CI were calculated. Results: The search yielded 24 studies, all observational cohorts...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418652/design-and-development-of-highly-potent-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-with-a-crown-like-oxotricyclic-core-as-the-p2-ligand-to-combat-multidrug-resistant-hiv-variants
#6
Arun K Ghosh, Kalapala Venkateswara Rao, Prasanth R Nyalapatla, Heather L Osswald, Cuthbert D Martyr, Manabu Aoki, Hironori Hayashi, Johnson Agniswamy, Yuan-Fang Wang, Haydar Bulut, Debananda Das, Irene T Weber, Hiroaki Mitsuya
Design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new class of exceptionally potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors are reported. Inhibitor 5 displayed superior antiviral activity and drug-resistance profiles. In fact, this inhibitor showed several orders of magnitude improved antiviral activity over the FDA approved drug darunavir. This inhibitor incorporates an unprecedented 6-5-5 ring-fused crown-like tetrahydropyranofuran as the P2 ligand and an aminobenzothiazole as the P2' ligand with the (R)-hydroxyethylsulfonamide isostere...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414762/transcriptional-networks-are-associated-with-resistance-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#7
Chetan Seshadri, Nafiseh Sedaghat, Monica Campo, Glenna Peterson, Richard D Wells, Gregory S Olson, David R Sherman, Catherine M Stein, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Ali Shojaie, W Henry Boom, Thomas R Hawn
RATIONALE: Understanding mechanisms of resistance to M. tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in humans could identify novel therapeutic strategies as it has for other infectious diseases, such as HIV. OBJECTIVES: To compare the early transcriptional response of M.tb-infected monocytes between Ugandan household contacts of tuberculosis patients who demonstrate clinical resistance to M.tb infection (cases) and matched controls with latent tuberculosis infection. METHODS: Cases (n = 10) and controls (n = 18) were selected from a long-term household contact study in which cases did not convert their tuberculin skin test (TST) or develop tuberculosis over two years of follow up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413739/genetic-modulation-therapy-through-stem-cell-transplantation-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#8
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Divya Chandramohan, Shivika Agarwal
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)...
March 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407682/genetic-characterization-and-antiretroviral-resistance-mutations-among-treatment-naive-hiv-infected-individuals-in-jiaxing-china
#9
Jinlei Guo, Yong Yan, Jiafeng Zhang, Jimei Ji, Zhijian Ge, Rui Ge, Xiaofei Zhang, Henghui Wang, Zhongwen Chen, Jianyong Luo
The aim of this study was to characterize HIV-1 genotypes and antiretroviral resistance mutations among treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in Jiaxing, China. The HIV-1 partial polymerase (pol) genes in 93 of the 99 plasma samples were successfully amplified and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of five HIV-1 genotypes, of which the most prevalent genotype was CRF01_AE (38.7%), followed by CRF07_BC (34.4%), CRF08_BC (16.1%), subtype B/B' (5.4%), and CRF55_01B (2.1%). Besides, three types of unique recombination forms (URFs) were also observed, including C/F2/A1, CRF01_AE/B, and CRF08_BC/CRF07_BC...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406949/antimicrobial-resistant-infections-among-postpartum-women-at-a-ugandan-referral-hospital
#10
Lisa M Bebell, Joseph Ngonzi, Joel Bazira, Yarine Fajardo, Adeline A Boatin, Mark J Siedner, Ingrid V Bassett, Dan Nyehangane, Deborah Nanjebe, Yves Jacquemyn, Jean-Pierre van Geertruyden, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, David R Bangsberg, Laura E Riley, Yap Boum
INTRODUCTION: Puerperal sepsis causes 10% of maternal deaths in Africa, but prospective studies on incidence, microbiology and antimicrobial resistance are lacking. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 4,231 Ugandan women presenting to a regional referral hospital for delivery or postpartum care, measured vital signs after delivery, performed structured physical exam, symptom questionnaire, and microbiologic evaluation of febrile and hypothermic women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406247/hba1c-level-cannot-predict-the-treatment-outcome-of-smear-positive-non-multi-drug-resistant-hiv-negative-pulmonary-tuberculosis-inpatients
#11
Ken Tashiro, Nobuyuki Horita, Kenjiro Nagai, Misako Ikeda, Masaharu Shinkai, Masaki Yamamoto, Takashi Sato, Yu Hara, Hideyuki Nagakura, Yuji Shibata, Hiroki Watanabe, Kentaro Nakashima, Ryota Ushio, Akimichi Nagashima, Atsuya Narita, Nobuaki Kobayashi, Makoto Kudo, Takeshi Kaneko
We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether the HbA1c level on admission could predict the in-hospital treatment outcome of smear-positive non-multi-drug-resistant HIV-negative culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients. Our standard regimens under the direct observation were HRZE or HRE for the first two months followed by combination therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin. Our cohort consisted of consecutive 239 patients consisted of 147 men and 92 women with a median age of 73 years...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404854/autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-disrupts-adaptive-immune-responses-during-rebound-shiv-viremia
#12
Daniel B Reeves, Christopher W Peterson, Hans-Peter Kiem, Joshua T Schiffer
Primary HIV-1 infection induces a virus-specific adaptive/cytolytic immune response that impacts plasma viral load setpoint and rate of progression to AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses plasma viremia to undetectable levels that rebound upon cART treatment interruption. Following cART withdrawal, the memory component of the virus-specific adaptive immune response may improve viral control compared to primary infection. Here, using primary infection and treatment interruption data from macaques infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), we observe lower peak viral load but unchanged viral setpoint during viral rebound...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404672/increased-tuberculosis-patient-mortality-associated-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-second-line-antituberculous-drugs
#13
Sophia B Georghiou, Marva Seifert, Donald G Catanzaro, Richard S Garfein, Timothy C Rodwell
Rapid molecular diagnostics have great potential to limit the spread of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). These technologies detect mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome that confer phenotypic drug resistance. However, there is little data published regarding the relationships between the detected Mtb resistance mutations and M/XDR-TB treatment outcomes, limiting our current ability to exploit the full potential of molecular diagnostics. We analyzed clinical, microbiological and sequencing data for 451 patients and their clinical isolates collected in a multinational, observational cohort study to determine if there was an association between Mtb resistance mutations and patient mortality...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403830/effectiveness-of-progressive-resistive-exercise-pre-in-the-context-of-hiv-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-using-the-cochrane-collaboration-protocol
#14
Kelly K O'Brien, Anne-Marie Tynan, Stephanie A Nixon, Richard H Glazier
BACKGROUND: HIV is increasingly considered a chronic illness. More individuals are living longer and aging with the health-related consequences associated with HIV and multi-morbidity. Exercise is a self-management approach that can promote health for people aging with HIV. We examined the safety and effectiveness of progressive resistive exercise (PRE) interventions on immunological, virological, cardiorespiratory, strength, weight, body composition, and psychological outcomes in adults living with HIV...
April 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403828/lower-genetic-variability-of-hiv-1-and-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-in-pregnant-women-from-the-state-of-par%C3%A3-brazil
#15
Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Iran Barros Costa, Maria Nazaré Folha, Anderson Levy Bessa da Luz, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak, Marluisa Oliveira Guimarães Ishak
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to describe the genetic diversity of HIV-1, as well as the resistance profile of the viruses identified in HIV-1 infected pregnant women under antiretroviral therapy in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 45 HIV-1 infected pregnant to determine the virus subtypes according to the HIV-1 protease (PR) gene and part of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) gene by sequencing the nucleotides of these regions...
April 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403692/severe-hypokalemia-due-to-a-possible-drug-drug-interaction-between-vinblastine-and-antiretrovirals-in-a-hiv-infected-patient-with-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#16
Ezequiel Cordova, Laura Morganti, Andrea Odzak, Florencia Arcondo, Mariana Silva, Marcelo Zylberman, Claudia Rodriguez
A 60-year-old HIV-1 infected woman on antiretroviral therapy (emtricitabine/tenofovir, and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir) developed Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient initiated ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) chemotherapy and presented with neutropenia and severe hypokalemia. Hypokalemia was considered as part of a proximal tubular renal dysfunction, and other causes of hypokalemia were excluded. Due to suspicion of drug--drug interactions between antiretrovirals and vinblastine, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir was switched to dolutegravir and the patient continued emtricitabine/tenofovir...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403027/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-tenofovir-alafenamide
#17
Dzintars Gotham, Andrew Hill, Anton L Pozniak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a standard first-line therapy for HIV. Recently, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a different prodrug for the same active moiety, has been approved. In this review, we have conducted a meta-analysis comparing efficacy and safety data for TDF and TAF, to inform a discussion of which drug would be best for a proposed 'universal antiretroviral (ARV) regimen'. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 10 randomized controlled trials comparing TDF with TAF (6969 patients, 8043 patient-years of follow-up)...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402975/frequent-pul27-variations-in-hiv-infected-patients
#18
Azam Mirarab, Alireza Mohebbi, Abdolvahab Moradi, Naeme Javid, Mohammad Ali Vakili, Alijan Tabarraei
OBJECTIVE: Drug-resistant isolates of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have led to the development of new anti-HCMV drugs. Maribavir (MBV) is a novel inhibitor of the HCMV viral kinase. Resistance to MBV is mapped to gene UL27, a viral nuclear protein. In this study, we investigated UL27 polymorphisms in MBV-naive HIV-positive and HCMV congenitally infected clinical samples. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 20 CMV-positive HIV (9/20) and congenitally infected (11/20) patients and used for UL27 polymerase chain reaction amplification...
April 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402970/the-genotyping-resistance-profile-of-the-pol-gene-detected-in-blood-of-newly-diagnosed-hiv-positive-men-is-durably-archived-in-the-gut-whatever-the-time-of-initiation-of-cart
#19
Anne Emmanuelle Depincé, Elodie Dussert, Delphine Vergnon-Miszczycha, Abdelaye Keita, Sylvie Pillet, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Anne Frésard, Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Frédéric R Lucht, Xavier Roblin, Bruno Pozzetto, Stéphane Paul, Thomas Bourlet
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mutational patterns on the pol gene of the main HIV-1 strain archived in cell genome of 10 chronically infected men according to their clinical and therapeutic history. The genotyping resistance profiles were compared between the first blood plasma available at the time of HIV diagnosis and rectal biopsies and PBMC sampled 1-5 years after the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: HIV-1 RNA and cell-associated HIV-1 DNA were quantified by Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 and Generic HIV® DNA cell (Biocentric) assays...
April 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399968/tuberculosis-resistance-conferring-mutations-with-fitness-cost-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-uganda
#20
W Ssengooba, D Lukoye, C J Meehan, D P Kateete, M L Joloba, B C de Jong, F G Cobelens, F van Leth
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is considered to be less transmissible due to the fitness cost associated with drug resistance-conferring mutations in essential genes. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that TB drug resistance-conferring mutations with fitness cost are more frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive than among HIV-negative patients. DESIGN: We analysed all strains from the two TB drug resistance surveys conducted in Uganda between 2008 and 2011...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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