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hiv resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473526/there-is-no-difference-between-sequences-of-hiv-1-infected-patients-with-stable-clinical-status-and-hiv-1-reference-sequence
#1
Kazem Baesi, Marzyeh Nili, Katayoun Tayeri, Mohamad Gholami, Samaneh Moallemi, Farzaneh Sabahi, Saber Kalhori, Mehrdad Hasibi
BACKGROUND: The rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Iran has increased dramatically in the past few years. HIV-1 genome sequences are pivotal for large-scale studies of inter- and intra-host evolution. To understand the molecular difference between reference HIV-1 isolate and two HIV-1 infected patients in Iran, we conducted this study to analyze some genome segments of Iranian HIV-1 isolates. METHODS: Two HIV-1-infected individuals who were under antiretroviral therapy (ARV) for 8 years with stable clinical status were enrolled...
February 21, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473485/high-virologic-failure-rates-with-maraviroc-based-salvage-regimens-among-indian-patients-a-preliminary-analysis-maraviroc-effectiveness-in-hiv-1-subtype-c
#2
Sanjay Pujari, Sunil Gaikwad, Vivek Bele, Kedar Joshi, Digamber Dabhade
BACKGROUND: There is no information on the clinical effectiveness of Maraviroc (MVC) amongst People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in India infected with HIV-1 Subtype C viruses. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult PLHIV on MVC based Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for at least 6 months. Maraviroc was initiated amongst PLHIV with documented R5 tropic viruses (determined by in-house population sequencing of the V3 loop in triplicate and interpreted using the Geno2Pheno algorithm) in combination with an Optimized Background regimen (designed using genotypic resistance testing and past ARV history)...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471913/a-rapid-review-of-treatment-literacy-materials-for-tuberculosis-patients
#3
A Brumwell, E Noyes, S Kulkarni, V Lin, M C Becerra, C M Yuen
OBJECTIVE: To assess available treatment literacy materials for patients undergoing treatment for tuberculosis (TB). DESIGN: We conducted a rapid review by searching the US Centers for Disease Control's Find TB Resources website and the websites of health departments and TB-focused organizations. We included English-language documents intended to educate TB patients about anti-tuberculosis treatment. We evaluated the format, readability, and content of documents, and audience...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471906/spatial-clustering-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-hlabisa-subdistrict-kwazulu-natal-2011-2015
#4
C M Smith, R Lessells, A D Grant, K Herbst, F Tanser
SETTING: Incidencerates of tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa are among the highest in the world, and drug resistance is a major concern. Understanding geographic variations in disease may guide targeted interventions. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the spatial distribution of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) in a rural area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and to test for clustering. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional analysis of DR-TB patients managed at a rural district hospital from 2011 to 2015...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468971/il-10-promoter-592-polymorphism-may-influence-resistance-to-hiv-infection-in-south-indian-population
#5
Murugesan Harishankar, Harini Ravikrishnan, Akshaya Ravishankar, Luke Hanna Elizabeth, Soumya Swaminathan, Paramasivam Selvaraj, Ramalingam Bethunaickan
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors play an important role in the development of disease susceptibility or protection. Cytokine gene polymorphisms are reported to be associated with altered levels of cytokine production that can impact disease progression in HIV and TB. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we studied IL-10 -592(C/A) and TGF-β -509 (C/T) promoter polymorphisms to understand their role in susceptibility or resistance to HIV and TB in a South Indian population. METHOD: Genomic DNA was isolated from healthy controls, pulmonary tuberculosis patients (n=122) and HIV positive individuals (n=100) and used for genotyping by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466880/telmisartan-reverses-antiretroviral-induced-adipocyte-toxicity-and-insulin-resistance-in-vitro
#6
Sudeep P Pushpakom, Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari, Andrew Owen, David J Back, Gyanendra Tripathi, Sudhesh Kumar, Philip McTernan, Munir Pirmohamed
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients leads to insulin resistance which is central to the pathogenesis of various metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease seen in this patient group. We have investigated the dose-response relationship of telmisartan, an antihypertensive, on adipocytes in vitro in order to determine whether it may have metabolic beneficial effects. METHODS: Using in vitro chronic toxicity models (3T3-F442A murine and primary human adipocytes), we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of telmisartan on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic gene expression using lipid accumulation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466356/emergence-of-resistance-mutations-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques-receiving-non-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy-art
#7
Benjamin Bruno Policicchio, Paola Sette, Cuiling Xu, George Haret-Richter, Tammy Dunsmore, Ivona Pandrea, Ruy M Ribeiro, Cristian Apetrei
Two SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques received tenofovir/emtricitabine with raltegravir intensification. Viral rebound occurred during treatment and sequencing of reverse transcriptase and integrase genes identified multiple resistance mutations. Similar to HIV infection, antiretroviral-resistance mutations may occur in SIV-infected nonhuman primates receiving nonsuppressive ART. As ART administration to nonhuman primates is currently dramatically expanding, fueled by both cure research and the study of HIV-related comorbidities, viral resistance should be factored in the study design and data interpretation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465709/an-illustration-of-the-potential-health-and-economic-benefits-of-combating-antibiotic-resistant-gonorrhea
#8
Harrell W Chesson, Robert D Kirkcaldy, Thomas L Gift, Kwame Owusu-Edusei, Hillard S Weinstock
Preventing the emergence of ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae can potentially avert hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs of gonorrhea and gonorrhea-attributable HIV infections. In the illustrative scenario we examined, emerging ceftriaxone resistance could lead to 1.2 million additional N. gonorrhoeae infections over 10 years, costing $378.2 million.
September 22, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465649/mycoplasma-genitalium-infection-in-kenyan-and-us-women
#9
Jennifer E Balkus, Lisa E Manhart, Jørgen S Jensen, Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, Jane Schwebke, Juma Shafi, Charles Rivers, Emanuel Kabare, R Scott McClelland
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the natural history of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infection in women. We retrospectively tested archived vaginal fluid samples to assess MG prevalence, incidence, persistence, recurrence and antimicrobial resistance markers among women participating in the Preventing Vaginal Infections trial, a randomized trial of monthly presumptive treatment to reduce vaginal infections. METHODS: High-risk, nonpregnant, HIV-negative women aged 18-45 from Kenya and the US were randomized to receive metronidazole 750mg + miconazole 200mg intravaginal suppositories or placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months...
January 26, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465595/discordant-csf-plasma-hiv-1-rna-in-individuals-on-virologically-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy-in-western-india
#10
Ameet N Dravid, Kartik Natrajan, Milind M Kulkarni, Chinmay K Saraf, Uma S Mahajan, Sachin D Kore, Niranjan M Rathod, Umakant S Mahajan, Rustom S Wadia
Aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance in virologically suppressed individuals presenting with incident neurologic symptoms.In this retrospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2009, and March 1, 2017, HIV-1 infected adults exposed to atleast 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and having plasma viral load (VL) <1000 copies/mL (virologically suppressed) were included. Among these, individuals presenting with neurologic symptoms during follow-up were assessed for CSF/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance by measuring HIV-1 RNA in collected plasma and CSF samples...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464834/increasing-incidence-of-hiv-associated-tuberculosis-in-romanian-injecting-drug-users
#11
C Oprea, I Ianache, P I Calistru, M Nica, S Ruta, C Smith, M Lipman
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-positive injecting drug users (IDUs) may fuel the TB epidemic in the general population of Romania. We determined the frequency and characteristics of TB in HIV-infected IDUs referred to a national centre. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study of all newly-diagnosed HIV-positive IDUs admitted to Victor Babes Hospital, Bucharest, between January 2009 and December 2014. Socio-demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes of HIV/TB co-infected IDUs were compared to HIV-positive IDUs without TB...
February 21, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463535/grl-079-a-novel-p2-tp-thf-c5-alkylamine-and-p2-abt-containing-hiv-1-protease-inhibitor-is-extremely-potent-against-multi-drug-resistant-hiv-1-variants-including-hiv-drv-r-p51-and-has-a-high-genetic-barrier-against-the-emergence-of-resistant-variants
#12
Nicole S Delino, Manabu Aoki, Hironori Hayashi, Shin-Ichiro Hattori, Simon B Chang, Yuki Takamatsu, Cuthbert D Martyr, Debananda Das, Arun K Ghosh, Hiroaki Mitsuya
We identified four novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-078, -079, -077, and -058, containing an alkylamine at the C5 position of P2-tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF) and a P2' -cyclopropyl (Cp)(or isopropyl)-aminobenzothiazole (Abt). Their 50% effective concentrations (EC50 s) were 2.5-30 nM against wild-type HIV-1NL4-3 , 0.3-6.7 nM against HIV-2EHO , and 0.9-90 nM against laboratory-selected-PI-resistant HIV-1 and clinical HIV-1 variants resistant to multiple FDA-approved PIs (HIVMDR )...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463238/characterization-and-heterologous-expression-of-the-neoabyssomicin-abyssomicin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-from-streptomyces-koyangensis-scsio-5802
#13
Jiajia Tu, Siting Li, Jiang Chen, Yongxiang Song, Shaobin Fu, Jianhua Ju, Qinglian Li
BACKGROUND: The deep-sea-derived microbe Streptomyces koyangensis SCSIO 5802 produces neoabyssomicins A-B (1-2) and abyssomicins 2 (3) and 4 (4). Neoabyssomicin A (1) augments human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication whereas abyssomicin 2 (3) selectively reactivates latent HIV and is also active against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Structurally, neoabyssomicins A-B constitute a new subtype within the abyssomicin family and feature unique structural traits characteristic of extremely interesting biosynthetic transformations...
February 20, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462322/primary-resistance-to-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitors-in-patients-infected-with-diverse-hiv-1-subtypes-in-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Marc Noguera-Julian, Maria Casadellà, Mariona Parera, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Roger Paredes
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and patterns of major and accessory resistance mutations associated with integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), across diverse HIV-1 subtypes in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: pol gene sequences were obtained using Illumina next-generation sequencing from 425 INSTI-naive HIV-infected adults from Kenya (21.2%), Nigeria (7.3%), South Africa (22.8%), Uganda (25.2%) and Zambia (23.5%). Drug resistance interpretation was based on the IAS 2017 mutation list and accessory mutations from Stanford HIVdb with resistance penalty scores of ≥10 to at least 1 INSTI...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462208/quantifying-the-fitness-cost-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-through-phylodynamics
#15
Denise Kühnert, Roger Kouyos, George Shirreff, Jūlija Pečerska, Alexandra U Scherrer, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Vincent Aubert, Huldrych F Günthard, Tanja Stadler, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Drug resistant HIV is a major threat to the long-term efficacy of antiretroviral treatment. Around 10% of ART-naïve patients in Europe are infected with drug-resistant HIV type 1. Hence it is important to understand the dynamics of transmitted drug resistance evolution. Thanks to routinely performed drug resistance tests, HIV sequence data is increasingly available and can be used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship among viral lineages. In this study we employ a phylodynamic approach to quantify the fitness costs of major resistance mutations in the Swiss HIV cohort...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461881/insights-into-macrophage-autophagy-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection-role-of-heat-shock-protein-16-3
#16
Caiqin Zhang, Li Yang, Ningning Zhao, Yong Zhao, Changhong Shi
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major bacterial infectious disease worldwide that is predominantly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The comorbidity of multiple drug-resistant TB strains with HIV and diabetes is widespread. In the presence of these diseases, host immunity is weakened, allowing the recovery of dormant bacilli and leading to recurrent TB infection. As an important component of the host innate and adaptive immune responses, macrophage autophagy plays a significant role in protecting the host against TB...
February 20, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457713/probing-structural-changes-among-analogous-inhibitor-bound-forms-of-hiv-1-protease-and-a-drug-resistant-mutant-in-solution-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance
#17
Shahid N Khan, John D Persons, Janet L Paulsen, Michel Guerrero, Celia A Schiffer, Nese Kurt-Yilmaz, Rieko Ishima
In the era of state-of-the-art inhibitor design and high-resolution structural studies, detection of significant but small protein structural differences in the inhibitor-bound forms is critical to further developing the inhibitor. Here, we probed differences in HIV-1 protease (PR) conformation among darunavir and four analogous inhibitor-bound forms and compared them with a drug-resistant mutant using nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts. Changes in amide chemical shifts of wild-type (WT) PR among these inhibitor-bound forms, ΔCSP, were subtle but detectable and extended >10 Å from the inhibitor-binding site, asymmetrically between the two subunits of PR...
February 19, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454844/the-epidemiology-of-febrile-illness-in-sub-saharan-africa-implications-for-diagnosis-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Michael J Maze, Quique Bassat, Nicholas A Feasey, Inácio Mandomando, Patrick Musicha, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: Fever is among the most common symptoms of people living in Africa, and clinicians are challenged by the similar clinical features of a wide spectrum of potential aetiologies. AIM: To summarise recent studies of fever aetiology in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on causes other than malaria. SOURCES: A narrative literature review by searching the MEDLINE database, and recent conference abstracts. CONTENT: Studies of multiple potential causes of fever are scarce, and for many participants the infecting organism remains unidentified, or multiple co-infecting microorganisms are identified, and establishing causation is challenging...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453551/characterization-of-hiv-recent-infection-among-high-risk-men-at-public-sti-clinics-in-mumbai
#19
Hong-Ha M Truong, Robin Fatch, Robert M Grant, Meenakshi Mathur, Sameer Kumta, Hemangi Jerajani, Timothy A Kellogg, Christina P Lindan
We examined associations with HIV recent infection and estimated transmitted drug resistance (TDR) prevalence among 3345 men at sexually transmitted infection clinics in Mumbai (2002-2005). HIV seroincidence was 7.92% by the BED-CEIA and was higher at a clinic located near brothels (12.39%) than at a hospital-based clinic (3.94%). HIV recent infection was associated with a lifetime history of female sex worker (FSW) partners, HSV-2, genital warts, and gonorrhea. TDR prevalence among recent infection cases was 5...
February 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452942/early-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-combination-of-bedaquiline-and-delamanid-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-armenia-india-and-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Gabriella Ferlazzo, Erika Mohr, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Catherine Hewison, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Naira Khachatryan, Virginia De Avezedo, Lusine Egazaryan, Amir Shroufi, Stobdan Kalon, Helen Cox, Jennifer Furin, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline and delamanid have been approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in the past 5 years. Because of theoretical safety concerns, patients have been unable to access the two drugs in combination. Médecins Sans Frontières has supported the use of combination bedaquiline and delamanid for people with few treatment options since 2016. We describe early safety and efficacy of regimens containing the bedaquiline and delamanid combination in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Yerevan, Armenia; Mumbai, India; and Khayelitsha, South Africa...
February 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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