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Daisuke Yamamoto, Soh Kohatsu
The fruitless (fru) gene in Drosophila has been proposed to play a master regulator role in the formation of neural circuitries for male courtship behavior, which is typically considered to be an innate behavior composed of a fixed action pattern as generated by the central pattern generator. However, recent studies have shed light on experience-dependent changes and sensory-input-guided plasticity in courtship behavior. For example, enhanced male-male courtship, a fru mutant "hallmark," disappears when fru-mutant males are raised in isolation...
November 23, 2016: Fly
Giovanni N Roviello, Roberta Iannitti, Valentina Roviello, Rosanna Palumbo, Hayarpi Simonyan, Caterina Vicidomini
Here, we report the synthesis, purification, ESI MS and NMR characterization, as well as the SEM analysis of a fructosyl thiophenyl-substituted triazolyl-thione L-alanine (denominated Fru-L-TTA). This novel fructosyl derivative was obtained by solution synthesis using the Amadori reaction, in analogy to other natural fructosyl-amino acids, and fully characterized. In particular, we report an accurate NMR/MS/SEM characterization of Fru-L-TTA alongside some biological properties, and investigated to compare the properties of the artificial derivative of this work with the natural counterparts...
November 18, 2016: Amino Acids
David B Etchells, Joseph L Brooks, Robert A Johnston
Many models of face recognition incorporate the idea of a face recognition unit (FRU), an abstracted representation formed from each experience of a face which aids recognition under novel viewing conditions. Some previous studies have failed to find evidence of this FRU representation. Here, we report three experiments which investigated this theoretical construct by modifying the face learning procedure from that in previous work. During learning, one or two views of previously unfamiliar faces were shown to participants in a serial matching task...
November 4, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Kinga A Kocemba, Joanna Dulińska-Litewka, Karolina L Wojdyła, Przemysław A Pękala
The high rate of glucose breakdown is the fingerprint of cancer. Increased glycolysis allows tumour cells to fulfil their high energetic and biosynthetic demands. Interestingly, however, rather than metabolizing glucose in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, cancer cells generally use glucose for aerobic glycolysis. This phenomenon is known as the Warburg effect and is considered as one of the most fundamental forms of metabolic reprogramming during cancerogenesis. Changes in the rate of glycolytic activity of cancer cells are caused mainly by the increased expression of glycolytic enzymes as a consequence of activation of oncogenes or loss of tumour suppressors...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Aruna Kumar, Neha Agrawal
PURPOSE: Maternal brought in dead are the patient who dies in the need of adequate medical care. These deaths are often not analyzed sincerely as they are not institutional deaths. Our aim is to find out actual life threatening cause of delay leading to death. METHOD: Patients brought dead to casualty were seen by the doctors on duty in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal round the clock. Cause of death was analyzed by verbal autopsy of attendants and referral letter from the institute...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Kyung Hee Lee, In Young Bae, Song I Park, Jong-Dae Park, Hyeon Gyu Lee
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Rg3 and arginine-fructose (Arg-Fru) are known as the hypotensive compounds of Panax ginseng; however, their efficacy on antihypertension has not been reported yet to our best knowledge. Thus, hypotensive components-enriched fraction of red ginseng (HCEF-RG) was prepared from fine root concentrate (FR) and their antihypertensive effects were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Male SHRs were divided into six groups: control (Wistar Kyoto, SHR); FR 500; FR 1,000; HCEF-RG 500; and HCEF-RG 1,000; samples (mg/kg body weight) were orally administered every day for 8 wk...
July 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Alexander A Moghadam, Timothy H Moran, Megan J Dailey
BACKGROUND: Intestinal nutrient infusions result in variable decreases in energy intake and body weight based on nutrient type and specific intestinal infusion site. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test whether an intrajejunal fructose infusion (FRU) would lower energy intake and body weight and induce similar increases in gut hormones as those found after intrajejunal glucose infusions (GLU). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an intrajejunal infusion of either an equal kilocalorie load of glucose or fructose (11...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Wenqiang Wang, Qunqun Hao, Fengxia Tian, Qinxue Li, Wei Wang
A wheat stay-green mutant, tasg1, was observed to exhibit significantly delayed senescence in the late developmental stage. The photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was greater in tasg1 than in wild type (WT) plants. In addition, the grain volume of tasg1 was significantly higher than that of WT at the early filling stage. The content of various cytokinins (CKs) in the grain was significantly higher in tasg1 than in WT and was accompanied by an upregulated expression of some cell cycle-related genes. Examination of the metabolism of soluble sugars in tasg1 and WT revealed that the concentrations of glucose (Glu), fructose (Fru), and sucrose (Suc) were higher in the flag leaves and grains of tasg1 than in WT plants...
2016: PloS One
Carolina Rezával, Siddharth Pattnaik, Hania J Pavlou, Tetsuya Nojima, Birgit Brüggemeier, Luis A D D'Souza, Hany K M Dweck, Stephen F Goodwin
Courtship in Drosophila melanogaster offers a powerful experimental paradigm for the study of innate sexually dimorphic behaviors [1, 2]. Fruit fly males exhibit an elaborate courtship display toward a potential mate [1, 2]. Females never actively court males, but their response to the male's display determines whether mating will actually occur. Sex-specific behaviors are hardwired into the nervous system via the actions of the sex determination genes doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) [1]. Activation of male-specific dsx/fru(+) P1 neurons in the brain initiates the male's courtship display [3, 4], suggesting that neurons unique to males trigger this sex-specific behavior...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Carlson-Babila Sama, Nicole Fouda Mbarga, Calvin Eta Oben, Jules A Mbarga, Elvis Kiloh Nfor, Fru F Angwafo Iii
BACKGROUND: Paediatric cervicofacial actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Actinomyces spp. and usually presents as a chronic, suppurative and granulomatous inflammation with a propensity to mimic malignant conditions. CASE PRESENTATION: We discuss the case of an 11-year-old African female who presented with a chronic disfiguring cervical mass evolving over a 9 months period for which she had several unyielding consultations. Appropriate clinical and para-clinical evaluations were paramount to the diagnosis of an Actinomyces infection...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Viviana Diaz-Aguirre, Carlos Velez-Pardo, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio
Whether fructose (FRU), as the sole energy source, confers a metabolic advantage on cancer cells against noxious stimuli is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low (11 mM), moderate (25 mM), and high (55 mM) FRU concentrations alone or in combination with rotenone (ROT) or doxorubicin (DOX) in Jurkat cells, an acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell model. Glucose (GLU) was used as a control. Using different cell analysis techniques, we demonstrated that FRU was predominantly metabolized via oxidative phosphorylation (∼95%) (i...
November 2016: Cell Biology International
Amy M Whitaker, Gregory D Reinhart
The allosteric coupling free energy between ligands fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6-P) and phospho(enol)pyruvate (PEP) for phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK) from the moderate thermophile, Bacillus stearothermophilus (BsPFK), results from compensating enthalpy and entropy components. In BsPFK the positive coupling free energy that defines inhibition is opposite in sign from the negative enthalpy term and is therefore determined by the larger absolute value of the negative entropy term. Variants of BsPFK were made to determine the effect of adding small cavities to the structure on the allosteric function of the enzyme...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Zhenjiao He, Chenyao Tong, Long Sheng, Meihu Ma, Zhaoxia Cai
Chicken IgY has been applied in the food industry as an important supplement. Glycation of IgY is of special interest due to its possible influence on the structure and functionality of IgY. IgY was subjected to in vitro glycation with 4 different monosaccharides, including glucose (Glu), mannose (Man), fucose (Fuc), and fructose (Fru). The objective of this paper was to characterize the formation of IgY-sugar conjugates using ultraviolet spectra, fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and SDS-PAGE and differential scanning calorimetry analysis...
July 14, 2016: Poultry Science
Sydney Moser, Jongbin Lim, Mohammad Chegeni, JoLynne D Wightman, Bruce R Hamaker, Mario G Ferruzzi
While the potential of dietary phenolics to mitigate glycemic response has been proposed, the translation of these effects to phenolic rich foods such as 100% grape juice (GJ) remains unclear. Initial in vitro screening of GJ phenolic extracts from American grape varieties (V. labrusca; Niagara and Concord) suggested limited inhibitory capacity for amylase and α-glucosidase (6.2%-11.5% inhibition; p < 0.05). Separately, all GJ extracts (10-100 µM total phenolics) did reduce intestinal trans-epithelial transport of deuterated glucose (d7-glu) and fructose (d7-fru) by Caco-2 monolayers in a dose-dependent fashion, with 60 min d7-glu/d7-fru transport reduced 10%-38% by GJ extracts compared to control...
2016: Nutrients
Stefan Spring, Boyke Bunk, Cathrin Spröer, Peter Schumann, Manfred Rohde, Brian J Tindall, Hans-Peter Klenk
The recently isolated strain L21-Fru-AB(T) represents moderately halophilic, obligately anaerobic and saccharolytic bacteria that thrive in the suboxic transition zones of hypersaline microbial mats. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes, RpoB proteins and gene content indicated that strain L21-Fru-AB(T) represents a novel species and genus affiliated with a distinct phylum-level lineage originally designated Verrucomicrobia subdivision 5. A survey of environmental 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members of this newly recognized phylum are wide-spread and ecologically important in various anoxic environments ranging from hypersaline sediments to wastewater and the intestine of animals...
June 14, 2016: ISME Journal
Hiroki Ito, Kosei Sato, Shu Kondo, Ryu Ueda, Daisuke Yamamoto
The Drosophila fruitless (fru) gene is regarded as a master regulator of the formation of male courtship circuitry, yet little is known about its molecular basis of action. We show that roundabout 1 (robo1) knockdown in females promotes formation of the male-specific neurite in sexually dimorphic mAL interneurons and that overexpression of the male-specific Fru(BM) diminishes the expression of Robo1 in the fly brain. Our electrophoretic mobility shift and reporter assays identify the 42-bp segment encompassing the palindrome sequence T T C G C T G C G C C G T G A A in the 5' UTR of robo1 exon1 as the Fru(BM)-responsive element...
June 20, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Nicole R Newell, Felicia N New, Justin E Dalton, Lauren M McIntyre, Michelle N Arbeitman
Male and female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster are vastly different, but neurons that express sex-specifically spliced fruitless transcripts (fru P1) underlie these behaviors in both sexes. How this set of neurons can generate such different behaviors between the two sexes is an unresolved question. A particular challenge is that fru P1-expressing neurons comprise only 2-5% of the adult nervous system, and so studies of adult head tissue or whole brain may not reveal crucial differences. Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP) identifies the actively translated pool of mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons, allowing a sensitive, cell-type-specific assay...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Carlson B Sama, Leopold N Aminde, Tsi N Njim, Fru F Angwafo
BACKGROUND: Foreign bodies are a rare cause of appendicitis. In most instances, ingested foreign bodies pass through the alimentary tract asymptomatically. However, those that enter the lumen of the vermiform appendix may not be able to re-enter the colon and may initiate an inflammatory process. We report a case of acute appendicitis induced by an unusual foreign body. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old Sub-Saharan woman presented with right iliac fossa pain and tenderness...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Masayuki Koganezawa, Ken-Ichi Kimura, Daisuke Yamamoto
Courtship and aggression are induced in a mutually exclusive manner in male Drosophila melanogaster, which quickly chooses one of these behavioral repertoires to run depending on whether the encountered conspecific is a female or male, yet the neural mechanism underlying this decision making remains obscure. By targeted excitation and synaptic blockage in a subset of brain neurons, we demonstrate here that the fruitless (fru)-negative subfraction (∼20 cells) of a doublesex-positive neural cluster, pC1, acts as the aggression-triggering center whereas the fru-positive subfraction (∼20 cells) of pC1 acts as the courtship-triggering center, and that the mutually exclusive activation of these two centers is attained by a double-layered inhibitory switch composed of two fru single-positive clusters, LC1 and mAL...
June 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Patrick B Wilson, Stacy J Ingraham
Scarce research has examined the effects of carbohydrate composition on running stride characteristics. On two occasions, 14 males and 6 females completed a 120-min sub-maximal run followed by a 4-mile time trial. Participants consumed glucose (GLU) or glucose-fructose (GLU-FRU) beverages supplying 1.3 g/min carbohydrate. Substrate use, psychological affect [Feeling Scale (FS)], and stride characteristics (stride frequency, stride length, and contact time) were assessed. Effects were expressed as Cohen's d (90% confidence limits [90% CL])...
September 2016: Sports Biomechanics
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