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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927841/maternal-provision-of-transformer-2-is-required-for-female-development-and-embryo-viability-in-the-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis
#1
Elzemiek Geuverink, Anna H Rensink, Inge Rondeel, Leo W Beukeboom, Louis van de Zande, Eveline C Verhulst
In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with TRA2, encoded by a transformer-2 (tra2) ortholog, to act as a sex specific splicing regulator of the downstream transcription factors doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Here, we identify the tra2 ortholog of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp N...
September 16, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853490/interleukin-26-production-in-human-primary-bronchial-epithelial-cells-in-response-to-viral-stimulation-modulation-by-th17-cytokines
#2
Karlhans Fru Che, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Elisa Lappi-Blanco, Bettina Levänen, Jitong Sun, Åsa Wheelock, Lena Palmberg, C Magnus Sköld, Anders Lindén
Interleukin (IL)-26 is abundant in human airways and this cytokine is involved in the local immune response to a bacterial stimulus in vivo. Specifically, local exposure to the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist endotoxin does increase IL-26 in human airways and this cytokine potentiates chemotactic responses in human neutrophils. In addition to T-helper (Th) 17 cells, alveolar macrophages can produce IL-26, but it remains unknown whether this cytokine can also be produced in the airway mucosa per se in response to a viral stimulus...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834297/tgf-%C3%AE-1-targets-smad-p38-mapk-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways-to-induce-pfkfb3-gene-expression-and-glycolysis-in-glioblastoma-cells
#3
Ana Rodríguez-García, Paula Samsó, Pere Fontova, Helga Simon-Molas, Anna Manzano, Esther Castaño, Jose Luis Rosa, Ubaldo Martinez-Outshoorn, Francesc Ventura, Àurea Navarro-Sabaté, Ramon Bartrons
In human cancers, TGF-β1 plays a dual role by acting as both a tumor suppressor and a promoter of tumor metastasis. Although TGF-β1 contributes to the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells and tumor-associated stromal cells, little is known of the molecular mechanisms connecting this cytokine with enhanced glycolysis. PFKFB3 is a homodymeric bifunctional enzyme, belonging to the family of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatases, that controls the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate...
August 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821551/coordinated-regulation-of-the-eii-man-and-frurki-operons-of-streptococcus-mutans-by-global-and-fructose-specific-pathways
#4
Lin Zeng, Brinta Chakraborty, Tanaz Farivar, Robert A Burne
The glucose/mannose-PTS permease EII(Man) encoded by manLMN in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans has a dominant influence on sugar-specific, CcpA-independent catabolite repression (CR). Mutations in manL affect energy metabolism and virulence-associated traits, including biofilm formation, acid tolerance and competence. Using promoter:reporter fusions, expression of the manLMN and the fruRKI operons, encoding a transcriptional regulator, a fructose-1-P kinase and a fructose-PTS permease EII(Fru), respectively, was monitored in response to carbohydrate source and in mutants lacking CcpA, FruR, and components of EII(Man) Expression of genes for EII(Man) and EII(Fru) was directly regulated by CcpA and CR, as evinced by in vivo and in vitro methods...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754889/genetic-and-neuronal-mechanisms-governing-the-sex-specific-interaction-between-sleep-and-sexual-behaviors-in-drosophila
#5
Dandan Chen, Divya Sitaraman, Nan Chen, Xin Jin, Caihong Han, Jie Chen, Mengshi Sun, Bruce S Baker, Michael N Nitabach, Yufeng Pan
Animals execute one particular behavior among many others in a context-dependent manner, yet the mechanisms underlying such behavioral choice remain poorly understood. Here we studied how two fundamental behaviors, sex and sleep, interact at genetic and neuronal levels in Drosophila. We show that an increased need for sleep inhibits male sexual behavior by decreasing the activity of the male-specific P1 neurons that coexpress the sex determination genes fru (M) and dsx, but does not affect female sexual behavior...
July 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727036/supplementation-of-glycerol-or-fructose-via-drinking-water-to-grazing-lambs-on-tissue-glycogen-level-and-lipogenesis
#6
G Volpi-Lagreca, S K Duckett
Lambs ( = 18; 40.1 ± 7.4 kg BW) were used to assess supplementation of glycerol or fructose via drinking water on growth, tissue glycogen levels, postmortem glycolysis, and lipogenesis. Lambs were blocked by BW and allocated to alfalfa paddocks (2 lambs/paddock and 3 paddocks/treatment). Each paddock within a block was assigned randomly to drinking water treatments for 30 d: 1) control (CON), 2) 120 g fructose/L of drinking water (FRU), or 3) 120 g glycerol/L of drinking water (GLY). Lambs grazed alfalfa with free access to water treatments for 28 d and then were fasted in indoor pens for a final 2 d with access to only water treatments...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700686/renin-inhibition-improves-metabolic-syndrome-and-reduces-angiotensin-ii-levels-and-oxidative-stress-in-visceral-fat-tissues-in-fructose-fed-rats
#7
Chu-Lin Chou, Heng Lin, Jin-Shuen Chen, Te-Chao Fang
Renin-angiotensin system in visceral fat plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed rats. However, the effects of renin inhibition on visceral adiposity in metabolic syndrome are not fully investigated. We investigated the effects of renin inhibition on visceral adiposity in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups for 8-week experiments: Group Con (standard chow diet), Group Fru (high-fructose diet; 60% fructose), Group FruA (high-fructose diet and concurrent aliskiren treatment; 100 mg/kg body weight [BW] per day), and Group FruB (high-fructose diet and subsequent, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654829/fructose-intake-exacerbates-the-contractile-response-elicited-by-norepinephrine-in-mesenteric-vascular-bed-of-rats-via-increased-endothelial-prostanoids
#8
Glauciene J Sousa, Phablo Wendell C Oliveira, Breno V Nogueira, Antônio F Melo, Thaís de Oliveira Faria, Eduardo Frizera Meira, José G Mill, Nazaré S Bissoli, Marcelo P Baldo
Chronic fructose intake induces major cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances and is associated with the development of hypertension due to changes in vascular function. We hypothesized that high fructose intake for 6 weeks would cause metabolic syndrome and lead to initial vascular dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were assigned to receive fructose (FRU, 10%) or drinking water (CON) for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was evaluated by tail plethysmography. Fasting glucose, insulin and glucose tolerance were measured at the end of the follow-up...
October 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642207/arabidopsis-thaliana-sucrose-phosphate-synthase-sps-genes-are-expressed-differentially-in-organs-and-tissues-and-their-transcription-is-regulated-by-osmotic-stress
#9
María Gloria Solís-Guzmán, Gerardo Argüello-Astorga, José López-Bucio, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera, Joel Edmundo López-Meza, Lenin Sánchez-Calderón, Yazmín Carreón-Abud, Miguel Martínez-Trujillo
Sucrose is synthesized from UDP-Glc and Fru-6-phosphate via the activity of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) enzymes, which produce Suc-6-phosphate. Suc-6-phosphate is rapidly dephosphorylated by phosphatases to produce Suc and inorganic phosphate. Arabidopsis has four sps genes encoding SPS enzymes. Of these enzymes, AtSPS1F and AtSPS2F have been grouped with other dicotyledonous SPS enzymes, while AtSPS3F and AtSPS4F are included in groups with both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous SPS enzymes. In this work, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana transformants containing the promoter region of each sps gene fused to gfp::uidA reporter genes...
June 20, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593059/fulminating-postcaesarean-necrotising-fasciitis-a-rare-and-lethal-condition-successfully-managed-in-a-resource-disadvantaged-setting-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Carlson-Babila Sama, Conrad S Tankou, Fru F Angwafo Iii
Necrotising fasciitis is a rare but potentially lethal condition in obstetrics which usually presents with fulminant tissue destruction and a resultant high mortality. We report a 19-year-old Sub-Saharan female diagnosed with a rapidly erosive necrotising fasciitis on day 5 after caesarean section in a resource-limited setting. Timely diagnosis, aggressive antibiotic therapy, and prompt surgical intervention via an extensive abdominal wall debridement were pivotal to her survival.
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528483/fossil-record-of-ephedra-in-the-lower-cretaceous-aptian-argentina
#11
Gabriela G Puebla, Ari Iglesias, María A Gómez, Mercedes B Prámparo
Fossil plants from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Aptian) of the La Cantera Formation, Argentina, are described. The fossils studied represent a leafy shooting system with several orders of articulated and striated axes and attached leaves with unequivocal ephedroid affinity. We also found associated remains of ovulate cones with four whorls of sterile bracts, which contain two female reproductive units (FRU). Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us to consider our remains as a new Ephedra species...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510528/identification-of-octopaminergic-neurons-that-modulate-sleep-suppression-by-male-sex-drive
#12
Daniel R Machado, Dinis Js Afonso, Alexandra R Kenny, Arzu Öztu Rk-Çolak, Emilia H Moscato, Benjamin Mainwaring, Matthew Kayser, Kyunghee Koh
Molecular and circuit mechanisms for balancing competing drives are not well understood. While circadian and homeostatic mechanisms generally ensure sufficient sleep at night, other pressing needs can overcome sleep drive. Here, we demonstrate that the balance between sleep and sex drives determines whether male flies sleep or court, and identify a subset of octopaminergic neurons (MS1) that regulate sleep specifically in males. When MS1 neurons are activated, isolated males sleep less, and when MS1 neurons are silenced, the normal male sleep suppression in female presence is attenuated and mating behavior is impaired...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510275/single-cell-transcriptome-profiling-of-developing-chick-retinal-cells
#13
Lauren A Laboissonniere, Gregory M Martin, Jillian J Goetz, Ran Bi, Brock Pope, Kallie Weinand, Laura Ellson, Diane Fru, Miranda Lee, Andrea K Wester, Peng Liu, Jeffrey M Trimarchi
The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell's fate determination and development challenging...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438684/two-spliced-isoforms-of-the-sex-determination-gene-fruitless-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#14
Peiyao Li, Yuan Liu, Danli Luo, Chengwen Song, Zhaoxia Cui
The fruitless (fru) gene plays an important role in the sex determination pathway and courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. In the present study, two fru isoforms (Esfru1 and Esfru2) were identified from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Sequence analysis showed that Esfru1 and Esfru2 were encoded by the same genomic locus and generated by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Esfru1 had all introns completely spliced out, while Esfru2 had a longer exon1 with an additional 78bp sequence. They both contained a conserved BTB domain which was also found in D...
June 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407397/whole-protein-alanine-scanning-mutagenesis-of-allostery-a-large-percentage-of-a-protein-can-contribute-to-mechanism
#15
Qingling Tang, Aron W Fenton
Many studies of allosteric mechanisms use limited numbers of mutations to test whether residues play "key" roles. However, if a large percentage of the protein contributes to allosteric function, mutating any residue would have a high probability of modifying allostery. Thus, a predicted mechanism that is dependent on only a few residues could erroneously appear to be supported. We used whole-protein alanine-scanning mutagenesis to determine which amino acid sidechains of human liver pyruvate kinase (hL-PYK; approved symbol PKLR) contribute to regulation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fru-1,6-BP; activator) and alanine (inhibitor)...
September 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346751/d-fructose-modification-enhanced-internalization-of-mixed-micelles-in-breast-cancer-cells-via-glut5-transporters
#16
Xu Zhou, Xianyan Qin, Tao Gong, Zhi-Rong Zhang, Yao Fu
d-Fructose modified poly(ε-caprolactone)-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG-Fru) diblock amphiphile is synthesized via Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry, which self-assembles with D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) into PCL-PEG-Fru/TPGS mixed micelles (PPF MM). It has been proven that glucose transporter (GLUT)5 is overexpressed in MCF-7 cells other than L929 cells. In this study, PPF MM exhibit a significantly higher uptake efficiency than fructose-free PCL-PEG-N3 /TPGS mixed micelles in both 2D MCF-7 cells and 3D tumor spheroids...
July 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317725/simultaneous-quantification-of-twenty-amadori-products-in-soy-sauce-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#17
Hiroshi Katayama, Yuki Tatemichi, Ayako Nakajima
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using a pentafluorophenylpropyl-bonded silica column was developed to simultaneously quantify twenty Amadori products (APs), including N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-isoleucine (Fru-Ile) and N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-leucine (Fru-Leu), in soy sauce, without the need for an ion-pairing reagent or sample derivatization. The method was applied to six types of soy sauce, to determine the total AP levels and the levels of individual APs. The level of total APs widely varied between the eight samples, from 358mg/L to 24347mg/L...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235572/role-of-akt-pkb-and-pfkfb-isoenzymes-in-the-control-of-glycolysis-cell-proliferation-and-protein-synthesis-in-mitogen-stimulated-thymocytes
#18
Amina Houddane, Laurent Bultot, Laura Novellasdemunt, Manuel Johanns, Marie-Agnès Gueuning, Didier Vertommen, Pierre G Coulie, Ramon Bartrons, Louis Hue, Mark H Rider
Proliferating cells depend on glycolysis mainly to supply precursors for macromolecular synthesis. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) is the most potent positive allosteric effector of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), and hence of glycolysis. Mitogen stimulation of rat thymocytes with concanavalin A (ConA) led to time-dependent increases in lactate accumulation (6-fold), Fru-2,6-P2 content (4-fold), 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2)/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase isoenzyme 3 and 4 (PFKFB3 and PFKFB4) protein levels (~2-fold and ~15-fold, respectively) and rates of cell proliferation (~40-fold) and protein synthesis (10-fold) after 68h of incubation compared with resting cells...
June 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230742/fructose%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-sucrose%C3%A2-intake%C3%A2-increase%C3%A2-exogenous%C3%A2-carbohydrate%C3%A2-oxidation%C3%A2-during%C3%A2-exercise
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jorn Trommelen, Cas J Fuchs, Milou Beelen, Kaatje Lenaerts, Asker E Jeukendrup, Naomi M Cermak, Luc J C van Loon
Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min-1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199373/prevalence-of-maternal-hiv-infection-and-knowledge-on-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-and-its-prevention-among-antenatal-care-attendees-in-a-rural-area-in-northwest-cameroon
#20
Carlson-Babila Sama, Vitalis F Feteh, Maxime Tindong, John T Tanyi, Nestor Mbinkar Bihle, Fru F Angwafo
BACKGROUND: In 2010, an estimated 141 new HIV infections occurred per day in Cameroon and reports suggest an upsurge of these rates by 2020 if current trends continue. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is a major public health challenge, and maternal knowledge on HIV transmission during pregnancy and its prevention is important in curtailing paediatric HIV acquisition. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at establishing the prevalence of maternal HIV infection as well as assessing knowledge on HIV, MTCT and prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) of HIV among pregnant women in a rural area of Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
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