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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528483/fossil-record-of-ephedra-in-the-lower-cretaceous-aptian-argentina
#1
Gabriela G Puebla, Ari Iglesias, María A Gómez, Mercedes B Prámparo
Fossil plants from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Aptian) of the La Cantera Formation, Argentina, are described. The fossils studied represent a leafy shooting system with several orders of articulated and striated axes and attached leaves with unequivocal ephedroid affinity. We also found associated remains of ovulate cones with four whorls of sterile bracts, which contain two female reproductive units (FRU). Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us to consider our remains as a new Ephedra species...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510528/identification-of-octopaminergic-neurons-that-modulate-sleep-suppression-by-male-sex-drive
#2
Daniel R Machado, Dinis Js Afonso, Alexandra R Kenny, Arzu Öztu Rk-Çolak, Emilia H Moscato, Benjamin Mainwaring, Matthew Kayser, Kyunghee Koh
Molecular and circuit mechanisms for balancing competing drives are not well understood. While circadian and homeostatic mechanisms generally ensure sufficient sleep at night, other pressing needs can overcome sleep drive. Here, we demonstrate that the balance between sleep and sex drives determines whether male flies sleep or court, and identify a subset of octopaminergic neurons (MS1) that regulate sleep specifically in males. When MS1 neurons are activated, isolated males sleep less, and when MS1 neurons are silenced, the normal male sleep suppression in female presence is attenuated and mating behavior is impaired...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510275/single-cell-transcriptome-profiling-of-developing-chick-retinal-cells
#3
Lauren A Laboissonniere, Gregory M Martin, Jillian J Goetz, Ran Bi, Brock Pope, Kallie Weinand, Laura Ellson, Diane Fru, Miranda Lee, Andrea K Wester, Peng Liu, Jeffrey M Trimarchi
The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell's fate determination and development challenging...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438684/two-spliced-isoforms-of-the-sex-determination-gene-fruitless-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#4
Peiyao Li, Yuan Liu, Danli Luo, Chengwen Song, Zhaoxia Cui
The fruitless (fru) gene plays an important role in the sex determination pathway and courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. In the present study, two fru isoforms (Esfru1 and Esfru2) were identified from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Sequence analysis showed that Esfru1 and Esfru2 were encoded by the same genomic locus and generated by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Esfru1 had all introns completely spliced out, while Esfru2 had a longer exon1 with an additional 78bp sequence. They both contained a conserved BTB domain which was also found in D...
April 22, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407397/whole-protein-alanine-scanning-mutagenesis-of-allostery-a-large-percentage-of-a-protein-can-contribute-to-mechanism
#5
Qingling Tang, Aron W Fenton
Many studies of allosteric mechanisms use limited numbers of mutations to test whether residues play "key" roles. However, if a large percentage of the protein contributes to allosteric function, mutating any residue would have a high probability of modifying allostery. Thus, a predicted mechanism that is dependent on only a few residues could erroneously appear to be supported. We used whole-protein alanine-scanning mutagenesis to determine which amino acid side-chains of human liver pyruvate kinase (hL-PYK; approved symbol PKLR) contribute to regulation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (activator) and alanine (inhibitor)...
April 13, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346751/d-fructose-modification-enhanced-internalization-of-mixed-micelles-in-breast-cancer-cells-via-glut5-transporters
#6
Xu Zhou, Xianyan Qin, Tao Gong, Zhi-Rong Zhang, Yao Fu
d-Fructose modified poly(ε-caprolactone)-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG-Fru) diblock amphiphile is synthesized via Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry, which self-assembles with D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) into PCL-PEG-Fru/TPGS mixed micelles (PPF MM). It has been proven that glucose transporter (GLUT)5 is overexpressed in MCF-7 cells other than L929 cells. In this study, PPF MM exhibit a significantly higher uptake efficiency than fructose-free PCL-PEG-N3 /TPGS mixed micelles in both 2D MCF-7 cells and 3D tumor spheroids...
March 27, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317725/simultaneous-quantification-of-twenty-amadori-products-in-soy-sauce-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Hiroshi Katayama, Yuki Tatemichi, Ayako Nakajima
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using a pentafluorophenylpropyl-bonded silica column was developed to simultaneously quantify twenty Amadori products (APs), including N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-isoleucine (Fru-Ile) and N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-leucine (Fru-Leu), in soy sauce, without the need for an ion-pairing reagent or sample derivatization. The method was applied to six types of soy sauce, to determine the total AP levels and the levels of individual APs. The level of total APs widely varied between the eight samples, from 358mg/L to 24347mg/L...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235572/role-of-akt-pkb-and-pfkfb-isoenzymes-in-the-control-of-glycolysis-cell-proliferation-and-protein-synthesis-in-mitogen-stimulated-thymocytes
#8
Amina Houddane, Laurent Bultot, Laura Novellasdemunt, Manuel Johanns, Marie-Agnès Gueuning, Didier Vertommen, Pierre G Coulie, Ramon Bartrons, Louis Hue, Mark H Rider
Proliferating cells depend on glycolysis mainly to supply precursors for macromolecular synthesis. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) is the most potent positive allosteric effector of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), and hence of glycolysis. Mitogen stimulation of rat thymocytes with concanavalin A (ConA) led to time-dependent increases in lactate accumulation (6-fold), Fru-2,6-P2 content (4-fold), 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2)/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase isoenzyme 3 and 4 (PFKFB3 and PFKFB4) protein levels (~2-fold and ~15-fold, respectively) and rates of cell proliferation (~40-fold) and protein synthesis (10-fold) after 68h of incubation compared with resting cells...
February 22, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230742/fructose%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-sucrose%C3%A2-intake%C3%A2-increase%C3%A2-exogenous%C3%A2-carbohydrate%C3%A2-oxidation%C3%A2-during%C3%A2-exercise
#9
Jorn Trommelen, Cas J Fuchs, Milou Beelen, Kaatje Lenaerts, Asker E Jeukendrup, Naomi M Cermak, Luc J C van Loon
Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min-1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199373/prevalence-of-maternal-hiv-infection-and-knowledge-on-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-and-its-prevention-among-antenatal-care-attendees-in-a-rural-area-in-northwest-cameroon
#10
Carlson-Babila Sama, Vitalis F Feteh, Maxime Tindong, John T Tanyi, Nestor Mbinkar Bihle, Fru F Angwafo
BACKGROUND: In 2010, an estimated 141 new HIV infections occurred per day in Cameroon and reports suggest an upsurge of these rates by 2020 if current trends continue. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is a major public health challenge, and maternal knowledge on HIV transmission during pregnancy and its prevention is important in curtailing paediatric HIV acquisition. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at establishing the prevalence of maternal HIV infection as well as assessing knowledge on HIV, MTCT and prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) of HIV among pregnant women in a rural area of Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164028/the-clinical-spectrum-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-children-in-cameroon-a-hospital-based-study-in-yaounde-cameroon
#11
Andreas Chiabi, Berthe Malangue, Seraphin Nguefack, Félicitée Nguefack Dongmo, Florence Fru, Virginie Takou, Fru Angwafo
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major health problem, and the cause of more than half of childhood deaths in children less than 5 years in developing countries. Globally, 20 million children under 5 years of age are severely malnourished according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In Cameroon, the prevalence of SAM remains high and estimated at 1.9% in 2011 and 1.3% in 2014. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, clinical aspects and outcome of SAM at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH)...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110079/isomelezitose-formation-by-glucansucrases
#12
Gregory L Côté, Christopher D Skory
Several glucansucrases were surveyed for their ability to produce isomelezitose, a trisaccharide with the structure α-D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 6) β-D-fructofuranosyl (2 ↔ 1) α-D-glucopyranoside. Nearly all strains tested, with one exception, produced at least trace levels of isomelezitose. Yields were low but significant, ranging from less than 1% to approximately 5% based on sucrose. This trisaccharide may arise in either of two ways: glucopyranosyl transfer to the 6(Fru)-OH position of sucrose, or to the anomeric OH position of isomaltulose...
February 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100512/postexercise-repletion-of-muscle-energy-stores-with-fructose-or-glucose-in-mixed-meals
#13
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Karin Zwygart, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
Background: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise.Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of isocaloric liquid mixed meals containing fat, protein, and either fructose or glucose on the repletion of muscle energy stores over 24 h after a strenuous exercise session...
March 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048423/we-fg-bra-08-potential-role-of-the-glycolytic-oscillator-in-acute-hypoxia-in-tumors
#14
L Che Fru, E Adamson, D Campos, S Fain, S Jacques, A van der Kogel, K Nickel, C Song, R Kimple, M Kissick
PURPOSE: Oscillatory dynamics in acute hypoxia have been observed, but poorly understood. They have mostly been attributed to vascular perturbations, but no link has yet been made to metabolic causes. We set out to determine the fundamental frequencies and test for coherence in tumor oxygen dynamics and spatial properties. METHODS: Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were inoculated onto bilateral flanks with human derived head and neck carcinoma (UW-SCC22) cell line xenografts...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046230/we-fg-bra-03-oxygen-interplay-in-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-a-hidden-opportunity
#15
M Kissick, D Campos, V Desai, L Che Fru
PURPOSE: Local oxygen during a radiotherapy fraction has been shown to change over a full range of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) during the same time scale as the treatment fraction. Interplay with local oxygen is then likely a concern, especially for hypofractionation. Our experiments that show a strong role for metabolic dynamics suggesting one could manipulate this interplay for more efficacious treatments. METHODS: Two published experiments are presented with the same human head and neck cancer cell line (UM-SCC-22B)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003715/high-fructose-intake-impairs-the-hepatic-hypolipidemic-effects-of-a-high-fat-fish-oil-diet-in-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Joshua S Wooten, Tayler N Nick, Andrew Seija, Kaylee E Poole, Kelsey B Stout
BACKGROUND: Overnutrition of saturated fats and fructose is one of the major factors for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Because omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3fa) have established lipid lowering properties, we tested the hypothesis that n-3fa prevents high-fat and fructose-induced fatty liver disease in mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to one of the following diet groups for 14 weeks: normal diet (ND), high-fat lard-based diet (HFD), HFD with fructose (HFD + Fru), high-fat fish-oil diet (FOD), or FOD + Fru...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933319/a-metabolic-widget-adjusts-the-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent-fructose-influx-in-pseudomonas-putida
#17
Max Chavarría, Ángel Goñi-Moreno, Víctor de Lorenzo, Pablo I Nikel
Fructose uptake in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida occurs through a canonical phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent sugar transport system (PTS(Fru)). The logic of the genetic circuit that rules its functioning is puzzling: the transcription of the fruBKA operon, encoding all the components of PTS(Fru), can escape the repression exerted by the catabolite repressor/activator protein Cra solely in the presence of intracellular fructose-1-P, an agonist formed only when fructose has been already transported...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880074/what-does-the-fruitless-gene-tell-us-about-nature-vs-nurture-in-the-sex-life-of-drosophila
#18
Daisuke Yamamoto, Soh Kohatsu
The fruitless (fru) gene in Drosophila has been proposed to play a master regulator role in the formation of neural circuitries for male courtship behavior, which is typically considered to be an innate behavior composed of a fixed action pattern as generated by the central pattern generator. However, recent studies have shed light on experience-dependent changes and sensory-input-guided plasticity in courtship behavior. For example, enhanced male-male courtship, a fru mutant "hallmark," disappears when fru-mutant males are raised in isolation...
April 3, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864693/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-novel-amadori-compound
#19
Giovanni N Roviello, Roberta Iannitti, Valentina Roviello, Rosanna Palumbo, Hayarpi Simonyan, Caterina Vicidomini
Here, we report the synthesis, purification, ESI MS and NMR characterization, as well as the SEM analysis of a fructosyl thiophenyl-substituted triazolyl-thione L-alanine (denominated Fru-L-TTA). This novel fructosyl derivative was obtained by solution synthesis using the Amadori reaction, in analogy to other natural fructosyl-amino acids, and fully characterized. In particular, we report an accurate NMR/MS/SEM characterization of Fru-L-TTA alongside some biological properties, and investigated to compare the properties of the artificial derivative of this work with the natural counterparts...
February 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809666/evidence-for-view-invariant-face-recognition-units-in-unfamiliar-face-learning
#20
David B Etchells, Joseph L Brooks, Robert A Johnston
Many models of face recognition incorporate the idea of a face recognition unit (FRU), an abstracted representation formed from each experience of a face which aids recognition under novel viewing conditions. Some previous studies have failed to find evidence of this FRU representation. Here, we report three experiments which investigated this theoretical construct by modifying the face learning procedure from that in previous work. During learning, one or two views of previously unfamiliar faces were shown to participants in a serial matching task...
May 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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