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Chunjuan He, Yirui Yang, Renfei Zhao, Jingyao Qu, Lan Jin, Lili Lu, Li Xu, Min Xiao
Levansucrases, which belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 68 (GH68), synthesize β (2-6)-linked fructan levan with sucrose as substrate. We described the use of a levansucrase (Bl_SacB) from Bacillus licheniformis 8-37-0-1 for catalysis of fructosyl transfer to obtain high levan yield previously. In the present study, six variants (Y246A, N251A, K372A, R369A, R369S, and R369K) were constructed through sequence alignment and structural analysis to explore the synthesis mechanism of Bl_SacB. The selected residues were predicted to localize to the substrate-entering channel of the active cavity and close to or remote from the catalytic triad...
March 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tobias C Majdanski, David Pretzel, Justyna A Czaplewska, Jürgen Vitz, Pelin Sungur, Stephanie Höppener, Stephanie Schubert, Felix H Schacher, Ulrich S Schubert, Michael Gottschaldt
This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of d-fructose modified poly(ethylene glycol) (Fru-PEG) and fructose modified poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ethyl hexyl glycidyl ether) (Fru-PEG-b-PEHG) that are both prepared by initiation with isopropyliden protected fructose, followed by deprotection of the sugar. The block copolymers are self-assembled into micelles, and are subsequently characterized by cryo-TEM and dynamic light scattering. The fluorescent dye Nile red is encapsulated as a model hydrophobic compound and fluorescent marker to perform initial uptake tests with breast cancer cells...
February 28, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Helga Simon-Molas, Claudia Arnedo-Pac, Pere Fontova, Anna Vidal-Alabró, Esther Castaño, Ana Rodríguez-García, Àurea Navarro-Sabaté, Núria Lloberas, Anna Manzano, Ramon Bartrons
Lymphocyte activation is associated with rapid increase of both the glycolytic activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) and the enzyme responsible for its synthesis, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase-2). PFKFB3 gene, which encodes for the most abundant PFK-2 isoenzyme in proliferating tissues, has been found overexpressed during cell activation in several models, including immune cells. However, there is limited knowledge on the pathways underlying PFKFB3 regulation in human T-lymphocytes, and the role of this gene in human immune response...
February 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Kebede Deribe, Amuam Andrew Beng, Jorge Cano, Abdel Jelil Njouendo, Jerome Fru-Cho, Abong Raphael Awah, Mathias Esum Eyong, Patrick W Chounna Ndongmo, Emanuele Giorgi, David M Pigott, Nick Golding, Rachel L Pullan, Abdisalan M Noor, Fikre Enquselassie, Christopher J L Murray, Simon J Brooker, Simon I Hay, Peter Enyong, Melanie J Newport, Samuel Wanji, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis, which causes massive swelling of the lower legs. It was identified as a neglected tropical disease by WHO in 2011. Understanding of the geographical distribution of the disease is incomplete. As part of a global mapping of podoconiosis, this study was conducted in Cameroon to map the distribution of the disease. This mapping work will help to generate data on the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon and contribute to the global atlas of podoconiosis...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Andreas Chiabi, Félicitée D Nguefack, Florine Njapndounke, Marie Kobela, Kelly Kenfack, Séraphin Nguefack, Evelyn Mah, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Fru Angwafo
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is a major, but simple and cost effective public health intervention in the prevention of infectious diseases, especially in children. Nowadays, many children still miss scheduled vaccines in the Extended Program of Immunization (EPI) or are being vaccinated after the recommended ages.This study was aimed at assessing vaccination completeness and timeliness in children aged 0 to 11 months attending the vaccination clinic of the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital...
December 19, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
Ed Maunder, Tim Podlogar, Gareth A Wallis
PURPOSE: Restoring skeletal muscle and hepatic glycogen content during short-term (<6 h) recovery from prolonged exercise is pertinent for athletes seeking to maximize performance in repeated exercise bouts. Previous research suggests co-ingestion of fructose-glucose carbohydrate sources augments hepatic and has equivalent effects on skeletal muscle glycogen storage during short-term recovery from prolonged exercise compared to isocaloric glucose ingestion. The aim of the present investigation was to determine if this has a discernible effect on subsequent exercise capacity...
December 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sarah Rose C Garner, Monica C Castellanos, Katherine E Baillie, Tianshun Lian, Douglas W Allan
Female-specific Ilp7 neuropeptide-expressing motoneurons (FS-Ilp7 motoneurons) are required in Drosophila for oviduct function in egg laying. Here, we uncover cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying their female-specific generation. We demonstrate that programmed cell death (PCD) eliminates FS-Ilp7 motoneurons in males, and that this requires male-specific splicing of the sex-determination gene fruitless ( fru ) into the FruMC isoform. However, in females, fru alleles that only generate FruM isoforms failed to kill FS-Ilp7 motoneurons...
January 8, 2018: Development
Annapoorna Sreedhar, Petra Petruska, Sumitra Miriyala, Manikandan Panchatcharam, Yunfeng Zhao
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane transporter which is often upregulated in human cancers. However, how this anion transporter affects tumorigenesis is not well understood. Using the skin cell transformation JB6 model, we demonstrated that UCP2 overexpression activated phosphofructokinase 2/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 2 (PFKFB2), a key regulator of glycolysis. In conjunction, upregulation of PFKFB2 expression correlated with elevated fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2 ) levels, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1) activity, glucose uptake, and lactate production...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Aihua Bao, Karlhans Fru Che, Steven Bozinovski, Jie Ji, Joshua A Gregory, Susanna Kumlien Georén, Mikael Adner, Lars-Olaf Cardell, Anders Lindén
Interleukin (IL)-26 is released in response to bacterial endotoxin (LPS) in the bronchoalveolar space of humans in vivo and it may potentiate neutrophil chemotaxis by enhanced IL-26 receptor stimulation. However, the effects of extracellular IL-26 protein on the innate immune response in the lungs in vivo remain unknown. Here, we characterized these effects of IL-26 on a wide range of aspects of the innate immune response to LPS in different compartments of the lungs in vivo over time. We administrated recombinant human (rh) IL-26 protein in the bronchoalveolar space using intranasal instillation in a mouse in vivo model, with and without prior instillation of LPS...
2017: PloS One
Judith K Anchang-Kimbi, Vera Ngenwie Nkweti, Helen Ngum Ntonifor, Tobias O Apinjoh, Hanesh Fru Chi, Rolland Bantar Tata, Eric Akum Achidi
OBJECTIVE: Anaemia is a serious problem in pregnancy in malaria-endemic countries. This study investigated red cell morphologies and possible causes of anaemia among pregnant women at first clinic visit. Venous blood samples from consented women were used to determine haemoglobin (Hb) levels, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) using an automated haematology analyzer. Malaria parasitaemia was diagnosed by microscopy. Definitions were as follows: anaemia (Hb < 11...
November 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Hongjian Wan, Limin Wu, Yuejian Yang, Guozhi Zhou, Yong-Ling Ruan
In higher plants, invertases hydrolyze sucrose (Suc), the major end product of photosynthesis, into glucose (Glc) and fructose (Fru), which are used as nutrients, energy sources, and signaling molecules for plant growth, yield formation, and stress responses. The invertase enzymes, named CWINs, VINs, and CINs, are located in the cell wall, vacuole, and cytosol, respectively. We hypothesize, based on their distinctive subcellular locations and physiological roles, that invertases may have undergone different modes during evolution with important functional implications...
February 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Xiaolong Yang, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Xincang Li, Fan Lin, Qingyang Wu, Yueling Zhang, Cuihong You, Wenhua Liu, Yinwei Cheng, Xi Shi, Shuqi Wang, Hongyu Ma
The molecular mechanism underlying sex determination and gonadal differentiation of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) has received considerable attention, due to the remarkably biological and economic differences between sexes. However, sex-biased genes, especially non-coding genes, which account for these differences, remain elusive in this crustacean species. In this study, the first de novo gonad transcriptome sequencing was performed to identify both differentially expressed genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) between male and female S...
November 20, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
Zahid Sadek Chowdhury, Kosei Sato, Daisuke Yamamoto
In fruit flies, the male-specific fruitless (fru) gene product FruBM plays a central role in establishing the neural circuitry for male courtship behavior by orchestrating the transcription of genes required for the male-type specification of individual neurons. We herein identify the core promoter recognition factor gene Trf2 as a dominant modifier of fru actions. Trf2 knockdown in the sexually dimorphic mAL neurons leads to the loss of a male-specific neurite and a reduction in male courtship vigor. TRF2 forms a repressor complex with FruBM, strongly enhancing the repressor activity of FruBM at the promoter region of the robo1 gene, whose function is required for inhibiting the male-specific neurite formation...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
Ryoya Tanaka, Tomohiro Higuchi, Soh Kohatsu, Kosei Sato, Daisuke Yamamoto
It remains an enigma how the nervous system of different animal species produces different behaviors. We studied the neural circuitry for mating behavior in Drosophila subobscura , a species that displays unique courtship actions not shared by other members of the genera including the genetic model D. melanogaster , in which the core courtship circuitry has been identified. We disrupted the D. subobscura fruitless ( fru ) gene, a master regulator for the courtship circuitry formation in D. melanogaster , resulting in complete loss of mating behavior...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nolwenn Callac, Nicole R Posth, Jayne E Rattray, Kweku K Y Yamoah, Alan Wiech, Magnus Ivarsson, Christoffer Hemmingsson, Stephanos P Kilias, Ariadne Argyraki, Curt Broman, Henrik Skogby, Rienk H Smittenberg, Ernest Chi Fru
The seafloor sediments of Spathi Bay, Milos Island, Greece, are part of the largest arsenic-CO2-rich shallow submarine hydrothermal ecosystem on Earth. Here, white and brown deposits cap chemically distinct sediments with varying hydrothermal influence. All sediments contain abundant genes for autotrophic carbon fixation used in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) and reverse tricaboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles. Both forms of RuBisCO, together with ATP citrate lyase genes in the rTCA cycle, increase with distance from the active hydrothermal centres and decrease with sediment depth...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Stefano Bonaglia, Volker Brüchert, Nolwenn Callac, Alessandra Vicenzi, Ernest Chi Fru, Francisco J A Nascimento
Methane and nitrous oxide are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to climate change. Coastal sediments are important GHG producers, but the contribution of macrofauna (benthic invertebrates larger than 1 mm) inhabiting them is currently unknown. Through a combination of trace gas, isotope, and molecular analyses, we studied the direct and indirect contribution of two macrofaunal groups, polychaetes and bivalves, to methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from coastal sediments. Our results indicate that macrofauna increases benthic methane efflux by a factor of up to eight, potentially accounting for an estimated 9...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel Decker, Leszek A Kleczkowski
UDP-sugars are essential precursors for glycosylation reactions producing cell wall polysaccharides, sucrose, glycoproteins, glycolipids, etc. Primary mechanisms of UDP sugar formation involve the action of at least three distinct pyrophosphorylases using UTP and sugar-1-P as substrates. Here, substrate specificities of barley and Arabidopsis (two isozymes) UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (UGPase), Arabidopsis UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USPase) and Arabidopsis UDP-N-acetyl glucosamine pyrophosphorylase2 (UAGPase2) were investigated using a range of sugar-1-phosphates and nucleoside-triphosphates as substrates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
N N Vorobyeva, S A Kurilova, V A Anashkin, E V Rodina
Pyrophosphate regulates vital cellular reactions, and its level in E. coli cells is under the ultimate control of inorganic pyrophosphatase. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of pyrophosphatase activity still need to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that fructose-1-phosphate inhibits pyrophosphatase activity by a mechanism not involving competition with substrate for binding to the active site. The inhibition constant governing the binding of the inhibitor to the enzyme-substrate complex is 1...
August 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Elzemiek Geuverink, Anna H Rensink, Inge Rondeel, Leo W Beukeboom, Louis van de Zande, Eveline C Verhulst
In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with TRA2, encoded by a transformer-2 (tra2) ortholog, to act as a sex specific splicing regulator of the downstream transcription factors doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Here, we identify the tra2 ortholog of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp N...
November 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Karlhans Fru Che, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Elisa Lappi-Blanco, Bettina Levänen, Jitong Sun, Åsa Wheelock, Lena Palmberg, C Magnus Sköld, Anders Lindén
Interleukin (IL)-26 is abundant in human airways and this cytokine is involved in the local immune response to a bacterial stimulus in vivo. Specifically, local exposure to the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist endotoxin does increase IL-26 in human airways and this cytokine potentiates chemotactic responses in human neutrophils. In addition to T-helper (Th) 17 cells, alveolar macrophages can produce IL-26, but it remains unknown whether this cytokine can also be produced in the airway mucosa per se in response to a viral stimulus...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine
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