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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815538/long-noncoding-rnas-in-the-yeast-s-%C3%A2-cerevisiae
#1
Rachel O Niederer, Evan P Hass, David C Zappulla
Long noncoding RNAs have recently been discovered to comprise a sizeable fraction of the RNA World. The scope of their functions, physical organization, and disease relevance remain in the early stages of characterization. Although many thousands of lncRNA transcripts recently have been found to emanate from the expansive DNA between protein-coding genes in animals, there are also hundreds that have been found in simple eukaryotes. Furthermore, lncRNAs have been found in the bacterial and archaeal branches of the tree of life, suggesting they are ubiquitous...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814512/zoonotic-risk-pathogenesis-and-transmission-of-avian-origin-h3n2-canine-influenza-virus
#2
Hailiang Sun, Sherry Blackmon, Guohua Yang, Kaitlyn Waters, Tao Li, Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat, Yifei Xu, Daniel Shyu, Feng Wen, Jim Cooley, Lucy Senter, Xiaoxu Lin, Richard Jarman, Larry Hanson, Richard Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), avian-origin canine influenza virus H3N2 (CIV-H3N2) and equine-origin CIV-H3N8, are enzootic in the canine population. Dogs have demonstrated seroconversion to diverse IAVs and naturally occurring reassortants of CIV-H3N2 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) have been isolated. We conducted a thorough phenotypic evaluation of CIV-H3N2 in order to assess its threat to human health. Using ferret-generated antisera we determined that CIV-H3N2 is antigenically distinct from contemporary human H3N2 IAVs, suggesting there may be minimal herd immunity in humans...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808137/regulatory-rnps-a-novel-class-of-ribonucleoproteins-that-potentially-contribute-to-ribosome-heterogeneity
#3
Aaron R Poole, Ian Vicino, Hironori Adachi, Yi-Tao Yu, Michael D Hebert
Many ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), which are comprised of non-coding RNA and associated proteins, are involved in essential cellular processes such as translation and pre-mRNA splicing. One class of RNP is the small Cajal body-specific RNP (scaRNP), which contributes to the biogenesis of small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs) that are central components of the spliceosome. Three scaRNAs are internally processed, generating stable nucleolus-enriched RNAs of unknown function. Here we provide data that these RNAs become part of RNPs we term regulatory RNPs (regRNPs)...
August 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801028/convergent-evolution-of-germ-granule-nucleators-a-hypothesis
#4
Arpita Kulkarni, Cassandra G Extavour
Germ cells have been considered "the ultimate stem cell" because they alone, during normal development of sexually reproducing organisms, are able to give rise to all organismal cell types. Morphological descriptions of a specialized cytoplasm termed 'germ plasm' and associated electron dense ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structures called 'germ granules' within germ cells date back as early as the 1800s. Both germ plasm and germ granules are implicated in germ line specification across metazoans. However, at a molecular level, little is currently understood about the molecular mechanisms that assemble these entities in germ cells...
July 19, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777080/toscana-virus-nucleoprotein-oligomer-organization-observed-in-solution
#5
Amal Baklouti, Adeline Goulet, Julie Lichière, Bruno Canard, Rémi N Charrel, François Ferron, Bruno Coutard, Nicolas Papageorgiou
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Phlebovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae family. As in other bunyaviruses, the genome of TOSV is made up of three RNA segments. They are encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N), which also plays an essential role in virus replication. To date, crystallographic structures of phlebovirus N have systematically revealed closed-ring organizations which do not fully match the filamentous organization of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex observed by electron microscopy...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770711/chinese-lupus-treatment-and-research-group-cstar-registry-x-family-history-in-relation-to-lupus-clinical-and-immunological-manifestations
#6
Xiaomei Leng, Mengtao Li, Xiangpei Li, Xiao Zhang, Shengyun Liu, Lijun Wu, Li Ma, Liqi Bi, Xiaoxia Zuo, Lingyun Sun, Cibo Huang, Jiuliang Zhao, Yan Zhao, Xiaofeng Zeng
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the associations between family history and clinical manifestations and immunologic characteristics of lupus in China. METHODS: Based on their family history, lupus patients from the Chinese lupus treatment and research group (CSTAR) registry were categorised: familial lupus (FL), family history of other rheumatic disorders (RD), and sporadic lupus (SL). Demographic data, clinical manifestations, and laboratory data were compared among these three groups...
July 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766049/usnrnp-biogenesis-mechanisms-and-regulation
#7
REVIEW
Oliver J Gruss, Rajyalakshmi Meduri, Maximilian Schilling, Utz Fischer
Macromolecular complexes composed of proteins or proteins and nucleic acids rather than individual macromolecules mediate many cellular activities. Maintenance of these activities is essential for cell viability and requires the coordinated production of the individual complex components as well as their faithful incorporation into functional entities. Failure of complex assembly may have fatal consequences and can cause severe diseases. While many macromolecular complexes can form spontaneously in vitro, they often require aid from assembly factors including assembly chaperones in the crowded cellular environment...
August 1, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762061/direct-antiglobulin-coombs-test-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients
#8
Thelma Skare, Leandro Picelli, Thiago Alberto G Dos Santos, Renato Nisihara
The objective of the study is to study the positivity of Coombs test or direct antiglobulin test (DAT) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and its relationship with disease's clinical and serological profile. Retrospective study of 373 SLE patients seen at single Rheumatology Unit. Epidemiological data (age, gender, age at disease onset, auto declared ethnic background and tobacco use), clinical (malar rash, photosensitivity, oral ulcers, discoid lesions, serositis, glomerulonephritis, convulsions, psychosis, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, lymphocytopenia and arthritis), and serological profile (anti ds DNA, anti Ro/SS-A; anti La/SS-B, Anti RNP, Anti Sm, aCl (anticardiolipin) IgG, aCl Ig M, LA or lupus anticoagulant, rheumatoid factor and direct Coombs) were collected...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758638/influenza-virus-recruits-host-protein-kinase-c-to-control-assembly-and-activity-of-its-replication-machinery
#9
Arindam Mondal, Anthony R Dawson, Gregory K Potts, Elyse C Freiberger, Steven F Baker, Lindsey A Moser, Kristen A Bernard, Joshua J Coon, Andrew Mehle
Influenza virus expresses transcripts early in infection and transitions towards genome replication at later time points. This process requires de novo assembly of the viral replication machinery, large ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) composed of the viral polymerase, genomic RNA and oligomeric nucleoprotein (NP). Despite the central role of RNPs during infection, the factors dictating where and when they assemble are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that human protein kinase C (PKC) family members regulate RNP assembly...
July 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747322/ribonucleoprotein-purification-and-characterization-using-rna-mango
#10
Shyam Ss Panchapakesan, Matthew L Ferguson, Eric J Hayden, Xin Chen, Aaron A Hoskins, Peter J Unrau
The characterization of RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) is a difficult but increasingly important problem in modern biology. By combining the compact RNA Mango aptamer with a fluorogenic thiazole orange desthiobiotin (TO1-Dtb or TO3-Dtb) ligand, we have created an RNA tagging system that simplifies the purification and subsequent characterization of endogenous RNPs. Mango-tagged RNP complexes can be immobilized on a streptavidin solid support and recovered in their native state by the addition of free biotin. Furthermore, Mango-based RNP purification can be adapted to different scales of RNP isolation ranging from pull-down assays to the isolation of large amounts of biochemically defined cellular RNPs...
July 26, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743058/oral-nanotherapeutics-redox-nanoparticles-attenuate-ultraviolet-b-radiation-induced-skin-inflammatory-disorders-in-kud-hr-hairless-mice
#11
Chitho P Feliciano, Yukio Nagasaki
The active participation of an anti-inflammatory drug in the biological pathways of inflammation is crucial for the achievement of beneficial and therapeutic effects. This study demonstrated the development of redox nanoparticles that can circulate in the blood at significantly high levels, thus increasing their efficacy as an oral treatment against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an in vivo inflammatory skin model. To confirm the blood bioavailability of the nanoparticles, mice were injected with the nanoparticles solution (RNP(N)) via oral gavage...
October 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732250/structural-biology-of-telomerase-and-its-interaction-at-telomeres
#12
REVIEW
Yaqiang Wang, Juli Feigon
Telomerase is an RNP that synthesizes the 3' ends of linear chromosomes and is an important regulator of telomere length. It contains a single long non-coding telomerase RNA (TER), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), and other proteins that vary among organisms. Recent progress in structural biology of telomerase includes reports of the first cryo-electron microscopy structure of telomerase, from Tetrahymena, new crystal structures of TERT domains, telomerase RNA structures and models, and identification in Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme of human homologues of telomere-associated proteins that have provided a more unified view of telomerase interaction at telomeres as well as insights into the role of telomerase RNA in activity and assembly...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712728/hexim1-and-neat1-long-non-coding-rna-form-a-multi-subunit-complex-that-regulates-dna-mediated-innate-immune-response
#13
Mehdi Morchikh, Alexandra Cribier, Raoul Raffel, Sonia Amraoui, Julien Cau, Dany Severac, Emeric Dubois, Olivier Schwartz, Yamina Bennasser, Monsef Benkirane
The DNA-mediated innate immune response underpins anti-microbial defenses and certain autoimmune diseases. Here we used immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and RNA sequencing to identify a ribonuclear complex built around HEXIM1 and the long non-coding RNA NEAT1 that we dubbed the HEXIM1-DNA-PK-paraspeckle components-ribonucleoprotein complex (HDP-RNP). The HDP-RNP contains DNA-PK subunits (DNAPKc, Ku70, and Ku80) and paraspeckle proteins (SFPQ, NONO, PSPC1, RBM14, and MATRIN3). We show that binding of HEXIM1 to NEAT1 is required for its assembly...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710009/mrna-interactome-capture-in-mammalian-cells
#14
Nicolai Kastelic, Markus Landthaler
Throughout their entire life cycle, mRNAs are associated with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), forming ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes with highly dynamic compositions. Their interplay is one key to control gene regulatory mechanisms from mRNA synthesis to decay. To assay the global scope of RNA-protein interactions, we and others have published a method combining crosslinking with highly stringent oligo(dT) affinity purification to enrich proteins associated with polyadenylated RNA (poly(A)+ RNA). Identification of the poly(A)+ RNA-bound proteome (also: mRNA interactome capture) has by now been applied to a diversity of cell lines and model organisms, uncovering comprehensive repertoires of RBPs and hundreds of novel RBP candidates...
July 11, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699322/a-respiratory-marker-derived-from-left-vagus-nerve-signals-recorded-with-implantable-cuff-electrodes
#15
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Benedict Kjaergaard, Johannes J Struijk
OBJECTIVE: Left vagus nerve (LVN) stimulation (LVNS) has been tested for lowering the blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension (RH). Whereas, closed-loop LVNS (CL-LVNS) driven by a BP marker may be superior to open-loop LVNS, there are situations (e.g., exercising) when hypertension is normal. Therefore, an ideal anti-RH CL-LVNS system requires a variable to avoid stimulation in such conditions, for example, a respiratory marker ideally extracted from the LVN. As the LVN conducts respiratory signals, this study aimed to investigate if such signals can be recorded using implantable means and if a marker to monitor respiration could be derived from such recordings...
July 11, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698239/enzymatic-production-of-single-molecule-fish-and-rna-capture-probes
#16
Imre Gaspar, Frank Wippich, Anne Ephrussi
Arrays of singly-labelled short oligonucleotides that hybridize to a specific target revolutionized RNA biology, enabling quantitative, single molecule microscopy analysis and high efficiency RNA/RNP capture. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method that allows flexible functionalization of inexpensive DNA oligonucleotides by different fluorescent dyes or biotin using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and custom-made functional group conjugated dideoxy-UTP. We show that 1) all steps of the oligonucleotide labelling - including conjugation, enzymatic synthesis and product purification - can be performed in a standard biology laboratory, 2) the process yields >90 %, often >95 % labeled product with minimal carry-over of impurities and 3) the oligonucleotides can be labeled with different dyes or biotin, allowing single molecule FISH or RNA affinity purification, and northern-blot analysis to be performed...
July 11, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697848/roles-of-rnase-p-and-its-subunits
#17
REVIEW
Nayef Jarrous
Recent studies show that nuclear RNase P is linked to chromatin structure and function. Thus, variants of this ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex bind to chromatin of small noncoding RNA genes; integrate into initiation complexes of RNA polymerase (Pol) III; repress histone H3.3 nucleosome deposition; control tRNA and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) gene clusters for genome defense; and respond to Werner syndrome helicase (WRN)-related replication stress and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Likewise, the related RNase MRP and RMRP-TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) are implicated in RNA-dependent RNA polymerization for chromatin silencing, whereas the telomerase carries out RNA-dependent DNA polymerization for telomere lengthening...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690947/autoamputation-and-polyneuropathy-in-mixed-connective-tissue-disorder-a-case-report
#18
Syeda Naqvi, Vikash Talib, Razia Aijaz, Zeeshan Ali, Shehroz Bashir, Syed Masroor Ahmad, Shabnam Naveed
Mixed connective tissue disorder (MCTD) is a multisystem disease with overlapping features of other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), myositis, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma. MCTD presents with a distinctive antibody in serum known as U1-ribonucleoprotein (RNP). MCTD is quite rare as compared to other connective tissue disorders like SLE, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, and polymyositis. We describe a case of MCTD in a young Asian female of 30 year old. This case highlights rare co-existence of polyneuropathy and autoamputation in MCTD disorder...
June 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678510/water-proton-relaxivities-of-radical-nanoparticles-self-assembled-via-hydration-or-dehydration-processes
#19
Kosuke Morishita, Yuna Okamoto, Shuhei Murayama, Kazuteru Usui, Eriko Ohashi, Go Hirai, Ichio Aoki, Satoru Karasawa
Nanoparticles capable of accumulating in tumor tissues are promising materials for tumor imaging and therapy. In this study, two radical nanoparticles (RNPs), denoted as 1 and 2, composed of self-assembled ureabenzene derivatives possessing one or two amphiphilic side chains were demonstrated to be candidates for metal-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs). Because of the self-assembly behavior of 1 and 2 in a saline solution, spherical RNPs of sizes ∼50-90 and ∼30-100 nm were detected...
July 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677507/the-hiv-1-tat-protein-mechanism-of-action-and-target-for-hiv-1-cure-strategies
#20
Andrew P Rice
The general mechanism involved in Tat activation of RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) elongation of the integrated HIV-1 was elucidated over 20 years ago. This mechanism involves Tat binding to the TAR RNA element that forms at the 5' end of viral transcripts and recruiting a general RNAP II elongation factor termed as P-TEFb. This elongation factor consists of CDK9 and Cyclin T1, and when recruited by Tat to TAR RNA, CDK9 was proposed to phosphorylate the carboxyl terminal domain of RNAP II and thereby activate elongation...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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