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Shear stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741084/towards-the-prediction-of-flow-induced-shear-stress-distributions-experienced-by-breast-cancer-cells-in-the-lymphatics
#1
S T Morley, D T Newport, M T Walsh
Tumour metastasis in the lymphatics is a crucial step in the progression of breast cancer. The dynamics by which breast cancer cells (BCCs) travel in the lymphatics remains poorly understood. The goal of this work is to develop a model capable of predicting the shear stresses metastasising BCCs experience using numerical and experimental techniques. This paper models the fluidic transport of large particles ([Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the particle diameter and W is the channel width) subjected to lymphatic flow conditions ([Formula: see text]), in a [Formula: see text] microchannel...
July 24, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740980/micro-engineered-perfusable-3d-vasculatures-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
Nishanth Venugopal Menon, Hui Min Tay, Soon Nan Wee, King Ho Holden Li, Han Wei Hou
Vessel geometries in microengineered in vitro vascular models are important to recapitulate a pathophysiological microenvironment for the study of flow-induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. Herein, we present a simple and novel extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel patterning method to create perfusable vascularized microchannels of different geometries based on the concept of capillary burst valve (CBV). No surface modification is necessary and the method is suitable for different ECM types including collagen, matrigel and fibrin...
July 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739530/curcumin-modulates-endothelial-permeability-and-monocyte-transendothelial-migration-by-affecting-endothelial-cell-dynamics
#3
Laurent-Emmanuel Monfoulet, Sylvie Mercier, Dominique Bayle, Radu Tamaian, Nicolas Barber-Chamoux, Christine Morand, Dragan Milenkovic
Curcumin is a phenolic compound that exhibits beneficial properties for cardiometabolic health. We previously showed that curcumin reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the vascular wall and prevented atherosclerosis development in mice. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) and to decipher the underlying mechanisms of these actions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to curcumin (0.5-1μM) for 3hours prior to their activation by Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α)...
July 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737696/targeting-platelets-for-the-treatment-of-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Omar Elaskalani, Michael C Berndt, Marco Falasca, Pat Metharom
The majority of cancer-associated mortality results from the ability of tumour cells to metastasise leading to multifunctional organ failure and death. Disseminated tumour cells in the blood circulation are faced with major challenges such as rheological shear stresses and cell-mediated cytotoxicity mediated by natural killer cells. Nevertheless, circulating tumour cells with metastatic ability appear equipped to exploit host cells to aid their survival. Despite the long interest in targeting tumour-associated host cells such as platelets for cancer treatment, the clinical benefit of this strategy is still under question...
July 22, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736479/molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-trimer-self-assembly-under-shear
#5
Raymond D Mountain, Harold W Hatch, Vincent K Shen
The self-assembly of patchy trimer particles consisting of one attractive site and two repulsive sites is investigated with nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations in the presence of a velocity gradient, as would be produced by the application of a shear stress on the system. As shear is increased, globular-shaped micellar clusters increase in size and become more elongated. The globular clusters are also more stable at higher temperatures in the presence of shear than at equilibrium. These results help to increase our understanding of the effect of shear on self-assembly for a variety of applications...
May 25, 2017: Fluid Phase Equilibria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735884/from-drop-shape-analysis-to-stress-fitting-elastometry
#6
REVIEW
Mathias Nagel, Theo A Tervoort, Jan Vermant
Drop-shape analysis using pendant or sessile drops is a well-established experimental technique for measuring the interfacial or surface tension, and changes thereof. The method relies on deforming a drop by either gravity or buoyancy and fitting the Young-Laplace equation to the drop shape. Alternatively one can prescribe the shape and measure the pressure inside the drop or bubble using pressure tensiometry. However, when an interface with a complex microstructure is present, extra and anisotropic interfacial stresses may develop due to lateral interactions between the surface-active moieties, leading to deviations of the drop shape or even a wrinkling of the interface...
July 13, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734190/two-dimensional-modeling-of-elastic-wave-propagation-in-solids-containing-cracks-with-rough-surfaces-and-friction-part-ii-numerical-implementation
#7
Steven Delrue, Vladislav Aleshin, Kevin Truyaert, Olivier Bou Matar, Koen Van Den Abeele
Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns an in-depth description of a constitutive model for realistic contacts or cracks that takes into account the roughness of the contact faces and the associated effects of friction and hysteresis...
July 13, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733907/multiple-intracranial-aneurysms-a-direct-hemodynamic-comparison-between-ruptured-and-unruptured-vessel-malformations
#8
Philipp Berg, Oliver Beuing
PURPOSE: Despite numerous studies addressing the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms that have been published, the assessment thereof still remains challenging. Image-based simulations enable a precise prediction of patient-specific blood flow information. However, those approaches normally consider only small segments of the complete cerebral vasculature. METHODS: To test the validity of the consideration of single aneurysms in one computational setup, domains of the complete anterior and posterior circulations with multiple intracranial aneurysms (MIA) were simulated...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733451/prolonged-sitting-leg-vasculopathy-contributing-factors-and-clinical-implications
#9
Jaume Padilla, Paul J Fadel
Atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease primarily manifests in the medium-to large-sized conduit arteries of the lower extremities. However, the factors underlying this increased vulnerability of leg macrovasculature to disease are largely unidentified. On the basis of recent studies, we propose that excessive time spent in the sitting position and the ensuing reduction in leg blood flow-induced shear stress causes endothelial cell dysfunction, a key predisposing factor to peripheral artery disease. In particular, this review summarizes the findings from laboratory-based sitting studies revealing acute leg vascular dysfunction with prolonged sitting in young healthy subjects, discusses the primary physiological mechanisms and the potential long-term implications of such leg vasculopathy with repeated exposure to prolonged sitting, as well as identifies strategies that may be effective at evading it...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733006/physical-and-chemical-mechanism-underlying-ultrasonically-enhanced-hydrochloric-acid-leaching-of-non-oxidative-roasting-of-bastnaesite
#10
Dongliang Zhang, Mei Li, Kai Gao, Jianfei Li, Yujun Yan, Xingyu Liu
In this study, we investigated an alternative to the conventional hydrochloric acid leaching of roasted bastnaesite. The studies suggested that the rare earth oxyfluorides in non-oxidatively roasted bastnaesite can be selectively leached only at elevated temperatures Further, the Ce(IV) in oxidatively roasted bastnaesite does not leach readily at low temperatures, and it is difficult to induce it to form a complex with F(-) ions in order to increase the leaching efficiency. Moreover, it is inevitably reduced to Ce(III) at elevated temperatures...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731220/mechanically-tunable-bioink-for-3d-bioprinting-of-human-cells
#11
Aurelien Forget, Andreas Blaeser, Florian Miessmer, Marius Köpf, Daniela F Duarte Campos, Nicolas H Voelcker, Anton Blencowe, Horst Fischer, V Prasad Shastri
This study introduces a thermogelling bioink based on carboxylated agarose (CA) for bioprinting of mechanically defined microenvironments mimicking natural tissues. In CA system, by adjusting the degree of carboxylation, the elastic modulus of printed gels can be tuned over several orders of magnitudes (5-230 Pa) while ensuring almost no change to the shear viscosity (10-17 mPa) of the bioink solution; thus enabling the fabrication of 3D structures made of different mechanical domains under identical printing parameters and low nozzle shear stress...
July 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729605/evaluating-the-effects-of-material-properties-of-artificial-meniscal-implant-in-the-human-knee-joint-using-finite-element-analysis
#12
Duraisamy Shriram, Gideon Praveen Kumar, Fangsen Cui, Yee Han Dave Lee, Karupppasamy Subburaj
Artificial meniscal implants may replace severely injured meniscus and restore the normal functionality of the knee joint. Implant material stiffness and shape influence the longevity of implantations. This study, using 3D finite element analysis, aimed to evaluate the effects of material stiffness variations of anatomically shaped artificial meniscal implant in the knee joint. Finite element simulations were conducted on five different cases including intact knee, medial meniscectomized knee, and the knee joint with the meniscal implant with three distinct material stiffness...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728823/piezo1-channels-in-vascular-development-and-the-sensing-of-shear-stress
#13
A J Hyman, S Tumova, D J Beech
A critical point in mammalian development occurs before mid-embryogenesis when the heart starts to beat, pushing blood into the nascent endothelial lattice. This pushing force is a signal, detected by endothelial cells as a frictional force (shear stress) to trigger cellular changes that underlie the essential processes of vascular remodeling and expansion required for embryonic growth. The processes are complex and multifactorial and Piezo1 became a recognized player only 2years ago, 4years after Piezo1's initial discovery as a functional membrane protein...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728822/a-microfluidic-approach-for-studying-piezo-channels
#14
M M Maneshi, P A Gottlieb, S Z Hua
Microfluidics is an interdisciplinary field intersecting many areas in engineering. Utilizing a combination of physics, chemistry, biology, and biotechnology, along with practical applications for designing devices that use low volumes of fluids to achieve high-throughput screening, is a major goal in microfluidics. Microfluidic approaches allow the study of cells growth and differentiation using a variety of conditions including control of fluid flow that generates shear stress. Recently, Piezo1 channels were shown to respond to fluid shear stress and are crucial for vascular development...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728816/in-touch-with-the-mechanosensitive-piezo-channels-structure-ion-permeation-and-mechanotransduction
#15
J Geng, Q Zhao, T Zhang, B Xiao
Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical forces into biological signals, plays critical roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes in mammals, such as conscious sensing of touch, pain, and sound, as well as unconscious sensing of blood flow-associated shear stress, urine flow, and bladder distention. Among the various molecules involved in mechanotransduction, mechanosensitive (MS) cation channels have long been postulated to represent one critical class of mechanotransducers that directly and rapidly converts mechanical force into electrochemical signals...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728380/effects-of-different-space-allowances-on-growth-performance-blood-profile-and-pork-quality-in-a-grow-to-finish-production-system
#16
J C Jang, X H Jin, J S Hong, Y Y Kim
Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of ninety crossbred pigs ([Yorkshire x Landrace] x Duroc, 30.25 ± 1.13 kg) were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs / pen, 0.96 m2/pig; 0.80: five pigs / pen, 0.80 m2/pig; 0.69: six pigs / pen, 0.69 m2/pig) in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I and finishing phase II)...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726571/primary-blast-causes-delayed-effects-without-cell-death-in-shell-encased-brain-cell-aggregates
#17
Thomas Sawyer, Yushan Wang, David V Ritzel, Tyson Josey, Mercy Villanueva, Cory Vair, Yanfeng Song, Yimin Shei, Steven Parks, Peggy Nelson, Grant Hennes, Lori McLaws, Changyan Fan
Previous work used underwater explosive exposures to isolate the effects of shock-induced principle stress without shear on rat brain aggregate cultures. This current study has utilized simulated air blast to expose aggregates in suspension and enclosed within a spherical shell, enabling the examination of a much more complex biomechanical insult. Culture medium-filled spheres were exposed to single pulse overpressures of 15-30 psi (6-7 msec duration) and measurements within the sphere at defined sites showed complex and spatially dependent pressure changes...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722730/tunable-in-plane-torsional-strength-of-surface-functionalized-two-dimensional-nanomaterials
#18
Qianling Lin, Yinfeng Li, Haimin Yao
In this paper, the in-plane torsional properties of two dimensional nanomaterials are revealed to be tunable by surface functionalization using molecular dynamics simulations. The torsional strengths of both graphene and graphyne under circular shearing are found to first decrease and then increase anomalously with the increase of the hydrogenation ratio. The minimum strength of such U-shaped strength evolution appears at different hydrogenation ratios H for graphene (H = 50%) and graphyne (H = 70%), demonstrating a correlation between hydrogenation and the unit lattices of 2D nanomaterials...
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722403/wrinkled-few-layer-graphene-as-highly-efficient-load-bearer
#19
Charalampos Androulidakis, Emmanuel Nicholaos Koukaras, Jaroslava Rahova, Krishna Sampathkumar, John Parthenios, Konstantinos Papagelis, Otakar Frank, Costas Galiotis
Multilayered graphitic materials are not suitable as load-bearers due to their inherent weak interlayer bonding (for example, graphite is a solid lubricant in certain applications). This situation is largely improved when two-dimensional (2-D) materials such as a monolayer (SLG) graphene are employed. The downside in these cases is the presence of thermally or mechanically induced wrinkles which are ubiquitous in 2-D materials. Here we set out to examine the effect of extensive large wavelength/ amplitude wrinkling on the stress transfer capabilities of exfoliated simply-supported graphene flakes...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722142/lactic-dehydrogenase-in-the-in-vitro-evaluation-of-hemolytic-properties-of-ventricular-assist-device
#20
Donghai Li, Qingyu Wu, Shuhong Liu, Yuanyuan Chen, Haosheng Chen, Yingmao Ruan, Yu Zhang
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) can effectively improve the survival rate of patients with end-stage heart failure, but the hemolytic complications induced by long-time VAD support have received wide attention recently. The conventional evaluation method of the hemolytic properties of VADs by the indicator of plasma free hemoglobin (PFH) concentration is used but not sensitive enough to meet the needs of the actual examinations. In this study, an experimental method was applied for the evaluation of the injuries and damages caused by VADs to erythrocytes by both indicators of PFH and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the in vitro hemolysis assay of VADs...
July 19, 2017: Artificial Organs
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