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Shear stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340074/synthetic-human-neutrophil-peptide-1-inhibits-platelet-adhesion-and-aggregation-on-von-willebrand-factor-collagen-surface-under-arterial-shear-stress-through-disulfide-bond-reduction-mechanism
#1
Jenny McDaniel, X Long Zhen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339741/shear-stress-regulated-mir-27b-controls-pericyte-recruitment-by-repressing-sema6a-and-sema6d
#2
Shemsi Demolli, Anuradha Doddaballapur, Kavi Devraj, Konstantin Stark, Yosif Manavski, Annekathrin Eckart, Christoph Zehendner, Tina Lucas, Thomas Korff, Markus Hecker, Steffen Massberg, Stefan Liebner, David Kaluza, Reinier A Boon, Stefanie Dimmeler
Aims: Vessel maturation involves the recruitment of mural cells such as pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Laminar shear stress is a major trigger for vessel maturation, but the molecular mechanisms by which shear stress affects recruitment of pericytes are unclear. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression. The aim of the present study was to unveil the mechanism by which shear stress-regulated microRNAs contribute to vessel maturation...
February 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339567/role-of-biomechanical-forces-in-hyperfiltration-mediated-glomerular-injury-in-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract
#3
Tarak Srivastava, Ganesh Thiagarajan, Uri S Alon, Ram Sharma, Ashraf El-Meanawy, Ellen T McCarthy, Virginia J Savin, Mukut Sharma
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) including solitary kidney constitute the main cause of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Children born with CAKUT develop signs of CKD only during adolescence and do not respond to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. Early cellular changes underlying CKD progression to end-stage renal disease by early adulthood are not well understood. The mechanism of maladaptive hyperfiltration that occurs from loss of functional nephrons, including solitary kidney, is not clear...
January 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337500/direct-observation-of-orientation-distributions-of-actin-filaments-in-a-solution-undergoing-shear-banding
#4
K Sato, I Kunita, Y Takikawa, D Takeuchi, Y Tanaka, T Nakagaki, H Orihara
Shear banding is frequently observed in complex fluids. However, the configuration of macromolecules in solutions undergoing shear banding has not yet been directly observed. In this study, by using the fact that F-actin solutions exhibit shear banding and actin filaments are visualized by fluorescent labels, we directly observed the intrinsic states of an actin solution undergoing shear banding. By combining the 3D imaging of labeled actin filaments and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we obtained orientation distributions of actin filaments in both high and low shear rate regions, whose quantitative differences are indicated...
March 24, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337244/rat-liver-enzyme-release-depends-on-blood-flow-bearing-physical-forces-acting-in-endothelium-glycocalyx-rather-than-on-liver-damage
#5
Julieta A Díaz-Juárez, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
We have found selective elevation of serum enzyme activities in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH), apparently controlled by hemodynamic flow-bearing physical forces. Here, we assess the involvement of stretch-sensitive calcium channels and calcium mobilization in isolated livers, after chemical modifications of the endothelial glycocalyx and changing perfusion directionality. Inhibiting in vivo protein synthesis, we found that liver enzyme release is influenced by de novo synthesis of endothelial glycocalyx components, and released enzymes are confined into a liver "pool...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336528/platelet-cd36-promotes-thrombosis-by-activating-redox-sensor-erk5-in-hyperlipidemic-conditions
#6
Moua Yang, Brian C Cooley, Wei Li, Yiliang Chen, Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar, Na'il O Scoggins, Scott J Cameron, Craig N Morrell, Roy L Silverstein
Atherothrombosis is a process mediated by dysregulated platelet activation that can cause life-threatening complications and is the leading cause of death by cardiovascular disease. Platelet reactivity in hyperlipidemic conditions is enhanced when platelet scavenger receptor CD36 recognizes oxidized lipids in LDL particles, a process which induces an overt prothrombotic phenotype. The mechanisms by which CD36 promotes platelet activation and thrombosis remain incompletely defined. In this study, we identify a mechanism for CD36 to promote thrombosis by increasing activation of MAP kinase ERK5, a protein kinase known to be exquisitely sensitive to redox stress, through a signaling pathway requiring Src kinases, NADPH oxidase, superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide...
March 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335252/stress-waves-and-characteristics-of-zigzag-and-armchair-silicene-nanoribbons
#7
Yu-Cheng Fan, Te-Hua Fang, Tao-Hsing Chen
The mechanical properties of silicene nanostructures subject to tensile loading were studied via a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The effects of temperature on Young's modulus and the fracture strain of silicene with armchair and zigzag types were examined. The maximum in-plane stress and the corresponding critical strain of the armchair and the zigzag silicene sheets at 300 K were 8.85 and 10.62, and 0.187 and 0.244 N/m, respectively. The in-plane stresses of the silicene sheet in the armchair direction at the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, and 600 K were 8...
June 24, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335217/modification-of-the-interfacial-interaction-between-carbon-fiber-and-epoxy-with-carbon-hybrid-materials
#8
Kejing Yu, Menglei Wang, Junqing Wu, Kun Qian, Jie Sun, Xuefeng Lu
The mechanical properties of the hybrid materials and epoxy and carbon fiber (CF) composites were improved significantly as compared to the CF composites made from unmodified epoxy. The reasons could be attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between the CF and the epoxy composites for the existence of carbon nanomaterials. The microstructure and dispersion of carbon nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The results showed that the dispersion of the hybrid materials in the polymer was superior to other carbon nanomaterials...
May 12, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334369/isotropic-failure-criteria-are-not-appropriate-for-anisotropic-fibrous-biological-tissues
#9
Christopher E Korenczuk, Lauren E Votava, Rohit Y Dhume, Shannen B Kizilski, George E Brown, Rahul Narain, Victor H Barocas
The von Mises (VM) stress is a common stress measure for finite-element models of tissue mechanics. The VM failure criterion, however, is inherently isotropic, and therefore may yield incorrect results for anisotropic tissues, and the relevance of the VM stress to anisotropic materials is not clear. We explored the application of a well-studied anisotropic failure criterion, the Tsai-Hill (TH) theory, to the mechanically anisotropic porcine aorta. Uniaxial dogbones were cut at different angles and stretched to failure...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329305/association-between-spousal-suicide-and-mental-physical-and-social-health-outcomes-a-longitudinal-and-nationwide-register-based-study
#10
Annette Erlangsen, Bo Runeson, James M Bolton, Holly C Wilcox, Julie L Forman, Jesper Krogh, M Katherine Shear, Merete Nordentoft, Yeates Conwell
Importance: Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. Objective: To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6...
March 22, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327777/predicting-and-assessing-rupture-in-protein-gels-under-oscillatory-shear
#11
Brice Saint-Michel, Thomas Gibaud, Sébastien Manneville
Soft materials may break irreversibly upon applying sufficiently large shear oscillations, a process whose physical mechanism remains largely elusive. In this work, the rupture of protein gels made of sodium caseinate under an oscillatory stress is shown to occur in an abrupt, brittle-like manner. Upon increasing the stress amplitude, the build-up of harmonic modes in the strain response can be rescaled for all gel concentrations. This rescaling yields an empirical criterion to predict the rupture point way before the samples are significantly damaged...
March 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327193/longitudinal-evaluation-of-aortic-hemodynamics-in-marfan-syndrome-new-insights-from-a-4d-flow-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-multi-year-follow-up-study
#12
Julia Geiger, Daniel Hirtler, Kristina Gottfried, Ozair Rahman, Emilie Bollache, Alex J Barker, Michael Markl, Brigitte Stiller
BACKGROUND: The aim of this 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) follow-up study was to investigate longitudinal changes in aortic hemodynamics in adolescent patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). METHODS: 4D flow CMR for the assessment of in-vivo 3D blood flow with full coverage of the thoracic aorta was performed twice (baseline scan t1/follow-up scan t2) in 19 adolescent MFS patients (age at t1: 12.7 ± 3.6 years, t2: 16.2 ± 4.3 years) with a mean follow-up duration of 3...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326611/mechanical-characterization-of-curly-hair-influence-of-the-use-of-nonconventional-hair-straightening-treatments
#13
M G A Leite, P M B G Maia Campos
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Hair straighteners are very popular around the world, although they can cause great damage to the hair. Thus, the characterization of the mechanical properties of curly hair using advanced techniques is very important to clarify how hair straighteners act on hair fibers and to contribute to the development of effective products. On this basis, we chose two nonconventional hair straighteners (formaldehyde and glyoxylic acid) to investigate how hair straightening treatments affect the mechanical properties of curly hair...
March 21, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326557/analysis-of-blood-flow-characteristics-in-a-model-of-a-mature-side-to-side-arteriovenous-fistula
#14
Ashkan Javadzadegan, Nay Myo Lwin, Muhammad Asyraf, Anne Simmons, Tracie Barber
The creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a common surgical procedure in hemodialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, several complications may occur after surgery, including thrombosis, stenosis, and aneurysm. These complications are attributed to hemodynamics perturbations including pathophysiological wall shear stress (WSS) and flow recirculation zones. In this study, we present a computational hemodynamic analysis in a model of a mature side-to-side AVF, which is then validated by experimental measurements...
March 21, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325895/simulation-assisted-design-of-microfluidic-sample-traps-for-optimal-trapping-and-culture-of-non-adherent-single-cells-tissues-and-spheroids
#15
Nassim Rousset, Frédéric Monet, Thomas Gervais
This work focuses on modelling design and operation of "microfluidic sample traps" (MSTs). MSTs regroup a widely used class of microdevices that incorporate wells, recesses or chambers adjacent to a channel to individually trap, culture and/or release submicroliter 3D tissue samples ranging from simple cell aggregates and spheroids, to ex vivo tissue samples and other submillimetre-scale tissue models. Numerous MST designs employing various trapping mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, spurring the development of 3D tissue models for drug discovery and personalized medicine...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325445/nonlinear-model-on-pulsatile-flow-of-blood-through-a-porous-bifurcated-arterial-stenosis-in-the-presence-of-magnetic-field-and-periodic-body-acceleration
#16
R Ponalagusamy, S Priyadharshini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Background and Objective: The motivation of cardiovascular modeling is to understand the haemodynamic and mechanical factors in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Several investigations have been carried out by many authors to understand the flow properties of blood in modelling blood flows in the circulatory system. In the present article, the pulsatile flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluid through a bifurcated arterial stenosis in a porous medium with magnetic field and periodic body acceleration has been investigated in view of understanding the role of rheological behaviour of blood, stenotic height, bifurcation angle, magnetic field and porosity of wall in the initiation and proliferation of cardiovascular diseases...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323178/study-on-the-deformations-of-the-lamina-cribrosa-during-glaucoma
#17
Hanjing Tian, Long Li, Fan Song
The lamina cribrosa is the primary site of optic nerve injury during glaucoma, and its deformations induced by elevated intraocular pressure are associated directly with the optic nerve injury and visual field defect. However, the deformations in a living body have been poorly understood yet so far. It is because that integral observation and precise measurement of the deformations in vivo are now almost impossible in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. In the present study, a new mechanical model of the lamina cribrosa is presented by using Reissner's thin plate theory...
March 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322562/massively-enhanced-electroosmotic-transport-in-nanochannels-grafted-with-end-charged-polyelectrolyte-brushes
#18
Guang Chen, Siddhartha Das
We establish that nanochannels grafted with pH-responsive, end-charged polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes demonstrate a massive augmentation in the strength of the electroosmotic (EOS) transport in presence of an external electric field. This contradicts the existing understanding that the EOS transport is severely retarded in channels grafted with the PE brushes due to the brush-induced enhanced drag force. Our mathematical model, developed on the basis of the fact that the ion concentration polarization (ICP) effect can be neglected, explains this enhancement of the EOS transport by noting that the end-charged PE brushes demonstrate a unique ability of localizing the electric double layer (or the EDL) or equivalently localizing the maximum charge density of the electrolyte ions at the location of its end, i...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321413/fluid-structure-interaction-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-effect-of-modeling-techniques
#19
Shengmao Lin, Xinwei Han, Yonghua Bi, Siyeong Ju, Linxia Gu
In this work, the impact of modeling techniques on predicting the mechanical behaviors of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is systematically investigated. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for simultaneously capturing the transient interaction between blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics was compared with its simplified techniques, that is, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or computational solid stress (CSS) model. Results demonstrated that CFD exhibited relatively smaller vortexes and tends to overestimate the fluid wall shear stress, compared to FSI...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320625/low-osmolality-and-shear-stress-during-liposuction-impair-cell-viability-in-autologous-fat-grafting
#20
T Ismail, J Bürgin, A Todorov, R Osinga, N Menzi, R D Largo, M Haug, I Martin, A Scherberich, D J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Liposuction and subsequent autologous fat grafting have become essential techniques for fat augmentation in plastic surgery. However, standard harvesting techniques that ensure the survival of adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells and thus preserve the transplanted fat volume are lacking. In particular, the effect of different parameters of the tumescent solution has not been studied in this context. We hypothesized that the osmolality of the tumescent solution could have a significant effect on the survival of adipocytes and SVF cells...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
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