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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911018/sperm-competition-and-the-evolution-of-precopulatory-weapons-testis-size-and-amplexus-position-but-not-arm-strength-affect-fertilization-success-in-a-chorusing-frog
#1
Bruno A Buzatto, Evan M Thyer, J Dale Roberts, Leigh W Simmons
Trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition. Previously, we showed that increased numbers of rivals elevated the risk and intensity of sperm competition due to multimale amplexus, and caused a reversal in the direction of precopulatory selection on arm girth...
December 2, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906593/does-swimming-at-a-moderate-altitude-favor-a-lower-oxidative-stress-in-an-intensity-dependent-manner-role-of-nonenzymatic-antioxidants
#2
Rafael A Casuso, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Gracia López-Contreras, Silvana N Gomes, Cristina Casals, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Jordi J Mercadé, Jesus R Huertas
Casuso, Rafael A., Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Gracia López-Contreras, Silvana N. Gomes, Cristina Casals, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Jordi J. Mercadé, and Jesus R. Huertas. Does swimming at a moderate altitude favor a lower oxidative stress in an intensity-dependent manner? Role of nonenzymatic antioxidants. High-Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2016-we aimed to describe oxidative damage and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant responses to swimming at different intensities in hypoxia. We recruited 12 highly experienced swimmers who have been involved in competitive swimming for at least 9 years...
December 1, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902754/how-do-growth-and-sibling-competition-affect-telomere-dynamics-in-the-first-month-of-life-of-long-lived-seabird
#3
Yuichi Mizutani, Yasuaki Niizuma, Ken Yoda
Telomeres are nucleotide sequences located at the ends of chromosomes that promote genome stability. Changes in telomere length (dynamics) are related to fitness or life expectancy, and telomere dynamics during the development phase are likely to be affected by growth and stress factors. Here, we examined telomere dynamics of black-tailed gull chicks (Larus crassirostris) in nests with and without siblings. We found that the initial telomere lengths of singletons at hatching were longer than those of siblings, indicating that singletons are higher-quality chicks than siblings in terms of telomere length...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901340/effects-of-a-trail-mountain-race-on-neuromuscular-performance-and-hydration-status-in-trained-runners
#4
Ernest Baiget, Javier Peña, Xantal Borràs, Toni Caparrós, José L López, Francesc Marin, Jordi Coma, Eduard Comerma
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were (a) to examine the effects of a trail mountain race (TMR) on hydration status and neuromuscular performance of recreational trail runners and (b) to determine the relationship among these parameters, subject's characteristics and competitive performance. METHODS: 35 male recreational trail runners (age, 38.1 ± 9.5 years; height, 177.3 ± 5.8 cm; body mass, 73.8 ± 8.4 kg; mean ± SD) were assessed before and after a 21.1 km TMR...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900583/does-elite-sport-degrade-sleep-quality-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Luke Gupta, Kevin Morgan, Sarah Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to profile the objective and experienced characteristics of sleep among elite athletes, and to consider relationships between elite sport and insomnia symptomatology...
November 29, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900407/do-inhibitors-of-crystallisation-play-any-role-in-the-prevention-of-kidney-stones-a-critique
#6
REVIEW
William G Robertson
A critical examination of data in the literature and in as yet unpublished laboratory records on the possible role of so-called inhibitors of crystallisation in preventing the formation of calcium-containing kidney stones leads to the following conclusions. So-called inhibitors of spontaneous "self-nucleation" are unlikely to play any role in the initiation of the crystallisation of CaOx or CaP in urine because excessive urinary supersaturation of urine with respect to these salts dominates the onset of "self-nucleation" within the normal time frame of the transit of tubular fluid through the nephron (3-4 min)...
November 29, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898178/pre-rain-green-up-is-ubiquitous-across-southern-tropical-africa-implications-for-temporal-niche-separation-and-model-representation
#7
Casey M Ryan, Mathew Williams, John Grace, Emily Woollen, Caroline E R Lehmann
Tree phenology mediates land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange and is a determinant of ecosystem structure and function. In the dry tropics, including African savannas, many trees grow new leaves during the dry season - weeks or months before the rains typically start. This syndrome of pre-rain green-up has long been recognized at small scales, but the high spatial and interspecific variability in leaf phenology has precluded regional generalizations. We used remote sensing data to show that this precocious phenology is ubiquitous across the woodlands and savannas of southern tropical Africa...
November 29, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896869/identifying-the-location-of-epidermal-growth-factor-responsive-element-involved-in-the-regulation-of-type-iib-sodium-phosphate-cotransporter-expression-in-porcine-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#8
T Xing, X Tan, Q Yu, T Yang, R Fang
Phosphate is an important mineral nutrient for both human and animals in growth and physiological functions; thus, much effort in the past has been made to clarify the mechanisms governing its absorption. Previous studies have found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits phosphate absorption in human intestinal cells via modulating the interaction of transcriptional factor c-myb with sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) gene promoter. This finding provoked our interest in determining the effect of EGF on NaPi-IIb gene expression in intestinal cells of pigs and the location of EGF-responsive element in the gene promoter...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889561/inhibition-of-interleukin-5-induced-false-positive-anti-drug-antibody-responses-against-mepolizumab-through-the-use-of-a-competitive-blocking-antibody
#9
Karen Liao, Erik Meyer, Thomas N Lee, Amy Loercher, Daniel Sikkema
Mepolizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks native homodimeric interleukin-5 (IL-5) from binding to the IL-5 receptor, has recently been approved for treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. Our initial immunogenicity assay method for phase I and II studies utilized a bridging electrochemiluminescence format with biotin and ruthenium-labelled mepolizumab linked by anti-drug antibodies (ADA). We discovered that IL-5 significantly increased in dosed subjects from a phase II study and that the increased IL-5 was in the form of a drug-bound complex...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886012/histogram-based-feature-extraction-from-individual-gray-matter-similarity-matrix-for-alzheimer-s-disease-classification
#10
Iman Beheshti, Norihide Maikusa, Hiroshi Matsuda, Hasan Demirel, Gholamreza Anbarjafari
Automatic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been widely used in classification of patients who suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper presents an automatic CAD system based on histogram feature extraction from single-subject gray matter similarity-matrix for classifying the AD patients from healthy controls (HC) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The proposed CAD system is composed of five stages. In the first stage, segmentation is employed to perform pre-processing on the MRI images, and segment into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid using the voxel-based morphometric toolbox procedure...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880791/common-noctule-bats-are-sexually-dimorphic-in-migratory-behaviour-and-body-size-but-not-wing-shape
#11
M Teague O'Mara, Karla Bauer, Dominik Blank, Justin W Baldwin, Dina K N Dechmann
Within the large order of bats, sexual size dimorphism measured by forearm length and body mass is often female-biased. Several studies have explained this through the effects on load carrying during pregnancy, intrasexual competition, as well as the fecundity and thermoregulation advantages of increased female body size. We hypothesized that wing shape should differ along with size and be under variable selection pressure in a species where there are large differences in flight behaviour. We tested whether load carrying, sex differential migration, or reproductive advantages of large females affect size and wing shape dimorphism in the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), in which females are typically larger than males and only females migrate long distances each year...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877137/an-extreme-mountain-ultra-marathon-decreases-the-cost-of-uphill-walking-and-running
#12
Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Spyros Skafidas, Andrea Zignoli, Antonio La Torre, Barbara Pellegrini, Guido Giardini, Pietro Trabucchi, Grégoire P Millet, Federico Schena
Purpose: To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24,000 m) on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h(-1), +20%; running at 6 km·h(-1), +15%; and running at 8 km·h(-1), +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871485/unusual-processing-generates-spa-lncrnas-that-sequester-multiple-rna-binding-proteins
#13
Huang Wu, Qing-Fei Yin, Zheng Luo, Run-Wen Yao, Chuan-Chuan Zheng, Jun Zhang, Jian-Feng Xiang, Li Yang, Ling-Ling Chen
We identify a type of polycistronic transcript-derived long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are 5' small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) capped and 3' polyadenylated (SPAs). SPA processing is associated with nascent mRNA 3' processing and kinetic competition between XRN2 trimming and Pol II elongation. Following cleavage/polyadenylation of its upstream gene, the downstream uncapped pre-SPA is trimmed by XRN2 until this exonuclease reaches the co-transcriptionally assembled snoRNP. This snoRNP complex prevents further degradation, generates a snoRNA 5' end, and allows continuous Pol II elongation...
November 3, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866765/safety-tolerability-and-immunogenicity-of-a-single-dose-4-antigen-or-3-antigen-staphylococcus-aureus-vaccine-in-healthy-older-adults-results-of-a-randomised-trial
#14
C Buddy Creech, Robert W Frenck, Eric A Sheldon, David J Seiden, Martin K Kankam, Edward T Zito, Douglas Girgenti, Joseph M Severs, Frederick W Immermann, Lisa K McNeil, David Cooper, Kathrin U Jansen, William Gruber, Joseph Eiden, Annaliesa S Anderson, James Baber
BACKGROUND: The decline in immune function with age is a challenge to vaccine development. Following an initial study in adults aged 18-64years, this study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) 4-antigen (SA4Ag) and 3-antigen (SA3Ag) vaccine in older adults. SA3Ag included capsular polysaccharide serotypes 5 and 8 (CP5 and CP8) conjugated to the nontoxic mutant form of diphtheria toxin (CRM197) and a recombinant version of clumping factor A (ClfA)...
November 17, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860106/protein-surface-mimetics-understanding-how-ruthenium-tris-bipyridines-interact-with-proteins
#15
Sarah H Hewitt, Maria H Filby, Ed Hayes, Lars T Kuhn, Arnout P Kalverda, Michael E Webb, Andrew John Wilson
Protein surface mimetics achieve high affinity binding by exploiting a scaffold to project binding groups over a large area of solvent exposed protein surface to make multiple co-operative non-covalent interactions. Such recognition is a pre-requisite for competitive/ orthosteric inhibition of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). This paper describes biophysical and structural studies on ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridine) surface mimetics that recognize cytochrome (cyt) c and inhibit the cyt c/ cyt c peroxidase (CCP) PPI...
November 17, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852157/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-aquatic-treadmill-training-on-land-treadmill-running-kinematics-a-cross-over-and-single-subject-design-approach
#16
Eadric Bressel, Talin J Louder, James P Hoover, Luke C Roberts, Dennis G Dolny
The aim of this study was to determine if selected kinematic measures (foot strike index [SI], knee contact angle and overstride angle) were different between aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) running, and to determine if these measures were altered during LTM running as a result of 6 weeks of ATM training. Acute effects were tested using 15 competitive distance runners who completed 1 session of running on each treadmill type at 5 different running speeds. Subsequently, three recreational runners completed 6 weeks of ATM training following a single-subject baseline, intervention and withdrawal experiment...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847991/synthesis-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-of-a-new-class-of-high-affinity-18-f-labeled-psma-ligands-for-detection-of-prostate-cancer-by-pet-imaging
#17
James Kelly, Alejandro Amor-Coarasa, Anastasia Nikolopoulou, Dohyun Kim, Clarence Williams, Shashikanth Ponnala, John W Babich
PURPOSE: Current clinical imaging of PSMA-positive prostate cancer by positron emission tomography (PET) mainly features (68)Ga-labeled tracers, notably [(68)Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC. The longer half-life of fluorine-18 offers significant advantages over Ga-68, clinically and logistically. We aimed to develop high-affinity PSMA inhibitors labeled with fluorine-18 as alternative tracers for prostate cancer. METHODS: Six triazolylphenyl ureas and their alkyne precursors were synthesized from the Glu-urea-Lys PSMA binding moiety...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845657/comparison-between-pre-log-and-post-log-statistical-models-in-ultra-low-dose-ct-reconstruction
#18
Lin Fu, Tzu-Cheng Lee, Soo Mee Kim, Adam Alessio, Paul Kinahan, Zhiqian Chang, Ken Sauer, Mannudeep Kalra, Bruno De Man
X-ray detectors in clinical computed tomography (CT) usually operate in current-integrating mode. Their complicated signal statistics often lead to intractable likelihood functions for practical use in model-based image reconstruction (MBIR). It is therefore desirable to design simplified statistical models without losing the essential factors. Depending on whether the CT transmission data are logarithmically transformed, pre-log and post-log models are two major categories of choices in CT MBIR. Both being approximations, it remains an open question whether one model can notably improve image quality over the other on real scanners...
November 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843493/recognizing-chemicals-in-patents-a-comparative-analysis
#19
Maryam Habibi, David Luis Wiegandt, Florian Schmedding, Ulf Leser
Recently, methods for Chemical Named Entity Recognition (NER) have gained substantial interest, driven by the need for automatically analyzing todays ever growing collections of biomedical text. Chemical NER for patents is particularly essential due to the high economic importance of pharmaceutical findings. However, NER on patents has essentially been neglected by the research community for long, mostly because of the lack of enough annotated corpora. A recent international competition specifically targeted this task, but evaluated tools only on gold standard patent abstracts instead of full patents; furthermore, results from such competitions are often difficult to extrapolate to real-life settings due to the relatively high homogeneity of training and test data...
2016: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837218/detailed-molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-ids-exonic-mutation-associated-with-multiple-pseudoexon-activation
#20
L Grodecká, T Kováčová, M Kramárek, S Seneca, K Stouffs, C De Laet, F Majer, T Kršjaková, P Hujová, K Hrnčířová, P Souček, W Lissens, E Buratti, Tomas Freiberger
: Mutations affecting splicing underlie the development of many human genetic diseases, but rather rarely through mechanisms of pseudoexon activation. Here, we describe a novel c.1092T>A mutation in the iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) gene detected in a patient with significantly decreased IDS activity and a clinical diagnosis of mild mucopolysaccharidosis II form. The mutation created an exonic de novo acceptor splice site and resulted in a complex splicing pattern with multiple pseudoexon activation in the patient's fibroblasts...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
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