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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522225/genetic-screening-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy-using-a-real-time-modified-cop-pcr-technique-with-dried-blood-spot-dna
#1
Mawaddah Ar Rochmah, Nur Imma Fatimah Harahap, Emma Tabe Eko Niba, Kenta Nakanishi, Hiroyuki Awano, Ichiro Morioka, Kazumoto Iijima, Toshio Saito, Kayoko Saito, Poh San Lai, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Atsuko Takeuchi, Yoshihiro Bouike, Maya Okamoto, Hisahide Nishio, Masakazu Shinohara
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in SMN1. More than 95% of SMA patients carry homozygous SMN1 deletion. SMA is the leading genetic cause of infant death, and has been considered an incurable disease. However, a recent clinical trial with an antisense oligonucleotide drug has shown encouraging clinical efficacy. Thus, early and accurate detection of SMN1 deletion may improve prognosis of many infantile SMA patients. METHODS: A total of 88 DNA samples (37 SMA patients, 12 carriers and 39 controls) from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper were analyzed...
May 15, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515442/interplay-between-alternative-splicing-and-alternative-polyadenylation-defines-the-expression-outcome-of-the-plant-unique-oxidative-tolerant-6-gene
#2
Qingshun Q Li, Zhaoyang Liu, Wenjia Lu, Man Liu
Pre-mRNA alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation have been implicated to play important roles during eukaryotic gene expression. However, much remains unknown regarding the regulatory mechanisms and the interactions of these two processes in plants. Here we focus on an Arabidopsis gene OXT6 (Oxidative Tolerant-6) that has been demonstrated to encode two proteins through alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation. Specifically, alternative polyadenylation at Intron-2 of OXT6 produces a transcript coding for AtCPSF30, an Arabidopsis ortholog of 30 kDa subunit of the Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511073/preparation-and-evaluation-of-l-and-d-5-18-f-fluorotryptophan-as-pet-imaging-probes-for-indoleamine-and-tryptophan-2-3-dioxygenases
#3
Tang Tang, Herman S Gill, Annie Ogasawara, Jeff N Tinianow, Alexander N Vanderbilt, Simon-Peter Williams, Georgia Hatzivassiliou, Sharla White, Wendy Sandoval, Kevin DeMent, Mengling Wong, Jan Marik
Indoleamine and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (IDO1 and TDO2) are pyrrolases catalyzing the oxidative cleavage of the 2,3-double bond of L-tryptophan in kynurenine pathway. In the tumor microenvironment, their increased activity prevents normal immune function, i.e. tumor cell recognition and elimination by cytotoxic T-cells. Consequently, inhibition of the kynurenine pathway may enhance the activity of cancer immunotherapeutics by reversing immune dysfunction. We sought to investigate the properties of radiolabeled 5-[(18)F]fluorotryptophan with respect to its ability for measuring IDO1 and TDO2 activity by positron emission tomography (PET)...
May 5, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503740/weed-interference-with-peppermint-mentha-x-piperita-l-and-spearmint-mentha-spicata-l-crops-under-different-herbicide-treatments-effects-on-biomass-and-essential-oil-yield
#4
Anestis Karkanis, Christos Lykas, Vasiliki Liava, Anna Bezou, Spyridon Petropoulos, Nikolaos Tsiropoulos
BACKGROUND: 'Minor crops' such as spearmint and peppermint are high added value crops, despite the fact that their production area is comparably small worldwide. The main limiting factor in mint commercial cultivation is weed competition. Thus, field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of weed interference on growth, biomass and essential oil yield in peppermint and spearmint under different herbicide treatments. RESULTS: The application of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen provided better control of annual weeds resulting in higher crop yield...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502103/reduced-platelet-aggregation-in-women-after-intercourse-a-possible-role-for-the-cyclooxygenase-pathway
#5
Gabriel Mayoral-Andrade, Laura Pérez-Campos-Mayoral, Abraham Majluf-Cruz, Eduardo Perez-Campos Mayoral, Carlos Perezcampos Mayoral, Ana Rocha-Núñez, Margarito Martinez, Edgar Zenteno, Leticia Hernandez-Gonzalez, María Guadalupe López Juan, Alma Dolores Pérez-Santiago, Eduardo Pérez-Campos
We hypothesise that molecules in the cyclooxygenase pathway affect platelet activity when seminal fluid (SF) is present. We considered the influence of SF on platelet aggregation in women, and believe that the prostanoids in SF signalling are significant. Thirty-one female subjects were studied, 20 of whom were sexually active. Male partners were given either aspirin or indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. The 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (6-keto PGF1α) and prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) in SF were measured by competitive assay...
May 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501621/discovery-of-a-novel-prolyl-trna-synthetase-inhibitor-and-elucidation-of-its-binding-mode-to-the-atp-site-in-complex-with-l-proline
#6
Ryutaro Adachi, Kengo Okada, Robert Skene, Kazumasa Ogawa, Masanori Miwa, Kazuhiro Tsuchinaga, Shoichi Ohkubo, Tsutomu Henta, Tomohiro Kawamoto
Prolyl-tRNA synthetase (PRS) is a member of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family of enzymes and catalyzes the synthesis of prolyl-tRNA(Pro) using ATP, l-proline, and tRNA(Pro) as substrates. An ATP-dependent PRS inhibitor, halofuginone, was shown to suppress autoimmune responses, suggesting that the inhibition of PRS is a potential therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Although a few PRS inhibitors have been derivatized from natural sources or substrate mimetics, small-molecule PRS inhibitors have not been reported...
May 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493882/selective-pre-priming-of-ha-specific-cd4-t-cells-restores-immunological-reactivity-to-ha-on-heterosubtypic-influenza-infection
#7
Shabnam Alam, Cory Chan, Xing Qiu, Ian Shannon, Chantelle L White, Andrea J Sant, Jennifer L Nayak
A hallmark of the immune response to influenza is repeated encounters with proteins containing both genetically conserved and variable components. Therefore, the B and T cell repertoire is continually being remodeled, with competition between memory and naïve lymphocytes. Our previous work using a mouse model of secondary heterosubtypic influenza infection has shown that this competition results in a focusing of CD4 T cell response specificity towards internal virion proteins with a selective decrease in CD4 T cell reactivity to the novel HA epitopes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486336/seasonal-variations-of-bone-metabolism-and-bone-mineral-density-in-collegiate-alpine-skiers
#8
Teruyuki Sato, Keishoku Sakuraba, Yosuke Tsuchiya, Shinya Maruyama, Eisuke Ochi
This study investigated the seasonal variations in bone metabolism, mineral density, and physical characteristics in collegiate alpine skiers. Twelve male subjects (20.6 ± 1.5 years) were evaluated for body composition, body mineral density (BMD), serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), parathormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). We also measured the knee extensor and flexor strength, maximal power, and vertical jump. Measurements were conducted in the pre-season period (T1), competitive period (T2), end-of-season period (T3), and resting period (T4)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486197/on-site-cellulase-production-and-efficient-saccharification-of-corn-stover-employing-cbh2-overexpressing-trichoderma-reesei-with-novel-induction-system
#9
Yonghao Li, Xiaoyue Zhang, Liang Xiong, Muhammad Aamer Mehmood, Xinqing Zhao, Fengwu Bai
Although on-site cellulase production offers cost-effective saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass, low enzyme titer is still a barrier for achieving robustness. In the present study, a strain of T. reesei was developed for enhanced production of cellulase via overexpression of Cellobiohydrolase II. Furthermore, optimum enzyme production was achieved using a novel inducer mixture containing synthesized glucose-sophorose (MGD) and alkali pre-treated corn stover (APCS). Within 60h, a remarkably higher cellulase productivity and activity were achieved in the fed-batch fermentation using the optimized ratio of MGD and APCS in the inducer mixture, compared to those reported using cellulosic biomass as the sole inducer...
April 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483160/competitive-interactions-in-visual-working-memory-drive-access-to-awareness
#10
Dirk van Moorselaar, Surya Gayet, Chris L E Paffen, Jan Theeuwes, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Christian N L Olivers
Models of biased competition assume that pre-activating a visual representation in visual working memory (VWM) biases perception towards memory-matching objects. Consistent with this, it has been shown that targets suppressed by interocular competition gain prioritized access to awareness when they match VWM content. Thus far, these VWM biases during interocular suppression have been investigated with minimal levels of competition, as there was always only one target stimulus and observers only held a single item in VWM...
April 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480685/hormonal-responses-to-a-rugby-match-a-brief-review
#11
Maamer Slimani, Foued Cheour, Wassim Moalla, Julien S Baker
BACKGROUND: Rugby is an intermittent team sport, commonly stressing the endocrine system by physiological efforts. However, no review has synthesized the available literature on the hormonal responses to a rugby match. The purpose of this review was to examine the hormonal responses to a rugby match. Mediator and moderator variables for the rugby match- hormonal responses relationship were also discussed. METHODS: The systematic search was conducted using different databases and according to the Population/Intervention or Exposure/Comparison/Outcome(s) [PICO] criteria...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480334/hpv-serostatus-pre-and-post-vaccination-in-a-randomized-phase-ii-preparedness-trial-among-young-western-cape-south-african-women-the-evri-trial
#12
Staci L Sudenga, B Nelson Torres, Matthys H Botha, Michele Zeier, Martha E Abrahamsen, Richard H Glashoff, Susan Engelbrecht, Maarten F Schim Van der Loeff, Louvina E Van der Laan, Siegfried Kipping, Douglas Taylor, Anna R Giuliano
BACKGROUND: HPV antibodies are a marker of past exposure to the virus. Our objective was to assess HPV serostatus pre- and post-vaccination among HIV-negative women. METHODS: Women aged 16-24 years old were randomized in a placebo controlled trial utilizing the 4-valent HPV (4vHPV) vaccine (NCT01489527, clinicaltrials.gov). Participants (n=389) received the 4vHPV vaccine or placebo following a three dose schedule. Sera were collected at Day 1 and Month 7 for assessment of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 neutralizing antibody levels using a multiplex competitive Luminex immunoassay (Merck) based on detecting the L1 capsid antigen for each HPV type...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479951/acute-effects-of-24-h-sleep-deprivation-on-salivary-cortisol-and-testosterone-concentrations-and-testosterone-to-cortisol-ratio-following-supplementation-with-caffeine-or-placebo
#13
Ciaran Mc Donald, Joss Moore, Alan McIntyre, Kevin Carmody, Bernard Donne
Caffeine has become a popular ergogenic aid amongst athletes and usage to improve athletic performance has been well documented. The effect of caffeine on anabolic and catabolic hormones in a sleep-deprived s tate has had little investigation to date. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential of caffeine to offset the effects, if any, of short-term sleep deprivation and exercise on an athlete's testosterone and cortisol concentrations via salivary technique. Eleven competitive male athletes volunteered to be part of this prospective double-blinded study...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474272/-a-good-collaboration-is-based-on-unique-contributions-from-each-side-assessing-the-dynamics-of-collaboration-in-stem-cell-science
#14
Michael Morrison
The rise of 'big biology' is bringing academic and industrial scientists together in large consortia to address translational challenges in the life sciences. In order to assess the impact of this change, this paper examines the existing norms and styles of collaboration in one high profile translational domain; stem cell research. Data is drawn from qualitative interviews with academic and industry scientists working in a large European stem cell research project. Respondents discussed what they perceived as the main benefits and risks of collaborative research, what styles of collaboration they were familiar with, and what collaborative work in stem cell science normally involves...
December 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472413/islandviewer-4-expanded-prediction-of-genomic-islands-for-larger-scale-datasets
#15
Claire Bertelli, Matthew R Laird, Kelly P Williams, Britney Y Lau, Gemma Hoad, Geoffrey L Winsor, Fiona Sl Brinkman
IslandViewer (http://www.pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer/) is a widely-used webserver for the prediction and interactive visualization of genomic islands (GIs, regions of probable horizontal origin) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs disproportionately encode factors that enhance the adaptability and competitiveness of the microbe within a niche, including virulence factors and other medically or environmentally important adaptations. We report here the release of IslandViewer 4, with novel features to accommodate the needs of larger-scale microbial genomics analysis, while expanding GI predictions and improving its flexible visualization interface...
May 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471749/thickness-dependent-friction-on-few-layer-mos-sub-2-sub-ws-sub-2-sub-and-wse-sub-2-sub
#16
Liang Fang, Dameng Liu, Yuzheng Guo, Zhimin Liao, Jianbin Luo, Shizhu Wen
Nanoscale friction on two-dimensional materials is closely associated with their mechanical, electronic and photonic properties, which can be modulated through changing thickness. Here, we investigated the thickness dependent friction on few-layer MoS<sub>2</sub>, WS<sub>2</sub>, and WSe<sub>2</sub> using atomic force microscope at ambient condition and found two different behavior. When a sharp tip was used, the regular behavior of decreasing friction with increasing thickness was reproduced...
May 4, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469754/effects-of-the-off-season-period-on-field-and-assistant-soccer-referees-physical-performance
#17
Daniel Castillo, Jesús Cámara, Carlo Castagna, Javier Yanci
The evolution of referees' physical fitness has been studied over one or several seasons, however, the variation of the physical performance between the end of the competitive season (T1) and the start of the following pre-season (T2) has not been ascertained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the transition period on physical performance variables (i.e. linear straight sprint, change of direction ability and endurance) in National Soccer Division referees. Forty-five Spanish referees volunteered to participate in this study...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469745/adequacy-of-the-ultra-short-term-hrv-to-assess-adaptive-processes-in-youth-female-basketball-players
#18
Fabio Y Nakamura, Lucas A Pereira, Cesar C Cal Abad, Igor F Cruz, Andrew A Flatt, Michael R Esco, Irineu Loturco
Heart rate variability has been widely used to monitor athletes' cardiac autonomic control changes induced by training and competition, and recently shorter recording times have been sought to improve its practicality. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between the (ultra-short-term) natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (lnRMSSD - measured in only 1 min post-1 min stabilization) and the criterion lnRMSSD (measured in the last 5 min out of 10 min of recording) in young female basketball players...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467512/first-evidence-of-biogenic-habitat-from-tubeworms-providing-a-near-absolute-habitat-requirement-for-high-intertidal-ulva-macroalgae
#19
Kiran Liversage
Disturbances in ecological systems can cause new resources to become available and can free the resources held by strongly competitive species. In intertidal boulder fields, wave-action causes disturbance by overturning boulders and freeing space for re-colonisation. In this study, mensurative experiments showed that boulder disturbance may also cause new biogenic-habitat resources to become available, if pre-disturbance boulders originally had tubeworm encrustations on their undersides. On the high-shore of a South Australian rocky coast, a small proportion of boulders had extensive encrustations of serpulid and spirorbid worm-tubes on their uppersides, and were likely to have recently been overturned, as spirorbid tubeworms are almost always only underneath boulders while living...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467488/accelerated-development-in-johnsongrass-seedlings-sorghum-halepense-suppresses-the-growth-of-native-grasses-through-size-asymmetric-competition
#20
Susanne Schwinning, Heather Meckel, Lara G Reichmann, H Wayne Polley, Philip A Fay
Invasive plant species often dominate native species in competition, augmenting other potential advantages such as release from natural enemies. Resource pre-emption may be a particularly important mechanism for establishing dominance over competitors of the same functional type. We hypothesized that competitive success of an exotic grass against native grasses is mediated by establishing an early size advantage. We tested this prediction among four perennial C4 warm-season grasses: the exotic weed Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparius) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)...
2017: PloS One
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