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Pre competition

Fiona R Macfarlane, Tommaso Lorenzi, Mark A J Chaplain
A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that immune cells move in an unrestricted search pattern if they are in the pre-activated state, whilst they tend to stay within a more restricted area upon activation induced by the presence of tumour antigens. This change in movement is not often considered in the existing mathematical models of the interactions between immune cells and cancer cells. With the aim to fill such a gap in the existing literature, in this work we present a spatially structured individual-based model of tumour-immune competition that takes explicitly into account the difference in movement between inactive and activated immune cells...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Kristy L Smith, Patricia L Weir, Kevin Till, Michael Romann, Stephen Cobley
BACKGROUND: Subtle differences in chronological age within sport (bi-) annual-age groupings can contribute to immediate participation and long-term attainment discrepancies; known as the relative age effect. Voluminous studies have examined relative age effects in male sport; however, their prevalence and context-specific magnitude in female sport remain undetermined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and magnitude of relative age effects in female sport via examination of published data spanning 1984-2016...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Itay Cohen, Si Naftaly, Efrat Ben-Zeev, Alexandra Hockla, Evette S Radisky, Niv Papo
High structural and sequence similarity within protein families can pose significant challenges to the development of selective inhibitors, especially towards proteolytic enzymes. Such enzymes usually belong to large families of closely similar proteases and may also hydrolyze, with different rates, protein or peptide-based inhibitors. To address this challenge, we employed a combinatorial yeast surface display library approach complemented with a novel pre-equilibrium, competitive screening strategy for facile assessment of the effects of multiple mutations on inhibitor association rates and binding specificity...
March 13, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Cesare de Gregorio, Dalia Di Nunzio, Gianluca Di Bella
Physical activity comprises all muscular activities that require energy expenditure. Regular sequence of structured and organized exercise with the specific purpose of improving wellness and athletic performance is defined as a sports activity.Exercise can be performed at various levels of intensity and duration. According to the social context and pathways, it can be recreational, occupational, and competitive. Therefore, the training burden varies inherently and the heart adaptation is challenging.Although a general agreement on the fact that sports practice leads to metabolic, functional and physical benefits, there is evidence that some athletes may be subjected to adverse outcomes...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
F Artigas, P Celada, A Bortolozzi
In the second part we focus on two treatment strategies that may overcome the main limitations of current antidepressant drugs. First, we review the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the use of glutamatergic drugs as fast-acting antidepressants. Secondly, we review the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and the use of small RNAs (e.g.., small interfering RNAs or siRNAs) to knockdown genes in monoaminergic and non-monoaminergic neurons and induce antidepressant-like responses in experimental animals...
March 7, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ishan Gupta, Andrew M J Young
The non-competitive glutamate antagonist, phencyclidine is used in rodents to model behavioural deficits see in schizophrenia. Importantly, these deficits endure long after the cessation of short-term chronic treatment (sub-chronic), indicating that the drug treatment causes long-term changes in the physiology and/or chemistry of the brain. There is evidence that this may occur through glutamatergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine release, perhaps involving metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). This study sought to investigate the effect of sub-chronic phencyclidine pretreatment on modulation of dopamine neurotransmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 5 (mGluR2 and mGluR5) in the nucleus accumbens shell in vitro, with the hypothesis that phencyclidine pretreatment would disrupt the mGluR-mediated modulation of dopamine release...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research
Robin J Tyacke, Jim F M Myers, Ashwin Venkataraman, Inge Mick, Samuel Turton, Jan Passchier, Stephen M Husbands, Eugenii Ilan A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Philip S Murphy, Christine A Parker, David J Nutt
The imidazoline2 binding site (I2 BS), are thought to be expressed in glia, and implicated in the regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein. A PET ligand for this target would be important for the investigation of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases.11 C-BU99008 has previously been identified as a putative PET radioligand. Here we present the first in vivo characterisation of this PET radioligand in humans and assess its test-retest reproducibility. Methods 14 healthy male volunteers underwent dynamic PET imaging with11 C-BU99008 and arterial sampling...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Zhong Chen, Yifei Zhang, Chao Ouyang, Feng Zhang, Jie Ma
Landslides that take place in mountain cities tend to cause huge casualties and economic losses, and a precise survey of landslide areas is a critical task for disaster emergency. However, because of the complicated appearance of the nature, it is difficult to find a spatial regularity that only relates to landslides, thus landslides detection based on only spatial information or artificial features usually performs poorly. In this paper, an automated landslides detection approach that is aiming at mountain cities has been proposed based on pre- and post-event remote sensing images, it mainly utilizes the knowledge of landslide-related surface covering changes, and makes full use of the temporal and spatial information...
March 9, 2018: Sensors
Kengo Shimozaki, Junsuke Nakase, Yasushi Takata, Yosuke Shima, Katsuhiko Kitaoka, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
PURPOSE: This 3-year prospective study assessed risk factors for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female Japanese high school basketball players. Players suffering noncontact ACL injuries were assumed to demonstrate poorer hip abductor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle strength, as well as static balance, than those without injuries. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-five new female high school basketball players underwent baseline examinations for various parameters during their first year of high school...
March 6, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Ola Engkvist, Per-Ola Norrby, Nidhal Selmi, Yu-Hong Lam, Zhengwei Peng, Edward C Sherer, Willi Amberg, Thomas Erhard, Lynette A Smyth
Over the past few decades, various computational methods have become increasingly important for discovering and developing novel drugs. Computational prediction of chemical reactions is a key part of an efficient drug discovery process. In this review, we discuss important parts of this field, with a focus on utilizing reaction data to build predictive models, the existing programs for synthesis prediction, and usage of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) to explore chemical reactions. We also outline potential future developments with an emphasis on pre-competitive collaboration opportunities...
March 3, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Paula C Charlton, Benjamin Raysmith, Martin Wollin, Simon Rice, Craig Purdam, Ross A Clark, Michael K Drew
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate strength and flexibility measures pre- and post- Australian Football (AF) competition to determine their potential utility as secondary prevention measures. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Semi-professional AF club. PARTICIPANTS: Ten male AF athletes (mean ± SD; age, 21.3 ± 2.2 years; height, 186.1 ± 6.3 cm; weight, 83.5 ± 8.6 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maximal unilateral isometric knee flexion strength performed in 45 degrees of hip flexion and 30 degrees of knee flexion, flexibility measures of hip and knee extension and ankle dorsiflexion...
February 2, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Ali Emami, Asghar Tofighi, Siamak Asri-Rezaei, Behnaz Bazargani-Gilani
Strenuous physical exercise and hyperthermia may paradoxically induce oxidative stress and adverse effects on myocardial function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 14-d coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation and pre-cooling on serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac Troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin (Mb), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and CoQ10 concentration in elite swimmers. In total, thirty-six healthy males (mean age 17 (sd 1) years) were randomly selected and divided into four groups of supplementation, supplementation with pre-cooling, pre-cooling and control...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Barry P Katz, Maria Kudela, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Michael McCrea, Thomas McAllister, Steven P Broglio
BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussion and repetitive head impact exposure in contact sports continue to receive increased attention in public and medical spheres. The Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium, a multicenter cooperative, was established to study the natural history of concussion in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collegiate student-athletes across 29 colleges and universities in the United States. The purpose of this investigation is to provide normative data from the CARE Consortium and evaluate for differences between sport categories...
March 1, 2018: Sports Medicine
Gaizka Mejuto, Samuel Chalmers, Stephanie Gilbert, David Bentley
The effects of pre cooling on endurance performance are widely known. In contrast, the approach of cooling during endurance exercise in combination with pre-exercise cooling has been poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effects of precooling and cooling during exercise enhance exercise performance compared to the ingestion of a thermo-neutral beverage (20 °C) or precooling alone in cycling performance. This was an experimental study using a randomised crossover design in which 7 cyclists underwent three trials comprising of 45 min steady state cycling (SS) at 70% VO2 max and a subsequent 10 km time trial (TT) in hot conditions (32 °C, 50% relative humidity)...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Rusen Zou, Xiaobin Liao, Lei Zhao, Baoling Yuan
Formation of toxic N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by chloramination of ranitidine, a drug to block histamine, was still an ongoing issue and posed a risk to human health. In this study, the effect of ozonation prior to chloramination on NDMA formation and the transformation pathway were determined. Influencing factors, including ozone dosages, pH, hydroxyl radical scavenger, bromide, and NOM, were studied. The results demonstrated that small ozone dosage (0.5 mg/L) could effectively control NDMA formation from subsequent chloramination (from 40 to 0...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Z Valentina Zizzari, Andrea Jessen, Joris M Koene
In the animal kingdom there are countless strategies via which males optimize their reproductive success when faced with male-male competition. These male strategies typically fall into two main categories: pre- and post-copulatory competition. Within these 2 categories, a set of behaviors, referred to as reproductive suppression, is known to cause inhibition of reproductive physiology and/or reproductive behavior in an otherwise fertile individual. What becomes evident when considering examples of reproductive suppression is that these strategies conventionally encompass reproductive interference strategies that occur between members of a hierarchical social group...
October 2017: Current Zoology
Lorenzo I Finci, Xiaofeng Zhang, Xiuliang Huang, Qiang Zhou, Jennifer Tsai, Teng Teng, Anant Agrawal, Betty Chan, Sean Irwin, Craig Karr, Andrew Cook, Ping Zhu, Dominic Reynolds, Peter G Smith, Peter Fekkes, Silvia Buonamici, Nicholas A Larsen
Somatic mutations in spliceosome proteins lead to dysregulated RNA splicing and are observed in a variety of cancers. These genetic aberrations may offer a potential intervention point for targeted therapeutics. SF3B1, part of the U2 small nuclear RNP (snRNP), is targeted by splicing modulators, including E7107, the first to enter clinical trials, and, more recently, H3B-8800. Modulating splicing represents a first-in-class opportunity in drug discovery, and elucidating the structural basis for the mode of action opens up new possibilities for structure-based drug design...
February 1, 2018: Genes & Development
S García-Martínez, M A Sánchez-Hurtado, H Gutiérrez, F M Sánchez-Margallo, R Romar, R Latorre, P Coy, O López-Albors
STUDY QUESTION: Is O2 tension in the pig oviduct and uterus affected by the estrous cycle stage and the animal's age, and can the outcome of in vitro embryo development be improved by mimicking these physiological values? SUMMARY ANSWER: O2 tension within the pig reproductive organs is affected by the animal's age, and values close to those measured in vivo have a positive impact on embryo development and quality when used during IVF and embryo culture (EC). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: To obtain a healthy embryo in vitro, it is necessary to adopt a culture microenvironment that approximates physiological conditions...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Joanna Orysiak, Konrad Witek, Jadwiga Malczewska-Lenczowska, Agnieszka Zembron-Lacny, Andrzej Pokrywka, Dariusz Sitkowski
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 17 days of training during preparation for the Ice Hockey Under 18 World Championship of the Polish ice hockey national team on the mucosal immune function and monitor upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) incidence before, during and after the competition. Twelve male ice hockey players (age 17.7±0.5 years) were recruited for this study. The first saliva/blood collection took place at the beginning of the training camp (without training at the training camp), the second one was conducted on the 9th day of the training camp immediately after the intensification of training, and the third collection was carried out on the 13th day of training (4 days before leaving for the World Championship) in the tapering phase...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Meredith G Mock, Katie R Hirsch, Malia N M Blue, Eric T Trexler, Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The current study sought to evaluate the effects of post-exercise ingestion of a high molecular weight glucose polymer solution (HMW) compared to an isocaloric low molecular weight solution (LMW) or placebo (PLA) on subsequent cycling performance in female athletes. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 10 competitive female cyclists (Mean ± SD; Age = 25.7 ± 5.0 yrs; VO2peak = 49.7 ± 4.3 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed three testing sessions separated by 7-10 days...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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