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Cuan M Harrington, Patrick Dicker, Oscar Traynor, Dara O Kavanagh
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgery poses a unique learning curve due to the requirement for non-intuitive psychomotor skills. The fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) program trains and certifies residents in such skills. However, innate predictors of FLS performance and maintenance remain to be described. This single-centre observational study aimed to assess for candidate factors influencing the acquisition and maintenance of FLS performance amongst a surgically naïve cohort...
May 18, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Dawid Lichosyt, Sylwia Wasiłek, Paweł Dydio, Janusz Jurczak
The understanding of the host-guest interactions lies at the very heart of supramolecular chemistry. Often a minute change to the structure of a receptor can have a dramatic impact on the binding selectivity. Herein, we studied the influence of small perturbations in biding site geometry for a series of five closely correlated macrocyclic tetra-amide receptors, constructed from building blocks out of a pool of azulene-based units. The solid-state structures revealed that the conformational preferences of the free receptors are driven by the inherent preferences of the building blocks, yet in some cases the macrocyclic topology is able to override these to promote pre-organized conformations favorable for anion binding...
May 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Júlio C G Silva, Rodrigo R Aniceto, Leandro S Oliota-Ribeiro, Gabriel R Neto, Leonardo S Leandro, Maria S Cirilo-Sousa
This study compared the acute effects of resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on basketball players' mood states. A total of 11 male basketball players (mean age = 19.9, SD = 2.8 years; mean height = 180.8, SD = 7.8 cm; mean weight = 71.1, SD = 9.1 kg; mean body mass index = 22.1, SD = 1.9 kg/m2 ) were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions: (a) low-load resistance exercise with BFR (LLRE + BFR) and high-load resistance exercise (HLRE) without BFR...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Xiangyu Cao, Pierre Le Doussal, Alberto Rosso, Raoul Santachiara
We study transitions in log-correlated random energy models (logREMs) that are related to the violation of a Seiberg bound in Liouville field theory (LFT): the binding transition and the termination point transition (a.k.a., pre-freezing). By means of LFT-logREM mapping, replica symmetry breaking and traveling-wave equation techniques, we unify both transitions in a two-parameter diagram, which describes the free-energy large deviations of logREMs with a deterministic background log potential, or equivalently, the joint moments of the free energy and Gibbs measure in logREMs without background potential...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
H Braun, L Woitsch, B Hetzer, R Geisen, B Zange, M Schmidt-Heydt
A quarter of the world-wide crop is spoiled by filamentous fungi and their mycotoxins and weather extremes associated with the climate change lead to further deterioration of the situation. The ingestion of mycotoxins causes several health issues leading in the worst case to cancer in humans and animals. Common intervention strategies against mycotoxin producing fungi, such as the application of fungicides, may result in undesirable residues and in some cases to a stress induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Macià Buades-Rotger, Christin Engelke, Ulrike M Krämer
The steroid hormone testosterone (T) has been suggested to influence reactive aggression upon its action on the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a key brain region for threat detection. However, it is unclear whether T modulates resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the BLA, and whether this predicts subsequent aggressive behavior. Aggressive interactions themselves, which often induce changes in T concentrations, could further alter BLA rsFC, but this too remains untested. Here we investigated the effect of endogenous T on rsFC of the BLA at baseline as well as after an aggressive encounter, and whether this was related to behavioral aggression in healthy young women (n = 39)...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Zhi Gao, Mingjie Lao, Yongsheng Sang, Fei Wen, Bharath Ramesh, Ruifang Zhai
Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors have been widely deployed on intelligent systems such as unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to perform localization, obstacle detection, and navigation tasks. Thus, research into range data processing with competitive performance in terms of both accuracy and efficiency has attracted increasing attention. Sparse coding has revolutionized signal processing and led to state-of-the-art performance in a variety of applications. However, dictionary learning, which plays the central role in sparse coding techniques, is computationally demanding, resulting in its limited applicability in real-time systems...
May 6, 2018: Sensors
Scott A Goldberg, Daniel A Dworkis, Vincent T Liao, Andrew J Eyre, Jack Albert, Meghan M Fawcett, Conor M Narovec, James DiClemente, Scott G Weiner
OBJECTIVE: Pre-stationing naloxone, a competitive antagonist that can reverse the effects of opioid overdose, in public spaces may expedite antidote delivery. Our study aimed to determine the feasibility of bystander-assisted overdose treatment using pre-stationed naloxone. METHODS: Convenience sample of bystanders in Cambridge, Massachusetts in April 2017. Subjects assisted a simulated patient described as unconscious. Subjects interacted with simulated EMS dispatch to locate a nearby box, unlock it, and administer naloxone...
May 3, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Francisco Javier Pellegrino, Analía Risso, Pablo G Vaquero, Yanina A Corrada
Dog sports competitions have greatly expanded. The availability of reference values for each type of activity could help assess fitness accurately. Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BL) and rectal temperature (RT) are relevant physiological parameters to determine the dogs response to effort. Previous studies in greyhounds have reported the effect of high-intensity exercise on many physiological parameters immediately after completing different racing distances and recovery times. However, there are no studies concerning physiological changes over shorter racing distances...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Juan Marcelo Arias, Maria Eugenia Tuttolomondo, Sonia Beatriz Díaz, Aida Ben Altabef
The aim of this work is to analyze the consequences of water redistribution on the structure and stability of phospholipid bilayers induced by Cysteine (Cys). This interaction is studied with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multilamellar vesicles, in gel (30 ºC) and liquid crystalline (50 ºC) state; experimental studies were performed by means of Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIT), Raman Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The polar head sites of the lipid molecules to which water can bind are identified by competition with compounds that form hydrogen bonds such as Cys...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
André Schwertner, Maxciel Zortea, Felipe V Torres, Wolnei Caumo
Ketamine is a non-competitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist whose effect in subanesthetic doses has been studied for chronic pain and mood disorders treatment. It has been proposed that ketamine could change the perception of nociceptive stimuli by modulating the cortical connectivity and altering the top-down mechanisms that control conscious pain perception. As this is a strictly central effect, it would be relevant to provide fresh insight into ketamine's effect on cortical response to external stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
J Patricia Dhar, Lynnette Essenmacher, Renee Dhar, Ardella Magee, Joel Ager, Robert J Sokol
OBJECTIVE: To determine if natural human papillomavirus (HPV) infection would induce an anamnestic response to quadrivalent (qHPV) vaccine in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Thirty four women (19-50 years) with mild to moderate and minimally active or inactive SLE received standard qHPV vaccine. Neutralizing antibody titers to HPV 6, 11, 16 and18 were evaluated pre- and post- vaccine using HPV competitive Luminex Immunoassay. For each HPV type, logistic regressions were performed to explore the relationship between a positive titer at baseline with their final geometric mean titer and with the rise in titer...
April 30, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Michael Pereira, Ferran Argelaguet, José Del R Millán, Anatole Lécuyer
Competition changes the environment for athletes. The difficulty of training for such stressful events can lead to the well-known effect of "choking" under pressure, which prevents athletes from performing at their best level. To study the effect of competition on the human brain, we recorded pilot electroencephalography (EEG) data while novice shooters were immersed in a realistic virtual environment representing a shooting range. We found a differential between-subject effect of competition on mu (8-12 Hz) oscillatory activity during aiming; compared to training, the more the subject was able to desynchronize his mu rhythm during competition, the better was his shooting performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Peter B Adler, Andrew Kleinhesselink, Hooker Giles, J Bret Taylor, Brittany Teller, Stephen P Ellner
Stable coexistence requires intraspecific limitations to be stronger than interspecific limitations. The greater the difference between intra- and interspecific limitations, the more stable the coexistence, and the weaker the competitive release any species should experience following removal of competitors. We conducted a removal experiment to test whether a previously estimated model, showing surprisingly weak interspecific competition for four dominant species in a sagebrush steppe, accurately predicts competitive release...
April 28, 2018: Ecology
Qian Yang, Jinhua Li, Xiaoyan Wang, Hailong Peng, Hua Xiong, Lingxin Chen
One pressing concern today is to construct sensors that can withstand various disturbances for highly selective and sensitive detecting trace analytes in complicated samples. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with tailor-made binding sites are preferred to be recognition elements in sensors for effective targets detection, and fluorescence measurement assists in highly sensitive detection and user-friendly control. Accordingly, molecular imprinting-based fluorescence sensors (MI-FL sensors) have attracted great research interest in many fields such as chemical and biological analysis...
April 17, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Sonia Rosa Veiga, Xuemei Ge, Carol A Mercer, María Isabel Hernández-Alvarez, Hala Elnakat Thomas, Javier Hernández-Losa, Santiago Ramón Y Cajal, Antonio Zorzano, George Thomas, Sara C Kozma
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second in cancer mortality and has limited therapeutic options. We recently described the synergistic effect of allosteric and ATP-site competitive inhibitors against the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) for the treatment of HCC. However, such inhibitors induce glycemia and increase mitochondrial efficiency. Here we determined whether the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor Phenformin could reverse both side effects, impose an energetic-stress on cancer cells and suppress the growth of HCC...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Hitoshi Kodamatani, Shannon L Roback, Megan H Plumlee, Kenneth P Ishida, Hiroto Masunaga, Noboru Maruyama, Takahiro Fujioka
A newly developed, ion exchange-based inline pretreatment system was used to mitigate the effect of background constituents in natural water and treated wastewater to achieve rapid, reliable, and sensitive analysis of N-nitrosamines. The pretreatment system (anion exchange module, AEM) was incorporated into a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) coupled with a photochemical reactor (PR) and chemiluminescence (CL) detector (HPLC-PR-CL), which can analyze four hydrophilic N-nitrosamines at ng/L levels...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Anji Anura, Anees Kazi, Mousumi Pal, Ranjan Rashmi Paul, Sanghamitra Sengupta, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
Epithelial abnormality during the transformation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) into oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well studied and documented. However, the differential contribution of atrophy and hyperplasia for malignant potentiality of OSF is yet to be resolved. Existing diagnostic conjectures lack precise diagnostic attributes which may be effectively resolved by substantiation of specific molecular pathology signatures. Present study elucidates existence of cellular competitiveness in OSF conditions using computer-assisted neighbourhood analysis in quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) framework...
April 23, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Majid Jafari-Sabet, Shiva Amiri, Ramin Ataee
RATIONALE: Tramadol, an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, as a psychoactive drug, is frequently abused by human beings. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of drug-associated learning and memory formation may help prevent drug addiction and relapse. Previous study revealed that dorsal hippocampus (CA1) plays a crucial role in the retrieval of tramadol-associated memory and that its role depends on the expression of CA1 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (Jafari-Sabet et al...
April 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Rekesh Corepal, Paul Best, Roisin O'Neill, Mark A Tully, Mark Edwards, Russell Jago, Sarah J Miller, Frank Kee, Ruth F Hunter
OBJECTIVE: To explore the temporal changes of adolescents' views and experiences of participating in a gamified intervention to encourage physical activity behaviour and associated processes of behaviour change. DESIGN: A qualitative longitudinal design was adopted whereby focus groups were conducted with the same participants in each intervention school (n=3) at four time-points (baseline, end of each of two intervention phases and 1-year follow-up). The framework method was used to thematically analyse the data...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
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