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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714826/effects-of-peroneal-muscles-fatigue-on-dynamic-stability-following-lateral-hop-landing-time-to-stabilization-vs-dynamic-postural-stability-index
#1
Kazem Malmir, Gholam Reza Olyaei, Saeed Talebian, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi, Majid Ashraf Ganguie
CONTEXT: Dynamic stability is a necessary requirement in many sports competitions. Muscle fatigue, which can impair stability, may be occurred in many sports competitions in which lateral movements and landing repeated frequently. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of peroneal muscles fatigue on dynamic stability following lateral hop landing through measuring time to stabilization (TTS) and dynamic postural stability index (DPSI). DESIGN: Quasi-experimental...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714783/performance-outcomes-after-hook-of-hamate-fractures-in-major-league-baseball-players
#2
Michael S Guss, John P Begly, Austin J Ramme, David P Taormina, Michael E Rettig, John T Capo
CONTEXT: Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at risk of hook of hamate fractures. There is a paucity of data assessing the effect of a hook of hamate fracture on MLB players' future athletic performance. OBJECTIVE: To determine if MLB players who sustain hook of hamate fractures demonstrate decreased performance upon return to competition when compared with their performance before injury and that of their control-matched peers. DESIGN: Retrospective Case-Control Design...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711697/role-of-muscarinic-receptors-in-the-contraction-of-jejunal-smooth-muscle-in-the-horse-an-in-vitro-study
#3
Alessandro Menozzi, Cristina Pozzoli, Enzo Poli, Giada Bontempi, Paolo Serventi, Valentina Meucci, Luigi Intorre, Simone Bertini
Nonselective antimuscarinic drugs are clinically useful in several pathologic conditions of horses, but, blocking all muscarinic receptor (MR) subtypes, may cause several side effects. The availability of selective antimuscarinic drugs could improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. We aimed to enlighten the role of different MR subtypes by evaluating the effects of nonselective, and selective M1, M2 and M3 MR antagonists on the contractions of horse jejunum. Segments of circular muscle of equine jejunum, were put into organ baths, connected to isotonic transducers, and the effects on ACh concentration-response curves, and on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractions of intestinal preparations, induced by nonselective or selective MR antagonists, compared to pre-drug level, were studied...
July 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706475/focal-stroke-in-the-developing-rat-motor-cortex-induces-age-and-experience-dependent-maladaptive-plasticity-of-corticospinal-system
#4
Mariangela Gennaro, Alessandro Mattiello, Raffaele Mazziotti, Camilla Antonelli, Lisa Gherardini, Andrea Guzzetta, Nicoletta Berardi, Giovanni Cioni, Tommaso Pizzorusso
Motor system development is characterized by an activity-dependent competition between ipsilateral and contralateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Clinical evidence suggests that age is crucial for developmental stroke outcome, with early lesions inducing a "maladaptive" strengthening of ipsilateral projections from the healthy hemisphere and worse motor impairment. Here, we investigated in developing rats the relation between lesion timing, motor outcome and CST remodeling pattern. We induced a focal ischemia into forelimb motor cortex (fM1) at two distinct pre-weaning ages: P14 and P21...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703355/neuronal-representation-of-individual-heroin-choices-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#5
Karine Guillem, Viridiana Brenot, Audrey Durand, Serge H Ahmed
Drug addiction is a harmful preference for drug use over and at the expense of other non-drug-related activities. We previously identified in the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) a mechanism that influences individual preferences between cocaine use and an alternative action rewarded by a non-drug reward (i.e. sweet water). Here, we sought to test the generality of this mechanism to a different addictive drug, heroin. OFC neuronal activity was recorded while rats responded for heroin or the alternative non-drug reward separately or while they chose between the two...
July 13, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701823/innovative-technologies-to-manage-aflatoxins-in-foods-and-feeds-and-the-profitability-of-application-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Patchimaporn Udomkun, Alexander Nimo Wiredu, Marcus Nagle, Joachim Müller, Bernard Vanlauwe, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay
Aflatoxins are mainly produced by certain strains of Aspergillus flavus, which are found in diverse agricultural crops. In many lower-income countries, aflatoxins pose serious public health issues since the occurrence of these toxins can be considerably common and even extreme. Aflatoxins can negatively affect health of livestock and poultry due to contaminated feeds. Additionally, they significantly limit the development of international trade as a result of strict regulation in high-value markets. Due to their high stability, aflatoxins are not only a problem during cropping, but also during storage, transport, processing, and handling steps...
June 2017: Food Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701817/towards-a-new-generation-of-agricultural-system-data-models-and-knowledge-products-design-and-improvement
#7
John M Antle, Bruno Basso, Richard T Conant, H Charles J Godfray, James W Jones, Mario Herrero, Richard E Howitt, Brian A Keating, Rafael Munoz-Carpena, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Pablo Tittonell, Tim R Wheeler
This paper presents ideas for a new generation of agricultural system models that could meet the needs of a growing community of end-users exemplified by a set of Use Cases. We envision new data, models and knowledge products that could accelerate the innovation process that is needed to achieve the goal of achieving sustainable local, regional and global food security. We identify desirable features for models, and describe some of the potential advances that we envisage for model components and their integration...
July 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700470/salivary-alpha-amylase-salivary-cortisol-and-anxiety-during-a-youth-taekwondo-championship-an-observational-study
#8
Laura Capranica, Giancarlo Condello, Francesco Tornello, Teresa Iona, Salvatore Chiodo, Anna Valenzano, Mario De Rosas, Giovanni Messina, Antonio Tessitore, Giuseppe Cibelli
The aim of this study was to assess the stress-related responses and the coach's capability to match perceived efforts of youth athletes during a taekwondo championship.Using a cross-sectional study design, salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha-amylase (sAA) were measured in 6 males and 3 females young (11.0 ± 0.9 years) athletes at awakening, 5 minutes before, and 1 minute and 30 minutes after official combats. State anxiety was recorded 60 minutes before the first competition, whereas coach's and athletes' ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained at the end of the combats...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692998/a-new-ensemble-classification-system-for-fracture-zone-prediction-using-imbalanced-micro-ct-bone-morphometrical-data
#9
Vasileios Ch Korfiatis, Simone Tassani, George K Matsopoulos
Trabecular bone fractures constitute a major health issue for the modern societies, with the currently established prediction methods of fracture risk, such as Bone Mineral Density (BMD), resulting in errors up to 40%. Fracture-zone prediction based on bone's micro-structure has been recently proposed as an alternative prediction method of fracture risk. In this paper, a Classification System (CS) for the automatic fracture-zone prediction based on an Ensemble of Imbalanced Learning methods is proposed, following the observation that the percentage of the actual fractured bone area is significantly smaller than the intact bone in the case of a fracture event...
July 4, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688084/chemical-proteomic-analysis-of-6-benzylaminopurine-molecular-partners-in-wheat-grains
#10
Radim Simerský, Ivo Chamrád, Jindřich Kania, Miroslav Strnad, Marek Šebela, René Lenobel
An affinity-based chemical proteomic technique enabled direct identification of BAP-interacting proteins in wheat, including the well-known cytokinin-binder, cytokinin-binding protein 1. In this work, we show the development of a chemical proteomic technique for the identification of proteins binding to natural aromatic cytokinins (CKs). 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and documented CK-binder, wheat germ-allocated cytokinin-binding protein 1 (CBP-1), were suggested as an ideal proof-of concept affinity pair. Therefore, wheat grains were chosen as a model plant material...
July 7, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681226/post-weaning-social-and-cognitive-performance-of-piglets-raised-pre-weaning-either-in-a-complex-multi-suckling-group-housing-system-or-in-a-conventional-system-with-a-crated-sow
#11
S E van Nieuwamerongen, M Mendl, S Held, N M Soede, J E Bolhuis
We studied the social and cognitive performance of piglets raised pre-weaning either in a conventional system with a sow in a farrowing crate (FC) or in a multi-suckling (MS) system in which 5 sows and their piglets could interact in a more physically enriched and spacious environment. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, 8 groups of 4 litter-mates per pre-weaning housing treatment were studied under equal and enriched post-weaning housing conditions. From each pen, one pair consisting of a dominant and a submissive pig was selected, based on a feed competition test (FCT) 2 weeks post-weaning...
July 5, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678880/churn-prediction-of-mobile-and-online-casual-games-using-play-log-data
#12
Seungwook Kim, Daeyoung Choi, Eunjung Lee, Wonjong Rhee
Internet-connected devices, especially mobile devices such as smartphones, have become widely accessible in the past decade. Interaction with such devices has evolved into frequent and short-duration usage, and this phenomenon has resulted in a pervasive popularity of casual games in the game sector. On the other hand, development of casual games has become easier than ever as a result of the advancement of development tools. With the resulting fierce competition, now both acquisition and retention of users are the prime concerns in the field...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677945/within-person-relationship-between-self-efficacy-and-performance-across-trials-effect-of-task-objective-and-task-type
#13
Teri J Hepler, Jason Ritchie, Christopher R Hill
BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy has been shown to be a consistent, positive predictor of between-persons performance in sport. However, there have been equivocal results regarding the influence of self-efficacy on a person's performance over time. This study investigated the influence of self-efficacy on motor skill performance across trials with respect to two different task objectives and task types. METHODS: Participants (N=84) performed 4 blocks of 10 trials of a dart throwing (closed skill) and a hitting (open skill) task under 2 different task objectives: competitive and goal-striving...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674174/cooperation-not-competition-bihemispheric-tdcs-and-fmri-show-role-for-ipsilateral-hemisphere-in-motor-learning
#14
Sheena Waters, Tobias Wiestler, Jörn Diedrichsen
What is the role of ipsilateral motor and pre-motor areas in motor learning? One view supposes that ipsilateral activity suppresses contralateral motor cortex, and, accordingly, that inhibiting ipsilateral regions can improve motor learning. Alternatively, the ipsilateral motor cortex may play an active role in the control and/or learning of unilateral hand movements. We approached this question by applying double-blind bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over both contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortex in a between-group design during four days of unimanual explicit sequence training in human participants...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674072/counterbalancing-regulation-in-response-memory-of-a-positively-autoregulated-two-component-system
#15
Rong Gao, Katherine A Godfrey, Mahir A Sufian, Ann M Stock
Fluctuations in nutrient availability often result in recurrent exposures to the same stimulus condition. The ability to memorize the past event and use the "memory" to make adjustments to current behaviors can lead to more efficient adaptation to the recurring stimulus. A short-term phenotypic memory can be conferred via carry-over of the response proteins to facilitate the recurrent response but the additional accumulation of response proteins can lead to deviation from response homeostasis. We used the Escherichia coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS) as a model system to study how cells cope with the recurrence of Pi starvation conditions...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673856/a-luciferase-immunoprecipitation-system-lips-assay-for-profiling-human-norovirus-antibodies
#16
Christine M Tin, Lijuan Yuan, Rachel J Dexter, Gabriel I Parra, Tammy Bui, Kim Y Green, Stanislav V Sosnovtsev
A luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) assay was developed to define the antigenic specificity and titer of antibodies directed against human norovirus (HuNoV). Recombinant proteins, expressed by plasmid constructs encoding Renilla luciferase (Ruc) fused to the full-length HuNoV major capsid protein (VP1) (Ruc-antigen), were generated for ten HuNoV strains. In addition, subdomain constructs Ruc-Shell (S) and Ruc-Protruding (P) were engineered for a representative GII.4 norovirus (strain GII.4/2006b)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663136/can-salivary-testosterone-and-cortisol-reactivity-to-a-mid-week-stress-test-discriminate-a-match-outcome-during-international-rugby-union-competition
#17
Blair T Crewther, Neil Potts, Liam P Kilduff, Scott Drawer, Christian J Cook
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that stress-induced changes in testosterone and cortisol are related to future competitive behaviours and team-sport outcomes. Therefore, we examined whether salivary testosterone and cortisol reactivity to a mid-week stress test can discriminate a match outcome in international rugby union competition. DESIGN: Single group, quasi-experimental design with repeated measures. METHOD: Thirty-three male rugby players completed a standardised stress test three or four days before seven international matches...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662123/effects-of-different-re-warm-up-activities-in-football-players-performance
#18
Eduardo Abade, Jaime Sampaio, Bruno Gonçalves, Jorge Baptista, Alberto Alves, João Viana
Warm up routines are commonly used to optimize football performance and prevent injuries. Yet, official pre-match protocols may require players to passively rest for approximately 10 to 15 minutes between the warm up and the beginning of the match. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of different re-warm up activities on the physical performance of football players. Twenty-Two Portuguese elite under-19 football players participated in the study conducted during the competitive season...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649976/efficiency-of-analytical-and-sampling-based-uncertainty-propagation-in-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy
#19
N Wahl, P Hennig, H P Wieser, M Bangert
The sensitivity of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment plans to uncertainties can be quantified and mitigated with robust/min-max and stochastic/probabilistic treatment analysis and optimization techniques. Those methods usually rely on sparse random, importance, or worst-case sampling. Inevitably, this imposes a trade-off between computational speed and accuracy of the uncertainty propagation. Here, we investigate analytical probabilistic modeling (APM) as an alternative for uncertainty propagation and minimization in IMPT that does not rely on scenario sampling...
June 26, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649720/in-season-changes-in-heart-rate-recovery-are-inversely-related-to-time-to-exhaustion-but-not-aerobic-capacity-in-rowers
#20
Kristin Haraldsdottir, Stacey Brickson, Jennifer Sanfilippo, Warren Dunn, Andrew Watson
PURPOSE: Determine if in-season changes in heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to aerobic fitness and performance in collegiate rowers. METHODS: 22 female collegiate rowers completed testing before and after their competitive season. Body fat percentage (BF%) was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max ) and time to exhaustion (Tmax ) were determined during maximal rowing ergometer testing followed by 1 minute of recovery...
June 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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