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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909526/achieving-bidirectional-long-delays-in-pulmonary-vein-antral-lines-prior-to-bidirectional-block-in-patients-with-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-the-bi-bi-technique-for-atrial-fibrillation-ablation
#1
Adel F Mina Md Facc Fhrs, Nicholas L Warnecke Pa-C
Background: Pulmonary Vein Antral isolation (PVAI) is currently the standard of care for both paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation ablation. Reconnection to the pulmonary vein is the most common cause of recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Achieving the endpoint of bidirectional block (BDB) for cavotricuspid isthmus dependant flutter has improved our outcomes for atrial flutter ablation. With this we tried to achieve long delays in the pulmonary veins antral lines prior to complete isolation comparable to those delays found in patient with bidirectional block of atrial flutter lines...
August 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909097/induction-of-migraine-like-photophobic-behavior-in-mice-by-both-peripheral-and-central-cgrp-mechanisms
#2
Bianca N Mason, Eric A Kaiser, Adisa Kuburas, Maria-Cristina M Loomis, John A Latham, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Andrew F Russo
: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key player in migraine. While migraine can be treated using CGRP antagonists that act peripherally, the relevant sites of CGRP action remain unknown. To address the role of CGRP both within and outside the central nervous system, we used CGRP-induced light aversive behavior in mice as a measure of migraine-associated photophobia. Peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) injection of CGRP resulted in light aversive behavior in wild-type CD1 mice similar to aversion previously seen following central (intracerebroventricular, ICV) injection...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908758/thermally-triggered-release-of-the-bacteriophage-endolysin-chapk-and-the-bacteriocin-lysostaphin-for-the-control-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#3
Hollie Hathaway, Jude Ajuebor, Liam Stephens, Aidan Coffey, Ursula Potter, J Mark Sutton, A Toby A Jenkins
Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and soft tissue pose a major concern to public health, largely owing to the steadily increasing prevalence of drug resistant isolates. As an alternative mode of treatment both bacteriophage endolysins and bacteriocins have been shown to possess antimicrobial efficacy against multiple species of bacteria including otherwise drug resistant strains. Despite this, the administration and exposure of such antimicrobials should be restricted until required in order to discourage the continued evolution of bacterial resistance, whilst maintaining the activity and stability of such proteinaceous structures...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907116/rnai-mediated-functional-analysis-of-bursicon-genes-related-to-adult-cuticle-formation-and-tanning-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#4
Claudinéia Pereira Costa, Moysés Elias-Neto, Tiago Falcon, Rodrigo Pires Dallacqua, Juliana Ramos Martins, Marcia Maria Gentile Bitondi
Bursicon is a heterodimeric neurohormone that acts through a G protein-coupled receptor named rickets (rk), thus inducing an increase in cAMP and the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cuticular tanning pathway. In insects, the role of bursicon in the post-ecdysial tanning of the adult cuticle and wing expansion is well characterized. Here we investigated the roles of the genes encoding the bursicon subunits during the adult cuticle development in the honeybee, Apis mellifera...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907087/prenylated-polyphenols-from-clusiaceae-and-calophyllaceae-with-immunomodulatory-activity-on-endothelial-cells
#5
Caroline Rouger, Sylvain Pagie, Séverine Derbré, Anne-Marie Le Ray, Pascal Richomme, Béatrice Charreau
Endothelial cells (ECs) are key players in inflammation and immune responses involved in numerous pathologies. Although attempts were experimentally undertaken to prevent and control EC activation, drug leads and probes still remain necessary. Natural products (NPs) from Clusiaceous and Calophyllaceous plants were previously reported as potential candidates to prevent endothelial dysfunction. The present study aimed to identify more precisely the molecular scaffolds that could limit EC activation. Here, 13 polyphenols belonging to 5 different chemical types of secondary metabolites (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907040/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-cardiomyocytes-from-mice-with-the-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Monica Llano-Diez, Jon Sinclair, Takashi Yamada, Mei Zong, Jeremy Fauconnier, Shi-Jin Zhang, Abram Katz, Kent Jardemark, Håkan Westerblad, Daniel C Andersson, Johanna T Lanner
The metabolic syndrome is associated with prolonged stress and hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and afflicted subjects are prone to develop cardiovascular disease. Under normal conditions, the cardiomyocyte response to acute β-adrenergic stimulation partly depends on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we investigated the interplay between beta-adrenergic signaling, ROS and cardiac contractility using freshly isolated cardiomyocytes and whole hearts from two mouse models with the metabolic syndrome (high-fat diet and ob/ob mice)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906749/sodium-and-potassium-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension-focus-on-the-brain
#7
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary hypertension is characterized by Na excess and K deficit in the body, which together are key to its pathogenesis. These derangements work jointly in the brain and the peripheral vascular wall to establish hypertension. In this review, we highlight recent evidence describing the central mechanisms through which Na surfeit and K deficit enhance sympathetic nerve activity, thereby raising peripheral vascular resistance and generating hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies point to a small increase in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [Na], a small decrease in CSF [K], and increased levels of circulating angiotensin II, aldosterone, and endogenous ouabain as the central signals evoking hypertension...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906487/neutrophil-activation-during-acute-human-anaphylaxis-analysis-of-mpo-and-scd62l
#8
Abbie Francis, Erika Bosio, Shelley F Stone, Daniel M Fatovich, Glenn Arendts, Yusuf Nagree, Stephen P J Macdonald, Hugh Mitenko, Mani Rajee, Sally Burrows, Simon G A Brown
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the amplification of the mast cell response during anaphylaxis are unclear. Mouse models of anaphylaxis demonstrate the critical involvement of neutrophils. These innate immune cells are highly abundant in peripheral blood and can be rapidly activated to trigger both local and systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate neutrophil activation in peripheral blood during acute human anaphylaxis. METHODS: Patients presenting to the Emergency Department with anaphylaxis underwent blood sampling upon enrolment and at up to three subsequent time points...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901334/differential-efficacy-of-methylcobalamin-and-alpha-lipoic-acid-treatment-on-negative-and-positive-symptoms-of-type-2-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#9
Yajuan Han, Min Wang, Jie Shen, Zhen Zhang, Min Zhao, Jing Huang, Youming Chen, Zhi Chen, Yulan Hu, Yubing Wang
BACKGROUND: Diabetic hyperglycemia damages peripheral nerves by triggering ischemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and methylcobalamin (MC) are known to improve signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), possibly by enhancing neural and vascular endothelial cell metabolism and antioxidant capacity. We evaluated differences in efficacy following short-term MC or ALA treatment on DPN symptoms to guide clinical drug selection. METHODS: Forty DPN patients were randomly divided into MC and ALA treatment groups (n=20/20) and assessed by the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scoring System (TCSS), total symptom score (TSS), visual analog scale (VAS) of positive symptoms, and easy sensory test (EST) for negative symptoms before and after 2 weeks of treatment...
November 30, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898643/effect-of-different-osmolalities-cho-types-and-cho-on-gastric-emptying-in-humans
#10
Xiaocai Shi, Kristin L Osterberg, Heather Petrie, John R Stofan, Robert Murray
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of beverage osmolalities, carbohydrate (CHO) type and CHO concentration on gastric emptying in euhydrated subjects at rest. METHODS: The gastric emptying of water (W), four glucose beverages (2, 4, 6, and 8% glucose: 2G, 4G, 6G, and 8G) and four sucrose beverages (2, 4, 6, and 8% sucrose: 2S, 4S, 6S, and 8S) were determined in eight healthy subjects using the modified George double-sampling technique. Subjects ingested a beverage (7 ml/kg body weight) containing 25-ppm phenol red as quickly as possible (≤1...
November 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898454/transvaginal-pelvic-floor-muscle-injection-technique-a-cadaver-study
#11
Priyanka Gupta, Michael Ehlert, Larry T Sirls, Kenneth Peters
INTRODUCTION: Women with pelvic floor dysfunction can have tender areas on vaginal examination, which can be treated with trigger-point injections. There are no publications to evaluate the accuracy of pelvic floor muscle injections. METHODS: Trigger-point injections were performed on 2 fresh cadaveric pelvises using a curved nasal cannula guide and 7-in spinal needle. This was performed using our standard template of 2 sets of injections at the 1-, 3-, and 5-o'clock positions distally and proximally...
November 28, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894788/neurotoxic-mechanisms-of-paclitaxel-are-local-to-the-distal-axon-and-independent-of-transport-defects
#12
Erica L Gornstein, Thomas L Schwarz
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and other chemotherapeutic agents. Paclitaxel binds and stabilizes microtubules, but the cellular mechanisms that underlie paclitaxel's neurotoxic effects are not well understood. We therefore used primary cultures of adult murine dorsal root ganglion neurons, the cell type affected in patients, to examine leading hypotheses to explain paclitaxel neurotoxicity. We address the role of microtubule hyperstabilization and its downstream effects...
November 25, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894124/extensive-degeneracy-coulomb-phase-and-magnetic-monopoles-in-artificial-square-ice
#13
Yann Perrin, Benjamin Canals, Nicolas Rougemaille
Artificial spin-ice systems are lithographically patterned arrangements of interacting magnetic nanostructures that were introduced as way of investigating the effects of geometric frustration in a controlled manner. This approach has enabled unconventional states of matter to be visualized directly in real space, and has triggered research at the frontier between nanomagnetism, statistical thermodynamics and condensed matter physics. Despite efforts to create an artificial realization of the square-ice model-a two-dimensional geometrically frustrated spin-ice system defined on a square lattice-no simple geometry based on arrays of nanomagnets has successfully captured the macroscopically degenerate ground-state manifold of the model...
November 28, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892868/risk-assessment-for-changes-in-the-metabolic-profile-and-body-weights-of-pre-pubertal-gilts-during-long-term-monotonic-exposure-to-low-doses-of-zearalenone-zen
#14
Magdalena Gajęcka, Michał Tarasiuk, Łukasz Zielonka, Michał Dąbrowski, Maciej Gajęcki
The aim of the study was to examine whether the process of exposure to low doses of ZEN generates changes in the hematological and biochemical image of blood serum. During the experiment, pre-pubertal gilts (up to 25kg) were administered per os ZEN at a dose of 40μg/kg BW (Group E, n=18) or placebo (Group C, n=21) on a daily basis for 42days. Blood samples for investigation were collected seven times at intervals of one week. In the experimental groups, slight but statistically significant changes in the values of selected biochemical blood indices such as glucose, ALT, Pin, total protein and Fe, or in hematological indices such as RBC, MCV, PLT, WBC, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes were observed...
August 15, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890459/relationship-of-systemic-cytokine-concentrations-to-cognitive-function-over-two-years-in-women-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#15
Debra E Lyon, Ronald Cohen, Huaihou Chen, Debra L Kelly, Nancy L McCain, Angela Starkweather, Hyochol Ahn, Jamie Sturgill, Colleen K Jackson-Cook
: Cancer and its treatment are frequently associated with cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). While CRCI has been associated with linked to chemotherapy, there is increasing evidence that the condition may start prior to treatment and for some, remain unresolved after active treatment and into survivorship. Although the pathophysiology of the condition is complex, alterations in systemic cytokines, signaling molecules activated in response to infection or injury that trigger inflammation, are a possible mechanism linked to cognitive dysfunction in breast cancer and other conditions...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886389/meaningful-coping-with-chronic-pain-exploring-the-interplay-between-goal-violation-meaningful-coping-strategies-and-life-satisfaction-in-chronic-pain-patients
#16
Jessie Dezutter, Laura Dewitte, Evalyne Thauvoye, Siebrecht Vanhooren
Trying to cope with chronic pain is a highly demanding and challenging task and pain patients often need to reformulate goals or aspirations due to their pain condition. This goal violation is often related with experienced distress and requires coping processes in order to decrease the distress and stimulate a healthy adaptation. Some scholars, however, argued that in so-called unsolvable or irreparable stressors such as chronic pain, conventional coping strategies like problem-focused coping might not be the most adaptive option...
November 25, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885628/bcaa-metabolism-and-nh3-homeostasis
#17
M E Conway, S M Hutson
The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids required not only for growth and development, but also as nutrient signals and as nitrogen donors to neurotransmitter synthesis and glutamate/glutamine cycling. Transamination and oxidative decarboxylation of the BCAAs are catalysed by the branched-chain aminotransferase proteins (BCATm, mitochondrial and BCATc, cytosolic) and the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC), respectively. These proteins show tissue, cell compartmentation, and protein-protein interactions, which call for substrate shuttling or channelling and nitrogen transfer for oxidation to occur...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885260/nitric-oxide-triggers-a-transient-metabolic-reprogramming-in-arabidopsis
#18
José León, Álvaro Costa, Mari-Cruz Castillo
Nitric oxide (NO) regulates plant growth and development as well as responses to stress that enhanced its endogenous production. Arabidopsis plants exposed to a pulse of exogenous NO gas were used for untargeted global metabolomic analyses thus allowing the identification of metabolic processes affected by NO. At early time points after treatment, NO scavenged superoxide anion and induced the nitration and the S-nitrosylation of proteins. These events preceded an extensive though transient metabolic reprogramming at 6 h after NO treatment, which included enhanced levels of polyamines, lipid catabolism and accumulation of phospholipids, chlorophyll breakdown, protein and nucleic acid turnover and increased content of sugars...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884148/a-framework-make-it-useful-to-guide-and-improve-practice-of-clinical-trial-design-in-smaller-populations
#19
EDITORIAL
Kit C B Roes
The increased attention to design and analysis of randomised clinical trials in small populations has triggered thinking regarding the most appropriate design methods for a particular clinical research question. Decision schemes and algorithms have been proposed, with varying starting points and foci. Parmar et al. (BMC Medicine 14:183, 2016) proposed a framework designed to assist the clinical trial team in design choices during protocol preparation. Herein, further stimulus is given regarding the extent to which a framework may help change practice for the better, the careful considerations for changing the usual error levels applied and the room for innovation in clinical trial design...
November 25, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882256/eeg-triggered-functional-electrical-stimulation-therapy-for-restoring-upper-limb-function-in-chronic-stroke-with-severe-hemiplegia
#20
Cesar Marquez-Chin, Aaron Marquis, Milos R Popovic
We report the therapeutic effects of integrating brain-computer interfacing technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy to restore upper limb reaching movements in a 64-year-old man with severe left hemiplegia following a hemorrhagic stroke he sustained six years prior to this study. He completed 40 90-minute sessions of functional electrical stimulation therapy using a custom-made neuroprosthesis that facilitated 5 different reaching movements. During each session, the participant attempted to reach with his paralyzed arm repeatedly...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
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