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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804483/the-impact-of-western-diet-and-nutrients-on-the-microbiota-and-immune-response-at-mucosal-interfaces
#1
REVIEW
Donjete Statovci, Mònica Aguilera, John MacSharry, Silvia Melgar
Recent findings point toward diet having a major impact on human health. Diets can either affect the gut microbiota resulting in alterations in the host's physiological responses or by directly targeting the host response. The microbial community in the mammalian gut is a complex and dynamic system crucial for the development and maturation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the complex interaction between available nutrients, the microbiota, and the immune system are central regulators in maintaining homeostasis and fighting against invading pathogens at mucosal sites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799401/overview-understanding-nucleation-phenomena-from-simulations-of-lattice-gas-models
#2
Kurt Binder, Peter Virnau
Monte Carlo simulations of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation in Ising/lattice gas models are reviewed with an emphasis on the general insight gained on the mechanisms by which metastable states decay. Attention is paid to the proper distinction of particles that belong to a cluster (droplet), that may trigger a nucleation event, from particles in its environment, a problem crucial near the critical point. Well below the critical point, the lattice structure causes an anisotropy of the interface tension, and hence nonspherical droplet shapes result, making the treatment nontrivial even within the conventional classical theory of homogeneous nucleation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797270/implementing-the-teen-marijuana-check-up-in-schools-a-study-protocol
#3
Bryan Hartzler, Aaron R Lyon, Denise D Walker, Lauren Matthews, Kevin M King, Kathryn E McCollister
BACKGROUND: Substance misuse is now encountered in settings beyond addiction specialty care, with schools a point-of-contact for student access to behavioral health services. Marijuana is a leading impetus for adolescent treatment admissions despite declining risk perception, for which the Teen Marijuana Check-Up (TMCU)-a tailored adaptation of motivational enhancement therapy-offers an efficacious service option. To bridge the knowledge gap concerning effective and affordable technical assistance strategies for implementing empirically supported services, the described trial will test such a strategy to facilitate school-based TMCU implementation...
August 10, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795890/point-of-care-fluorescence-imaging-predicts-the-presence-of-pathogenic-bacteria-in-wounds-a-clinical-study
#4
M Y Rennie, L Lindvere-Teene, K Tapang, R Linden
OBJECTIVE: Bacteria in chronic wounds are invisible to the naked eye and can lead to delayed wound healing. Point-of-care bacterial fluorescence imaging illuminates a wound with 405nm light, triggering bacteria to produce red fluorescence and enabling real-time bacterial localisation. Prospective, single-blind clinical trials (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT02682069, #NCT03091361) were conducted to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of this red fluorescence for detecting bacteria in chronic wounds...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795381/research-progress-on-prevention-and-treatment-of-glucolipid-metabolic-disease-with-integrated-traditional-chinese-and-western-medicine
#5
Jiao Guo
Hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver and many other metabolic disorder are frequently co-existing in patients. In addition, these diseases are closely related in pathophysiological settings. However, increasing of the disease incidence, lacking of comprehensive prevention and control measurements against the key pathology point concomitant occurrence with the pattern of the single disease, single target therapy, that is leading therapeutic strategy for these metabolic disorders in the setting of Western medicine (WM)...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794654/retrospective-study-to-identify-trigeminal-cervical-ocular-referred-pain-as-a-new-causative-entity-of-ocular-pain
#6
Scheffer Cg Tseng, Anny Ms Cheng, Yao Fu
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of trigeminal-cervical (TC) ocular referred pain. METHODS: A retrospective study of 1,680 patients seen during 2002-2010 was performed in an ocular surface specialty center to identify patients with or without TC pain defined as ocular pain with ipsilateral trigger points located at the occipital region. Patients with refractory TC pain despite topical anesthetics and conventional treatments received interventional injection to each trigger point...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794084/mechanically-induced-ectopy-via-stretch-activated-cation-nonselective-channels-is-caused-by-local-tissue-deformation-and-results-in-ventricular-fibrillation-if-triggered-on-the-repolarization-wave-edge-commotio-cordis
#7
T Alexander Quinn, Honghua Jin, Peter Lee, Peter Kohl
BACKGROUND: External chest impacts (commotio cordis) can cause mechanically induced premature ventricular excitation (PVEM) and, rarely, ventricular fibrillation (VF). Because block of stretch-sensitive ATP-inactivated potassium channels curtailed VF occurrence in a porcine model of commotio cordis, VF has been suggested to arise from abnormal repolarization caused by stretch activation of potassium channels. Alternatively, VF could result from abnormal excitation by PVEM, overlapping with normal repolarization-related electric heterogeneity...
August 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793220/mechanism-for-triggered-waves-in-atrial-myocytes
#8
Yohannes Shiferaw, Gary L Aistrup, J Andrew Wasserstrom
Excitation-contraction coupling in atrial cells is mediated by calcium (Ca) signaling between L-type Ca channels and Ryanodine receptors that occurs mainly at the cell boundary. This unique architecture dictates essential aspects of Ca signaling under both normal and diseased conditions. In this study we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy, along with an experimentally based computational model, to understand the Ca cycling dynamics of an atrial cell subjected to rapid pacing. Our main finding is that when an atrial cell is paced under Ca overload conditions, Ca waves can then nucleate on the cell boundary and propagate to the cell interior...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791702/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-the-organophosphorus-insecticide-chlorpyrifos-from-clinical-findings-to-preclinical-models-and-potential-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Richard D Burke, Spencer W Todd, Eric Lumsden, Roger J Mullins, Jacek Mamczarz, William P Fawcett, Rao P Gullapalli, William R Randall, Edna F R Pereira, Edson X Albuquerque
Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are pest-control agents heavily used worldwide. Unfortunately, they are also well known for the toxic effects that they can trigger in humans. Clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP insecticides include a well-defined cholinergic crisis that develops as a result of the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Prolonged exposures to levels of OP insecticides that are insufficient to trigger signs of acute intoxication, which are hereafter referred to as subacute exposures, have also been associated with neurological deficits...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783808/recrudescence-of-deficits-after-stroke-clinical-and-imaging-phenotype-triggers-and-risk-factors
#10
Mehmet A Topcuoglu, Esen Saka, Scott B Silverman, Lee H Schwamm, Aneesh B Singhal
Importance: Reemergence of previous stroke-related deficits (or poststroke recrudescence [PSR]) is an underrecognized and inadequately characterized phenomenon. Objective: To investigate the clinical features, triggers, and risk factors for PSR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective study incorporated a crossover cohort study to identify triggers and a case-control study to identify risk factors. The study used the Massachusetts General Hospital Research Patient Data Repository to identify patients for the period January 1, 2000, to November 30, 2015, who had a primary or secondary diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at least once, and whose inpatient or outpatient clinician note or discharge summary stated the term recrudescence...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783726/proteins-evolve-on-the-edge-of-supramolecular-self-assembly
#11
Hector Garcia-Seisdedos, Charly Empereur-Mot, Nadav Elad, Emmanuel D Levy
The self-association of proteins into symmetric complexes is ubiquitous in all kingdoms of life. Symmetric complexes possess unique geometric and functional properties, but their internal symmetry can pose a risk. In sickle-cell disease, the symmetry of haemoglobin exacerbates the effect of a mutation, triggering assembly into harmful fibrils. Here we examine the universality of this mechanism and its relation to protein structure geometry. We introduced point mutations solely designed to increase surface hydrophobicity among 12 distinct symmetric complexes from Escherichia coli...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783432/fast-preparation-of-polydopamine-nanoparticles-catalyzed-by-fe2-h2o2-for-visible-sensitive-smartphone-enabled-cytosensing
#12
Lei Jiao, Zijian Xu, Wenwen Du, He Li, Miao Yin
It is highly desired to develop facile methods for fast preparation of polydopamine nanoparticles (PDANS) for intensive promising applications. Considering the system of Fe2+/H2O2 can generate reactive oxygen species efficiently, which can accelerate the self-oxidative polymerization of dopamine, a new time-saving method has been proposed to prepare PDANS catalyzed by Fe2+/H2O2. Thereafter, a novel kind of colorimetric nanoprobe for sensitive detection of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cell) based on the obtained PDANS loaded pH indicator molecules (thymolphthalein) has been developed successfully...
August 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783210/monocyte-count-at-onset-predicts-post-stroke-outcomes-during-a-90-day-follow-up
#13
Luca Liberale, Fabrizio Montecucco, Aldo Bonaventura, Ilaria Casetta, Silva Seraceni, Alessandro Trentini, Marina Padroni, Franco Dallegri, Enrico Fainardi, Federico Carbone
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) triggers both systemic and neurovascular inflammation, influencing post-stroke recovery. In smokers with AIS inflammation might be further upregulated, increasing ischemia/reperfusion injury. Here, the predictive value of leukocyte and adhesion molecules levels on post-stroke outcomes was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 89 patients with AIS (n=30 smokers and n=59 non-smokers) were recruited and evaluated 1, 7 and 90 days after the onset to assess stroke severity by the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score as well as clinical recovery at 90 day by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782882/the-expansion-of-heterotopic-bone-in-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva-is-activin-a-dependent
#14
Jaymin Upadhyay, LiQin Xie, Lily Huang, Nanditha Das, Rachel C Stewart, Morgan C Lyon, Keryn Palmer, Saathyaki Rajamani, Chris Graul, Merryl Lobo, Tyler J Wellman, Edward J Soares, Matthew D Silva, Jacob Hesterman, Lili Wang, Xialing Wen, Xiaobing Qian, Kalyan Nannuru, Vincent Idone, Andrew J Murphy, Aris N Economides, Sarah J Hatsell
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that is characterized by episodic yet cumulative heterotopic ossification (HO) in skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments over a patient's lifetime. FOP is caused by missense mutations in the type I Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) receptor ACVR1. We have determined that the formation of heterotopic bone in FOP requires activation of mutant ACVR1 by Activin A, in part by showing that prophylactic inhibition of Activin A blocks HO in a mouse model of FOP...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782169/impact-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischaemia-on-oligodendrocyte-survival-maturation-and-myelinating-potential
#15
Malgorzata Ziemka-Nalecz, Justyna Janowska, Lukasz Strojek, Joanna Jaworska, Teresa Zalewska, Malgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Joanna Sypecka
Hypoxic-ischaemic episodes experienced at the perinatal period commonly lead to a development of neurological disabilities and cognitive impairments in neonates or later in childhood. Clinical symptoms often are associated with the observed alterations in white matter in the brains of diseased children, suggesting contribution of triggered oligodendrocyte/myelin pathology to the resulting disorders. To date, the processes initiated by perinatal asphyxia remain unclear, hampering the ability to develop preventions...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770409/-migraine-prophylaxis-with-trigger-point-therapy-and-lymphatic-drainage-a-pilot-study
#16
Delphine Yedikardachian, Stefan Quasthoff, Anita T Lechner, Albrecht Giuliani, Franz Fazekas
Migraine is a complex, multifactorial, neurovascular disorder of the brain. Patients frequently have pericranial trigger points, but trigger point (TP) therapy for migraine has not yet been adequately studied. In contrast, lymphatic drainage (LD) has been studied in patients with migraine. The multifactorial origin of migraine suggests using a combination of approaches such as TP therapy and lymphatic drainage. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of TP therapy alone and in combination with LD in preventing migraine during treatment period and over an 8‑week period after completion of treatment...
August 2, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769786/mild-inflammatory-profile-without-gliosis-in-the-c-rel-deficient-mouse-modeling-a-late-onset-parkinsonism
#17
Vanessa Porrini, Mariana Mota, Edoardo Parrella, Arianna Bellucci, Marina Benarese, Lara Faggi, Paolo Tonin, Pier F Spano, Marina Pizzi
The impact of neuroinflammation and microglial activation to Parkinson's disease (PD) progression is still debated. Post-mortem analysis of PD brains has shown that neuroinflammation and microgliosis are key features of end-stage disease. However, microglia neuroimaging studies and evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines in PD patients at earlier stages do not support the occurrence of a pronounced neuroinflammatory process. PD animal models recapitulating the motor and non-motor features of the disease, and the slow and progressive neuropathology, can be of great advantage in understanding whether and how neuroinflammation associates with the onset of symptoms and neuronal loss...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768531/the-effect-of-glycopyrronium-and-indacaterol-as-monotherapy-and-in-combination-on-the-methacholine-dose-response-curve-of-mild-asthmatics-a-randomized-three-way-crossover-study
#18
Christianne M Blais, Beth E Davis, Donald W Cockcroft
BACKGROUND: Methacholine dose-response curves illustrate pharmacologic bronchoprotection against methacholine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and can be used to quantitate changes in airway sensitivity (position), reactivity (slope), and maximal responsiveness following drug administration. Our objective was to determine the influence of single-dose glycopyrronium (long-acting muscarinic antagonist) and indacaterol (ultra-long acting β2 agonist), as monotherapy and in combination, on the methacholine dose-response curve of mild asthmatics and to compare these findings with a non-asthmatic control curve...
August 2, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768216/a-multi-omics-based-ecological-analysis-of-coastal-marine-sediments-from-gladstone-in-australia-s-central-queensland-and-heron-island-a-nearby-fringing-platform-reef
#19
D J Beale, J Crosswell, A V Karpe, W Ahmed, M Williams, P D Morrison, S Metcalfe, C Staley, M J Sadowsky, E A Palombo, A D L Steven
The impact of anthropogenic factors arising from point and non-point pollution sources at a multi commodity marine port and its surrounding ecosystems were studied using sediment samples collected from a number of onshore (Gladstone Harbour and Facing Island) and offshore (Heron Island and Fitzroy Reefs) sites in Australia's Central Queensland. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals, organic carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), emerging chemicals of concern (ECC) and sterols. Similarly, the biological and biochemical interaction between the reef and its environment was analyzed by the multi-omic tools of next-generation sequencing characterization of the bacterial community and microbial community metabolic profiling...
July 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761176/control-of-pattern-formation-during-phase-separation-initiated-by-a-propagated-trigger
#20
Rei Kurita
Understanding pattern formation during phase separation is a key topic in materials science for the important role that patterns play in determining macroscopic physical properties. In this work, we show how pattern formation can be controlled using a phase-separation trigger propagating outwards from a point. We found a range of patterns, including a random droplet pattern, a concentric pattern and a dendritic pattern, depending on the speed at which the trigger propagates, while only the random droplet pattern is observed in a system with homogeneous cooling...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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