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Kaposi sarcoma

Sora Lim, Seho Cha, Jun Hyeong Jang, Dahye Yang, Joonho Choe, Taegun Seo
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with formation of Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease and primary effusion lymphoma. Replication and transcription activator (RTA) genes are expressed upon reactivation of KSHV, which displays a biphasic life cycle consisting of latent and lytic replication phases. RTA protein expression results in KSHV genome amplification and successive viral lytic gene expression. Transcriptional activity of viral lytic genes is regulated through epigenetic modifications...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jade Le
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) are γ herpesviruses associated with post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients. EBV is associated with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), with increased risk in EBV-seronegative patients on intensified immunosuppression. Human herpesvirus-8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), with an increased risk in certain patient populations. Diagnosis of PTLD and KS relies on tissue biopsy. The mainstay of therapy for both PTLD and Kaposi's sarcoma is a reduction of immunosuppression, and in the case of PTLD, consideration of rituximab...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Binod Kumar, Dipanjan Dutta, Jawed Iqbal, Mairaj Ahmed Ansari, Arunava Roy, Leela Chikoti, Gina Pisano, Mohanan Valiya Veettil, Bala Chandran
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) binding to the endothelial cell surface heparan sulfate is followed by sequential interactions with α3β1, αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins and Ephrin A2 receptor tyrosine kinase (EphA2R). These interactions activate host cell pre-existing FAK, Src, PI3-K and RhoGTPase signaling cascades, c-Cbl mediated ubiquitination of receptors, recruitment of CIB1, p130Cas and Crk adaptor molecules, and membrane bleb formation leading to lipid raft dependent macropinocytosis of KSHV into human microvascular dermal endothelial (HMVEC-d) cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Anna L Hronek, Seth N Clark, Gregg Young, Daniel Kinikini, Jason Wells
Acroangiodermatitis (AAD), also known as pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma, is an uncommon benign angioproliferative condition most commonly seen in the lower extremities. This condition often presents as discolored patches that progress to painful ulcerations. The list of vascular conditions associated with this diagnosis is vast. Acroangiodermatitis presents similarly to more aggressive conditions such as Kaposi's sarcoma, making histopathologic examination helpful in its diagnosis. We present two cases of AAD in the setting of chronic venous insufficiency...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Shasha Li, Hao Hu, Zhiheng He, Deguang Liang, Rui Sun, Ke Lan
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic pathogen that displays latent and lytic life cycles. In KS lesions, infiltrated immune cells, secreted viral and/or cellular cytokines, and hypoxia orchestrate a chronic pro-lytic microenvironment that can promote KSHV reactivation. However, only a small subset of viruses spontaneously undergoes lytic replication in this pro-lytic microenvironment while the majority remains in latency. Here, we show that the expression of the Notch ligand JAG1 is induced by KSHV-encoded replication and transcription activator (RTA) during reactivation...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Álvaro H Borges
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Arzu Cengiz, Ekin Şavk, Canten Tataroğlu, Yakup Yürekli
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a vascular neoplasm that often manifests with multiple vascular nodules on the skin and other organs. Various imaging modalities can be used to display disease extent. Herein we present a 65-year-old female patient with human immunodeficiency virus negative KS along with her whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging findings.
October 5, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Eun-Kyung Kwon, Chan-Ki Min, Yuri Kim, Jae-Won Lee, Abdimadiyeva Aigerim, Sebastian Schmidt, Hyun-Jun Nam, Seong Kyu Han, Kuglae Kim, Jeong Seok Cha, Hoyoung Kim, Sanguk Kim, Hyun-Soo Cho, Myung-Sik Choi, Nam-Hyuk Cho
Members of the herpesviral family use multiple strategies to hijack infected host cells and exploit cellular signaling for their pathogenesis and latent infection. Among the most intriguing weapons in the arsenal of pathogenic herpesviruses are the constitutively active virally-encoded G protein-coupled receptors (vGPCRs). Even though vGPCRs contribute to viral pathogenesis such as immune evasion and proliferative disorders, the molecular details of how vGPCRs continuously activate cellular signaling are largely unknown...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Meredith S Shiels, Eric A Engels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of cancers that occur at an elevated rate among people with HIV infection in the current treatment era, including discussion of the cause of these cancers, as well as changes in cancer incidence and burden over time. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cervical cancer have declined sharply in developed countries during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but remain elevated 800-fold, 10-fold and four-fold, respectively, compared with the general population...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Zeliha Esin Celik, Murat Celik, Erdem Sen, Hakan Cebeci, Ozlem Ata, Cagdas Yavas
Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), is a systemic disease that can present with cutaneous lesions with or without visceral involvement. Very few cases of KS, most of which were associated with AIDS, have been reported in the adrenal gland. Anaplastic transformation of KS is a rare clinical presentation known as an aggressive disease with local recurrence and metastatic potential. We report here a 47-year-old HIV negative male presented with extra-adrenal symptoms and had an incidentally detected anaplastic adrenal KS exhibited aggressive clinical course...
2016: Case Reports in Pathology
Paul F Lambert
Genetically engineered mice (GEMs) have provided valuable insights into the carcinogenic properties of various human tumor viruses, which, in aggregate, are etiologically associated with over 15% of all human cancers. This review provides an overview of seminal discoveries made through the use of GEM models for human DNA tumor viruses. Emphasis is placed on the discoveries made in the study of human papillomaviruses, Merkel cell carcinoma-associated polyomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, because GEMs have contributed extensively to our understanding of how these DNA tumor viruses directly contribute to human cancers...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Dana Elena Giza, Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Marc David Bullock, Stefan Tudor, Matthew Joseph Goblirsch, Muller Fabbri, Florea Lupu, Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, Catalin Vasilescu, George Adrian Calin
Regardless of its etiology, once septic shock is established, survival rates drop by 7.6% for every hour antibiotic therapy is delayed. The early identification of the cause of infection and prognostic stratification of patients with sepsis are therefore important clinical priorities. Biomarkers are potentially valuable clinical tools in this context, but to date, no single biomarker has been shown to perform adequately. Hence, in an effort to discover novel diagnostic and prognostic markers in sepsis, new genomic approaches have been employed...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Jessica E Weinstein, Katrina A Mears
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Miyeon Cho, Seok Won Jung, Soomin Lee, Kuwon Son, Gyu Hwan Park, Jong-Wha Jung, Yu Su Shin, Taegun Seo, Hyosun Cho, Hyojeung Kang
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a Gammaherpesvirus that causes acute infection and establishes life-long latency. KSHV causes several human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genipin, an aglycone derived from geniposide found in Gardenia jasminoides, is known to be an excellent natural cross-linker, strong apoptosis inducer, and antiviral agent. Although evidence suggests antiviral activity of genipin in several in vitro viral infection systems, no inhibitory effect of genipin on KSHV infection has been reported...
2016: PloS One
N Patel, P Naidoo, P Mosiane, C Jann-Kruger
We briefly report two cases of HIV/AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Both patients were seen at Edenvale General Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa.
September 4, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
R Santarelli, M Granato, G Pentassuglia, V Lacconi, M S Gilardini Montani, R Gonnella, M Tafani, M R Torrisi, A Faggioni, M Cirone
We have previously shown that Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) impairs monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs). Macroautophagy/autophagy has been reported to be essential in such a differentiating process. Here we extended these studies and found that the impairment of DC formation by KSHV occurs through autophagy inhibition. KSHV indeed reduces CAST (calpastatin) and consequently decreases ATG5 expression in both THP-1 monocytoid cells and primary monocytes. We unveiled a new mechanism put in place by KSHV to escape from immune control...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
Diler Taş Kılıç, Selma Karaahmetoğlu Özkan, Başol Canbakan, Nesrin Dündar
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a malignant vascular tumor, can develop in patients who receive corticosteroids or immunosuppressive therapy. We report a patient with KS and granulomatosis polyangiitis (GPA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the co-occurrence of these two diseases. The physician must be aware of the risk of cancer in patients with rheumatism.
June 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Meilan He, Hongfeng Yuan, Brandon Tan, Rosemary Bai, Heon Seok Kim, Sangsu Bae, Lu Che, Jin-Soo Kim, Shou-Jiang Gao
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a malignancy commonly found in AIDS patients. Despite intensive studies in the last two decades, the mechanism of KSHV-induced cellular transformation and tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of SIRT1, a metabolic sensor, was upregulated in a variety of KSHV-infected cells. In a model of KSHV-induced cellular transformation, SIRT1 knockdown with shRNAs or knockout by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar of KSHV-transformed cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and contact inhibition...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
May N Tsao, Emily Sinclair, Dalal Assaad, Jeff Fialkov, Oleh Antonyshyn, Elizabeth Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions are purplish, reddish blue or dark brown/black macules, plaques or nodules which involve the skin and occasionally internal organs. Most patients with KS have a long indolent chronic course. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken for all KS skin patients treated with radiotherapy at a tertiary cancer centre from Jan. 2, 1999 to Dec. 31, 2014 (inclusive). RESULTS: A total of 47 patients with KS (43 classical, 0 African, 1 iatrogenic, 3 AIDS related) were seen in the multidisciplinary clinic...
August 25, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Brian M Schmidt, Crystal M Holmes
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a tumor derived from endothelial cell lineage caused by Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus or human herpesvirus-8. The authors have set forth to describe a unique presentation of the classical form of KS in a homosexual individual. The authors demonstrate that a full history and physical are important in determining how to guide treatment along with ancillary tests, which can prove vital to determine management strategy. The authors then provide a brief discussion about variants of KS, biopsy techniques, and current treatment options available to patients diagnosed with this condition...
September 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
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