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Kaposi sarcoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742880/same-day-hiv-testing-with-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-versus-standard-care-for-persons-living-with-hiv-a-randomized-unblinded-trial
#1
Serena P Koenig, Nancy Dorvil, Jessy G Dévieux, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Cynthia Riviere, Mikerlyne Faustin, Kerlyne Lavoile, Christian Perodin, Alexandra Apollon, Limathe Duverger, Margaret L McNairy, Kelly A Hennessey, Ariadne Souroutzidis, Pierre-Yves Cremieux, Patrice Severe, Jean W Pape
BACKGROUND: Attrition during the period from HIV testing to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is high worldwide. We assessed whether same-day HIV testing and ART initiation improves retention and virologic suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an unblinded, randomized trial of standard ART initiation versus same-day HIV testing and ART initiation among eligible adults ≥18 years old with World Health Organization Stage 1 or 2 disease and CD4 count ≤500 cells/mm3...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725131/oral-kaposi-sarcoma-in-hiv-seronegative-saudi-patient-literature-review-and-case-report
#2
Asmaa Faden, Manal AlSheddi, Mohammed AlKindi, Lama Alabdulaaly
Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is an intermediate neoplasm affecting the endothelial cells of mucous membranes and skin. It arises most commonly among HIV-infected individuals. We present an intra-oral KS in an 80-year-old Saudi male patient, who is HIV-seronegative, non-immunosuppressed, and with no history of organ transplantation. The patient was treated with fractionated radiation therapy, and had no recurrence in the 48 months of follow-up. The clinical disease, histologic features, and treatment modality used, as well as the relative literature are presented in this paper...
July 2017: Saudi Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723706/oral-shedding-of-herpesviruses-in-hiv-patients-with-varying-degrees-of-immune-status
#3
Dirk P Dittmer, Kristen Tamburro, Huichao Chen, Anthony Lee, Marcia K Sanders, Tischan A Wade, Sonia Napravnik, Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Caroline H Shiboski, Judith A Aberg
OBJECTIVE: Herpesvirus shedding in the oral cavity was analyzed to determine if presence in the oral compartment correlates with systemic changes in HIV-associated immune deficiency as measured by CD4+ counts, plasma HIV viral load (VL) and presence of AIDS-defining events. DESIGN: A5254 is a multicenter, cross-sectional, single-visit study to evaluate oral complications of HIV/AIDS and determine the association between clinical appearance, herpesvirus shedding and immune status as ascertained by CD4 count and HIV viral load...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723676/unveiling-kaposi-sarcoma-viral-antigens
#4
Jaeyeun Lee, John G Kosowicz, Richard F Ambinder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721191/small-bowel-obstruction-due-to-mesenteric-abscess-caused-by-mycobacterium-avium-complex-in-an-hiv-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
S M Mohar, Saqib Saeed, Alexius Ramcharan, Hector Depaz
Small bowel obstruction in HIV patients is reportedly caused by inflammatory pseudotumor, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptococcal lymphadenopathy and intestinal tuberculosis. The incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in HIV patients is 3% for CD4 cell count of 100-199 /mm(3). MAC causing small bowel obstruction is rarely reported in the literature. We report a rare case of MAC causing mesenteric abscess with small bowel obstruction in a HIV patient with a CD4 cell count of 144 /mm(3). Patient was a 35-year-old HIV-positive male on highly active antiretroviral therapy who presented with partial small bowel obstruction secondary to mesenteric abscess...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719723/de-novo-hhv-8-tumors-induced-by-rituximab-in-autoimmune-or-inflammatory-systemic-diseases
#6
Amandine Perier, Léa Savey, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Philippe Serve, David Saadoun, Stéphane Barete
OBJECTIVES: HHV-8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) associated herpesvirus is involved in KS and other tumors comprising multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). Rituximab is currently used for treatment of several autoimmune or inflammatory diseases and humoral organ rejection. De novo HHV-8 induced tumors by rituximab used for autoimmune or inflammatory diseases or humoral organ rejection have not been reported. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we report clinical, virological and pathology of five HIV-negative male patients with HHV-8-induced tumors following rituximab therapy...
July 18, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715488/microrna-dependent-and-independent-deregulation-of-long-non-coding-rnas-by-an-oncogenic-herpesvirus
#7
Sunantha Sethuraman, Lauren Appleby Gay, Vaibhav Jain, Irina Haecker, Rolf Renne
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly prevalent cancer in AIDS patients, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of KS and other cancers like Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL). In KS and PEL, all tumors harbor latent KSHV episomes and express latency-associated viral proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs). The exact molecular mechanisms by which latent KSHV drives tumorigenesis are not completely understood. Recent developments have highlighted the importance of aberrant long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in cancer...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711553/sole-searing-pain-classic-kaposi-s-sarcoma
#8
Daniel J Minter, Prashant Kotwani, Lucinda L Kohn, Toby Maurer, Andrew R Lai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708648/oral-localization-of-kaposi-sarcoma-clinical-presentation-and-conservative-management
#9
Paolo Garzino-Demo, Arianna Mettus, Fabio Passalacqua, Federico Vittone, Guglielmo Ramieri
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) caused by human herpes virus type-8 is the most frequent immunosuppression-associated malignancy worldwide and its treatment is still controversial. We report on the clinical management of a patient who developed oral KS after liver transplantation. The disease appeared 1 month after the transplant and recurred after 4 months. The patient represents, to our knowledge, a rare case that was treated successfully only by shifting a conventional immunosuppressive therapy to everolimus alone.
July 13, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707270/profiling-of-cellular-microrna-responses-during-the-early-stages-of-kshv-infection
#10
Hosni A M Hussein, Shaw M Akula
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes a variety of cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). Host cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) play important post-transcriptional regulatory roles in gene expression and can greatly influence virus-host cell interactions. This study investigated cellular miRNA expression profiles operating in response to early stages of KSHV infection of human Burkitt lymphoma B cells (BJAB). We employed deep sequencing to analyze miRNA expression in KSHV-infected BJAB cells 15 min post infection (PI) and compared this to uninfected BJAB cells...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704654/persistent-kshv-infection-increases-ebv-associated-tumor-formation-in%C3%A2-vivo-via-enhanced-ebv-lytic-gene-expression
#11
Donal McHugh, Nicole Caduff, Mario Henrique M Barros, Patrick C Rämer, Ana Raykova, Anita Murer, Vanessa Landtwing, Isaak Quast, Christine T Styles, Michael Spohn, Adeola Fowotade, Henri-Jacques Delecluse, Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Yong-Moon Lee, Jin-Man Kim, Jaap Middeldorp, Thomas F Schulz, Ethel Cesarman, Andrea Zbinden, Riccarda Capaul, Robert E White, Martin J Allday, Gerald Niedobitek, David J Blackbourn, Adam Grundhoff, Christian Münz
The human tumor viruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establish persistent infections in B cells. KSHV is linked to primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and 90% of PELs also contain EBV. Studies on persistent KSHV infection in vivo and the role of EBV co-infection in PEL development have been hampered by the absence of small animal models. We developed mice reconstituted with human immune system components as a model for KSHV infection and find that EBV/KSHV dual infection enhanced KSHV persistence and tumorigenesis...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701396/effects-of-the-nedd8-activating-enzyme-inhibitor-mln4924-on-lytic-reactivation-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus
#12
Pey-Jium Chang, Lee-Wen Chen, Li-Yu Chen, Chien-Hui Hung, Ying-Ju Shih, Shie-Shan Wang
The switch of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from latency to lytic replication is a key event for viral dissemination and pathogenesis. MLN4924, a novel neddylation inhibitor, reportedly causes the onset of KSHV reactivation but impairs later phases of viral lytic program in infected cells. Thus far, the molecular mechanism involved in the modulation of KSHV lytic cycle by MLN4924 is not yet fully understood. Here, we confirmed that treatment of different KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines with MLN4924 substantially induces viral lytic protein expression...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699109/malignant-mesenchymal-neoplasms-of-the-dermis-and-subcutis-mimicking-benign-lesions-a-case-based-review
#13
Thomas Mentzel, Thomas Brenn
In this short review, malignant mesenchymal neoplasms of the dermis and subcutis mimicking benign lesions and their differential diagnoses are discussed. These include plaque-like dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, superficial low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, low-grade superficial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, epithelioid sarcoma, pseudomyogenic haemangioendothelioma, Kaposi sarcoma mimicking cavernous haemangioma and benign lymphangioendothelioma, and rare forms of angiosarcoma mimicking a benign vascular lesion...
July 12, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698273/viral-micrornas-repress-the-cholesterol-pathway-and-25-hydroxycholesterol-inhibits-infection
#14
Anna K P Serquiña, Diane M Kambach, Ontara Sarker, Joseph M Ziegelbauer
From various screens, we found that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) viral microRNAs (miRNAs) target several enzymes in the mevalonate/cholesterol pathway. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR [a rate-limiting step in the mevalonate pathway]), and farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 (FDFT1 [a committed step in the cholesterol branch]) are repressed by multiple KSHV miRNAs. Transfection of viral miRNA mimics in primary endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]) is sufficient to reduce intracellular cholesterol levels; however, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting only HMGCS1 did not reduce cholesterol levels...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696226/kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-stably-clusters-its-genomes-across-generations-to-maintain-itself-extrachromosomally
#15
Ya-Fang Chiu, Arthur U Sugden, Kathryn Fox, Mitchell Hayes, Bill Sugden
Genetic elements that replicate extrachromosomally are rare in mammals; however, several human tumor viruses, including the papillomaviruses and the gammaherpesviruses, maintain their plasmid genomes by tethering them to cellular chromosomes. We have uncovered an unprecedented mechanism of viral replication: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) stably clusters its genomes across generations to maintain itself extrachromosomally. To identify and characterize this mechanism, we developed two complementary, independent approaches: live-cell imaging and a predictive computational model...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694799/a-tiny-rna-that-packs-a-big-punch-the-critical-role-of-a-viral-mir-155-ortholog-in-lymphomagenesis-in-marek-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Guoqing Zhuang, Aijun Sun, Man Teng, Jun Luo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been identified in animals, plants, and viruses. These small RNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation of various cellular processes, including development, differentiation, and all aspects of cancer biology. Rapid-onset T-cell lymphoma of chickens, namely Marek's disease (MD), induced by Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2 (GaHV2), could provide an ideal natural animal model for herpesvirus-related cancer research. GaHV2 encodes 26 mature miRNAs derived from 14 precursors assembled in three distinct gene clusters in the viral genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694706/abnormalities-in-alternative-splicing-of-angiogenesis-related-genes-and-their-role-in-hiv-related-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Nonkululeko N Mthembu, Zukile Mbita, Rodney Hull, Zodwa Dlamini
Alternative splicing of mRNA leads to an increase in proteome biodiversity by allowing the generation of multiple mRNAs, coding for multiple protein isoforms of various structural and functional properties from a single primary pre-mRNA transcript. The protein isoforms produced are tightly regulated in normal development but are mostly deregulated in various cancers. In HIV-infected individuals with AIDS, there is an increase in aberrant alternative splicing, resulting in an increase in HIV/AIDS-related cancers, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cervical cancer...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692546/hhv8-and-kaposi-s-sarcoma-should-we-really-give-up-protease-inhibitors-in-all-hiv-infected-patients
#18
Patrick Philibert, Laurent Chiche, Sylvie Caillères, Julie Allemand, Stanislas Rebaudet, Marion Delord, Chloé Stavris, Frédérique Retornaz, Hacène Khiri, Philippe Halfon
We describe the first case of a patient presenting Kaposi's Sarcoma with HHV8 viremia after switching from a protease inhibitor (PI) to an integrase inhibitor-based combination antiretroviral therapy, followed by a rapid remission when resuming PI. We suggest that the recent recommendations to switch all HIV patients to PI-free regimens should be carefully reevaluated especially in men who have sex with men HIV patients which are at higher risks of HHV8 infections and associated malignancies.
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687922/was-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-introduced-into-china-via-the-ancient-silk-road-an-evolutionary-perspective
#19
Zhenqiu Liu, Qiwen Fang, Jialu Zuo, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Na He, Tiejun Zhang
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has become widely dispersed worldwide since it was first reported in 1994, but the seroprevalence of KSHV varies geographically. KSHV is relatively ubiquitous in Mediterranean areas and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The origin of KSHV has long been puzzling. In the present study, we collected and analysed 154 KSHV ORF-K1 sequences obtained from samples originating from Xinjiang, Italy, Greece, Iran and southern Siberia using Bayesian evolutionary analysis in BEAST to test the hypothesis that KSHV was introduced into Xinjiang via the ancient Silk Road...
July 7, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687749/inhibition-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-virus-by-a-peptide-derived-from-vflip-through-its-direct-destabilization-of-viruses
#20
Ho-Jin Moon, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Hyun-Cheol Lee, Min-Eun Park, Jae-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Ji-Eun Yoon, Won-Kyung Cho, Jin Yeul Ma, Chul-Joong Kim, Jae U Jung, Jong-Soo Lee
The antiviral activities of synthesized Kα2-helix peptide, which was derived from the viral FLICE-like inhibitor protein (vFLIP) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), against influenza A virus (IAV) were investigated in vitro and in vivo, and mechanisms of action were suggested. In addition to the robust autophagy activity of the Kα2-helix peptide, the present study showed that treatment with the Kα2 peptide fused with the TAT peptide significantly inhibited IAV replication and transmission...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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