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Cerebral Small vessel disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898582/antithrombotic-therapy-in-patients-with-cerebral-microbleeds
#1
Duncan Wilson, David J Werring
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a radiological marker of cerebral small vessel disease corresponding to small haemosiderin foci identified by blood-sensitive MRI. CMBs are common in older community populations, and in individuals with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). We summarize how CMBs might contribute to assessing the future risk of ischaemic stroke and ICH to inform antithrombotic (antiplatelet or anticoagulant) decisions...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892636/impaired-retinal-vasoreactivity-an-early-marker-of-stroke-risk-in-diabetes
#2
Kerstin Bettermann, Julia Slocomb, Vikram Shivkumar, David Quillen, Thomas W Gardner, Mary E Lott
Diabetes is a common cause of small vessel disease leading to stroke and vascular dementia. While the function and structure of large cerebral vessels can be easily studied, the brain's microvasculature remains difficult to assess. Previous studies have demonstrated that structural changes in the retinal vessel architecture predict stroke risk, but these changes occur at late disease stages. Our goal was to examine whether retinal vascular status can predict cerebral small vessel dysfunction during early stages of diabetes...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891240/differences-in-the-clinical-manifestations-and-short-term-prognosis-of-acute-cerebral-infarction-after-exposure-to-agent-orange
#3
SangWoo Han, Inha Hwang, Seung Min Kim, Young Soon Yang, SangWon Ha, Jeong Ho Han, Tae Hwan Park
BACKGROUND: Agent Orange (AO) is the code name for one of the herbicides and defoliants used in the Vietnam War. Studies conducted thus far show a significant correlation between AO and the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. But there is little data on the association between AO and stroke, and limited studies have targeted patient groups exposed to AO. METHOD: Bohun medical center Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the study. (ID: 341) We studied patients with acute ischemic stroke within 7 days of onset in VHS medical center and 4 other general hospitals...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889950/retinopathy-a-sign-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-diabetes
#4
Toshitaka Umemura, Takahiko Kawamura
Cardio-cerebrovascular disease greatly influences the prognosis of diabetic patients. Silent lacunar infarcts, white matter lesions (WMLs), and cerebral microbleeds are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and as they are associated with stroke and dementia, prevention of their incidence and progression is important in clinical practice. The findings of previous autopsy and clinical studies suggest that lacunar infarcts are more prevalent in diabetic patients. On the other hand, the findings of studies on an association between diabetes and WMLs have been inconsistent...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881154/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-identifies-novel-notch3-gene-mutations-in-cadasil-diagnostics-patients
#5
Neven Maksemous, Robert A Smith, Larisa M Haupt, Lyn R Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a monogenic, hereditary, small vessel disease of the brain causing stroke and vascular dementia in adults. CADASIL has previously been shown to be caused by varying mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. The disorder is often misdiagnosed due to its significant clinical heterogeneic manifestation with familial hemiplegic migraine and several ataxia disorders as well as the location of the currently identified causative mutations...
November 24, 2016: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874975/structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#6
Anja Meissner, Jens Minnerup, Guadalupe Soria Rodriguez, Anna M Planas
Hypertension is a main risk factor for the development of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) - a major contributor to stroke and the most common cause of vascular dementia. Despite the increasing socio-economic importance arising from cSVD, currently only a few specific treatment strategies with proven efficacy are known. Fundamental to the lack of specific treatments is poor understanding of the disease pathogenesis and a lack of appropriate animal models resembling all symptoms of the human disease. However, chronic hypertensive rat models have been shown to bear similarities to most key features of cSVD...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864848/age-related-small-vessel-disease-a-potential-contributor-to-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Ruth Geraldes, Margaret M Esiri, Gabriele C DeLuca, Jacqueline Palace
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system wherein, after an initial phase of transient neurological defects, slow neurological deterioration due to progressive neuronal loss ensues. Age is a major determinant of MS progression onset and disability. Over the past years, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the key drivers of neurodegeneration and disability accumulation in MS. However, the effect of commonly encountered age-related cerebral vessel disease, namely small vessel disease (SVD), has been largely neglected and constitutes the aim of this review...
November 19, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862654/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-and-cognitive-status-in-patients-with-ischaemic-stroke-and-transient-ischaemic-attack
#8
F Arba, T Quinn, G J Hankey, M Ali, K R Lees, D Inzitari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small vessel disease (SVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two common causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, traditionally considered as distinct processes. The relationship between radiological features suggestive of AD and SVD was explored, and the association of each of these features with cognitive status at 1 year was investigated in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: Anonymized data were accessed from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA)...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853267/characterizing-focused-ultrasound-mediated-drug-delivery-to-the-heterogeneous-primate-brain-in-vivo-with-acoustic-monitoring
#9
Shih-Ying Wu, Carlos Sierra Sanchez, Gesthimani Samiotaki, Amanda Buch, Vincent P Ferrera, Elisa E Konofagou
Focused ultrasound with microbubbles has been used to noninvasively and selectively deliver pharmacological agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for treating brain diseases. Acoustic cavitation monitoring could serve as an on-line tool to assess and control the treatment. While it demonstrated a strong correlation in small animals, its translation to primates remains in question due to the anatomically different and highly heterogeneous brain structures with gray and white matteras well as dense vasculature...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848124/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-and-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-associated-with-intracranial-hypotension
#10
Katharina Feil, Robert Forbrig, Franziska S Thaler, Julian Conrad, Suzette Heck, Franziska Dorn, Hans-Walter Pfister, Andreas Straube
BACKGROUND: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are both rare disorders. The pathophysiology of both diseases is not yet fully understood. METHODS: We report the unique case of a 19-year-old comatose woman who was brought to the ER after a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures 6 days post peridural anesthesia for cesarean section. Vital signs and initial laboratory testing including urine analysis and drug screening were unremarkable...
November 15, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834748/early-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-markers-of-hereditary-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#11
Sanneke van Rooden, Anna M van Opstal, Gerda Labadie, Gisela M Terwindt, Marieke J H Wermer, Andrew G Webb, Huub A M Middelkoop, Steven M Greenberg, Jeroen van der Grond, Mark A van Buchem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early markers for cerebral amyloid angiopathy are largely unknown. We aimed to identify which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (performed at 7 and 3T) and cognitive markers are an early sign in (pre) symptomatic subjects with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type. METHODS: Twenty-seven DNA-proven Dutch-type mutation carriers (15 symptomatic and 12 presymptomatic) (mean age of 45.9 years) and 33 controls (mean age of 45...
December 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816341/stroke-prevention
#12
Clothilde Isabel, David Calvet, Jean-Louis Mas
Patients who have had a stroke are at high risk for recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death. Prevention of these events should be initiated promptly after stroke, because many recurrent events occur early, and should be tailored to the precise cause of stroke, which may require specific treatment. Lifestyle advice including abstinence from smoking, regular exercise, Mediterranean-style diet, and reduction of salt intake and alcohol consumption are recommended for all patients with stroke...
November 3, 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806704/vascular-depression-consensus-report-a-critical-update
#13
EDITORIAL
Howard J Aizenstein, Andrius Baskys, Maura Boldrini, Meryl A Butters, Breno S Diniz, Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, Kurt A Jellinger, Lev S Kruglov, Ivan A Meshandin, Milija D Mijajlovic, Guenter Niklewski, Sarah Pospos, Keerthy Raju, Kneginja Richter, David C Steffens, Warren D Taylor, Oren Tene
BACKGROUND: Vascular depression is regarded as a subtype of late-life depression characterized by a distinct clinical presentation and an association with cerebrovascular damage. Although the term is commonly used in research settings, widely accepted diagnostic criteria are lacking and vascular depression is absent from formal psychiatric manuals such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5(th) edition - a fact that limits its use in clinical settings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, showing a variety of cerebrovascular lesions, including extensive white matter hyperintensities, subcortical microvascular lesions, lacunes, and microinfarcts, in patients with late life depression, led to the introduction of the term "MRI-defined vascular depression"...
November 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802487/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-branch-retinal-artery-occlusion
#14
Kwan Hyuk Cho, Chi Kyung Kim, Se Joon Woo, Kyu Hyung Park, Sang Jun Park
Purpose: We investigated the pathophysiology of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) by evaluating the retina, brain, and carotid artery in patients with BRAO. Methods: This study was a retrospective registry study. We used 46 eyes from 46 patients with acute BRAO and evaluated the medical history, including previous cardiovascular disease, and compared brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) and carotid artery stenosis state between the embolic BRAO group and nonembolic BRAO group...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796861/recent-advances-in-leukoaraiosis-white-matter-structural-integrity-and-functional-outcomes-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Mark R Etherton, Ona Wu, Natalia S Rost
Leukoaraiosis, a radiographic marker of cerebral small vessel disease detected on T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as white matter hyperintensity (WMH), is a key contributor to the risk and severity of acute cerebral ischemia. Prior investigations have emphasized the pathophysiology of WMH development and progression; however, more recently, an association between WMH burden and functional outcomes after stroke has emerged. There is growing evidence that WMH represents macroscopic injury to the white matter and that the extent of WMH burden on MRI influences functional recovery in multiple domains following acute ischemic stroke (AIS)...
December 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793532/prognostic-relationships-between-microbleed-lacunar-infarction-white-matter-lesion-and-renal-dysfunction-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-survivors
#16
Jae Woong Jeon, Hye Seon Jeong, Dae Eun Choi, Young Rok Ham, Ki Ryang Na, Kang Wook Lee, Jong Wook Shin, Jei Kim
BACKGROUND: It is well known that renal dysfunction and cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD), including microbleed, lacunar infarction, and white matter lesion (WML), are associated with poor prognosis after ischemic stroke. However, the prognostic relationship between renal dysfunction and SVD has not been well evaluated in acute ischemic stroke survivors. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the prognostic relationships between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cerebral SVD after acute ischemic stroke...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773545/cadasil-mimicking-multiple-sclerosis-the-importance-of-clinical-and-mri-red-flags
#17
Stuti Joshi, Wayne Yau, Allan Kermode
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited small vessel disease, manifesting as recurrent ischaemic events, migraine with aura, behavioural disturbance and cognitive decline. We report two patients with CADASIL masquerading as multiple sclerosis (MS). A 23year old female presented with a visual scotoma and was discovered to have a corresponding retinal cotton wool spot. MRI brain revealed diffuse T2 hyperintensities suggestive of demyelination...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766857/zeolite-nanoparticles-inhibit-a%C3%AE-fibrinogen-interaction-and-formation-of-consequent-abnormal-structural-clot
#18
Hossein Derakhshankhah, Mohammad Javad Hajipour, Ebrahim Barzegari, Alireza Lotfabadi, Maryam Ferdousi, Ali Akbar Saboury, Eng-Poh Ng, Mohammad Raoufi, Hussein Awala, Svetlana Mintova, Rassoul Dinarvand, Morteza Mahmoudi
EMT-type zeolite nanoparticles (EMT NPs) with diameter smaller than 12 nm and uniform pore size of 7.3 Å have shown high selective affinity toward plasma protein (fibrinogen). Besides, the EMT NPs have demonstrated no adverse effect on blood coagulation hemostasis. Therefore, it was envisioned that the EMT NPs could inhibit possible β-Amyloid (Aβ)-fibrinogen interactions that result in the formation of structurally abnormal clots, which are resistant to lysis, in cerebral vessels of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD)...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766478/structural-brain-changes-and-all-cause-mortality-in-the-elderly-population-the-mediating-role-of-inflammation
#19
Uta Hanning, Andreas Roesler, Annette Peters, Klaus Berger, Bernhard T Baune
While MRI brain changes have been related to mortality during ageing, the role of inflammation in this relationship remains poorly understood. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the impact of MRI changes on all-cause mortality and the mediating role of cytokines. All-cause mortality was evaluated in 268 community dwelling elderly (age 65-83 years) in the MEMO study (Memory and Morbidity in Augsburg elderly). MRI markers of brain atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), C-reactive protein (CRP) and a panel of cytokines in serum were assessed...
October 20, 2016: Age (2005-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757722/mechanisms-of-post-radiation-injury-cerebral-microinfarction-not-a-significant-factor
#20
J A Molad, D T Blumenthal, F Bokstein, M Findler, I Finkel, N M Bornstein, S Yust-Katz, E Auriel
Post-radiation leukoencephalopathy is characterized by cognitive impairment and white matter alternations on imaging. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is one of several suggested etiologies. Cerebral microinfarction (CMI) is a recently described marker of SVD. We sought to examine the rate of CMI as a biomarker of ongoing ischemia among patients who underwent brain radiotherapy (RT). 110 patients treated with RT for primary or metastatic brain tumors were enrolled. A total of 685 brain MRI tests performed 1-108 months post-radiation were examined...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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