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Reaction time testing in neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932344/using-robust-normative-data-to-investigate-the-neuropsychology-of-cognitive-aging
#1
Karra D Harrington, Yen Ying Lim, David Ames, Jason Hassenstab, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Joanne Robertson, Olivier Salvado, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which increasing age is associated with impairment in cognitive function, termed cognitive aging, may have been overestimated in prior studies. The inclusion of individuals with severe or uncontrolled systemic medical illness or prodromal neurodegenerative disease in normal aging samples is likely to bias estimates toward lower cognitive performance and inflate estimates of variability. METHOD: Unbiased estimates of cognitive aging in 658 adults aged 60-84, who underwent rigorous screening to ensure their general and cognitive health, were computed...
December 8, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927083/measurement-of-peripheral-vision-reaction-time-identifies-white-matter-disruption-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Kyle B Womack, Christopher Paliotta, Jeremy F Strain, Johnson S Ho, Yosef S Skolnick, William W Lytton, L Christine Turtzo, Roderick McColl, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Peter Bergold
This study examined whether peripheral vision reaction time (PVRT) in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) correlate with white matter abnormalities in centroaxial structures and impairments in neuropsychological testing. Within 24 hours after mTBI, crossed reaction times (CRT), uncrossed reaction times (URT) and crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) were measured in 23 patients using a laptop computer that displayed visual stimuli predominantly to either the left or right visual field of the retina...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923417/mechanisms-of-memory-dysfunction-during-high-altitude-hypoxia-training-in-military-aircrew
#3
Daniel A Nation, Mark W Bondi, Ellis Gayles, Dean C Delis
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction from high altitude exposure is a major cause of civilian and military air disasters. Pilot training improves recognition of the early symptoms of altitude exposure so that countermeasures may be taken before loss of consciousness. Little is known regarding the nature of cognitive impairments manifesting within this critical window when life-saving measures may still be taken. Prior studies evaluating cognition during high altitude simulation have predominantly focused on measures of reaction time and other basic attention or motor processes...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883290/behavioral-evidence-for-a-differential-modulation-of-semantic-processing-and-lexical-production-by-aging-a-full-linear-mixed-effects-modeling-approach
#4
Naïla Boudiaf, Rafael Laboissière, Émilie Cousin, Nathalie Fournet, Alexandre Krainik, Monica Baciu
The effect of normal aging on lexical production and semantic processing was evaluated in 72 healthy participants. Four tasks were used, picture naming (PN), picture categorization (PC), numerical judgment (NJ), and color judgment (CJ). The dependence of reaction time (RT) and correct responses with age was accounted by mixed-effects models. Participants underwent neuropsychological testing for verbal, executive, and memory functions. The RTs increase significantly with age for all tasks. After parceling out the non-specific cognitive decline, as reflected by the NJ task, the RT for the PN task decreases with age...
November 24, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877044/increased-mir-132-level-is-associated-with-visual-memory-dysfunction-in-patients-with-depression
#5
Ye Liu, Xiao Yang, Liansheng Zhao, Jian Zhang, Tao Li, Xiaohong Ma
BACKGROUND: Impaired visual memory seems to be a core feature of depression, while increased microRNA-132 (miR-132) levels have been widely reported in depression patients. The authors aimed to explore the relationship between miR-132 changes and visual memory deficits in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 medication-free MDD patients and 73 matched healthy controls (HCs) were tested for miR-132 expression level in peripheral blood using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874301/cognitive-predictors-of-performance-in-well-trained-table-tennis-players-with-intellectual-disability
#6
Debbie Van Biesen, Jennifer Mactavish, Janne Kerremans, Yves C Vanlandewijck
Evidence-based classification systems in Paralympic sport require knowledge of the underlying effect of impairment in a specific sport. This study investigated the relationship between cognition and tactical proficiency in 88 well-trained table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID; 29 women, 59 men, M ± SD IQ 59.9 ± 9.6). Data were collected at 3 competitions sanctioned by the International Federation for Para-Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities (INAS). A generic cognitive test consisting of 8 neuropsychological subtests was used to assess cognitive abilities relevant to sport (reaction time, processing speed, and decision speed; spatial visualization; fluid reasoning; memory; executive functioning; and visual processing)...
October 2016: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868580/attention-lapses-in-children-with-spina-bifida-and-hydrocephalus-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Gabriel G De la Torre, Alba Martin, Elizabeth Cervantes, Rocio Guil, Jose M Mestre
Attentional lapses are usually defined as temporary and often brief shifts of attention away from some primary task to unrelated internal information processing. This study addressed the incidence of attention lapses and differences in attentional functioning in 30 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 26 healthy children, and 29 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus (SBH). Assessments were conducted using computerized tonic and phasic attention tests, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Trail Making Test Form B (TMT-B)...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860515/a-bespoke-kinect-stepping-exergame-for-improving-physical-and-cognitive-function-in-older-people-a-pilot-study
#8
Jaime A Garcia, Daniel Schoene, Stephen R Lord, Kim Delbaere, Trinidad Valenzuela, Karla Felix Navarro
BACKGROUND: Systematic review evidence has shown that step training reduces the number of falls in older people by half. This study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of a bespoke Kinect stepping exergame in an unsupervised home-based setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An uncontrolled pilot trial was conducted in 12 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 79.3 ± 8.7 years, 10 females). The stepping game comprised rapid stepping, attention, and response inhibition...
November 18, 2016: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847145/short-and-long-term-neurobehavioral-effects-of-lumbar-puncture-and-shunting-in-patients-with-malabsorptive-hydrocephalus-after-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-an-explorative-case-study
#9
Bernd-Otto Hütter, Joachim-Michael Gilsbach
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological effects of lumbar puncture and shunting in terms of cognitive functioning and quality of life were analyzed prospectively in four patients with malabsorptive hydrocephalus who became symptomatic in the chronic state after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was applied to four patients before and shortly after lumbar puncture and six months later. In three of them a shunt has been inserted, one patient was treated by repeated lumbar punctures...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844498/adolescents-newly-diagnosed-with-eating-disorders-have-structural-differences-in-brain-regions-linked-with-eating-disorder-symptoms
#10
Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lyle Wiemerslage, Ingemar Swenne, Anna Larsen, Julia Stark, Mathias Rask-Andersen, Helena Salonen-Ros, Elna-Marie Larsson, Helgi B Schiöth, Samantha J Brooks
BACKGROUND: Adults with eating disorders (ED) show brain volume reductions in the frontal, insular, cingulate, and parietal cortices, as well as differences in subcortical regions associated with reward processing. However, little is known about the structural differences in adolescents with behavioural indications of early stage ED. AIM: This is the first study to investigate structural brain changes in adolescents newly diagnosed with ED compared to healthy controls (HC), and to study whether ED cognitions correlate with structural changes in adolescents with ED of short duration...
November 15, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822047/a-pilot-study-of-cognitive-training-with-and-without-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-improve-cognition-in-older-persons-with-hiv-related-cognitive-impairment
#11
Raymond L Ownby, Amarilis Acevedo
BACKGROUND: In spite of treatment advances, HIV infection is associated with cognitive deficits. This is even more important as many persons with HIV infection age and experience age-related cognitive impairments. Both computer-based cognitive training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have shown promise as interventions to improve cognitive function. In this study, we investigate the acceptability and efficacy of cognitive training with and without tDCS in older persons with HIV...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754069/os-18-01-correlation-between-cognitive-decline-and-blood-pressure-in-elderly-patients-with-controlled-hypertension
#12
Adrian Noriega De La Colina, Rong Wu, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Pierre Larochelle, Maxime Lamarre-Cliche, Louis Bherer, Hélène Girouard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance in older adults treated and controlled for blood pressure (BP) when compared to untreated normotensive subjects, and to determine whether blood pressure still correlates with poorer cognitive performances. DESIGN AND METHOD: Forty-eight older adults aged between 65 and 85 years were recruited in the community and divided into two groups: normotensive (n = 26) and controlled hypertensive (n = 22)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736285/comparison-of-baseline-and-post-concussion-impact-test-scores-in-young-athletes-with-stimulant-treated-and-untreated-adhd
#13
Ryan M Gardner, Aaron Yengo-Kahn, Christopher M Bonfield, Gary S Solomon
OBJECTIVES: Baseline and post-concussion neurocognitive testing is useful in managing concussed athletes. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stimulant medications are recognized as potential modifiers of performance on neurocognitive testing by the Concussion in Sport Group. Our goal was to assess whether individuals with ADHD perform differently on post-concussion testing and if this difference is related to the use of stimulants. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study in which 4373 athletes underwent baseline and post-concussion testing using the ImPACT battery...
October 13, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692027/principal-component-analysis-of-working-memory-variables-during-child-and-adolescent-development
#14
Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, María Ángeles Rojas-Benjumea, Carlos M Gómez
Correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of behavioral measures from two experimental tasks (Delayed Match-to-Sample and Oddball), and standard scores from a neuropsychological test battery (Working Memory Test Battery for Children) was performed on data from participants between 6-18 years old. The correlation analysis (p 1), the scores of the first extracted component were significantly correlated (p < .05) to most behavioral measures, suggesting some commonalities of the processes of age-related changes in the measured variables...
October 3, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690740/effect-of-trait-anxiety-on-cognitive-test-performance-in-adolescents-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Barbara M Ruf, Katie L Bessette, Godfrey D Pearlson, Michael C Stevens
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety are frequently comorbid disorders associated with different types of abnormal performance on neuropsychological tests. Although some studies have shown that comorbid anxiety alters ADHD test performance, results inconsistently show both improvements and worsening of different abilities, with failures to replicate across different anxiety disorders. Alternatively, trait anxiety may reflect a more stable influence on ADHD test performance than various diagnosable anxiety disorders...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662418/elevations-on-select-conners-cpt-ii-scales-indicate-noncredible-responding-in-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Laszlo A Erdodi, Chantalle L Pelletier, Robert M Roth
Elevations on certain Conners' CPT-II scales are known to be associated with invalid responding. However, scales and cutoffs vary across studies. In addition, the methodology behind developing performance validity tests (PVTs) has been challenged for mistaking true impairment for noncredible presentation. Using ability-based tests as a PVT makes clinicians especially vulnerable to this criticism. The present study examined the ability of CPT-II to dissociate effort from impairment in 47 adults clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment...
September 23, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661438/alteration-of-the-alertness-related-network-in-patients-with-right-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#17
Jianping Li, Xuemei Chen, Wei Ye, Wenyu Jiang, Huihua Liu, Jinou Zheng
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate alterations in the alertness-related network in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) and explore the functional mechanisms of impaired alertness. METHODS: We recruited twenty patients with rTLE and eighteen matched healthy controls. All participants took a neuropsychological attention network test (ANT) and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning. We extracted the alertness-related network using multiple independent component analysis (MICA)...
September 16, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650247/neurocognitive-and-executive-functioning-in-adult-survivors-of-congenital-heart-disease
#18
Leda Klouda, Wayne J Franklin, Anita Saraf, Dhaval R Parekh, David D Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: Congenital heart disease (CHD) can affect the developing central nervous system, resulting in neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. Preoperative neurological abnormalities as well as sequelae of the open heart operations required to correct structural abnormalities of the heart contribute to these deficits. There are few studies examining the neurocognitive functioning of adults with CHD. This study sought to investigate multiple domains of neurocognitive functioning in adult survivors of CHD who had childhood cardiac surgery with either moderate or severe disease complexity...
September 21, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642990/os-18-01-correlation-between-cognitive-decline-and-blood-pressure-in-elderly-patients-with-controlled-hypertension
#19
Adrian Noriega De La Colina, Rong Wu, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Pierre Larochelle, Maxime Lamarre-Cliche, Louis Bherer, Hélène Girouard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance in older adults treated and controlled for blood pressure (BP) when compared to untreated normotensive subjects, and to determine whether blood pressure still correlates with poorer cognitive performances. DESIGN AND METHOD: Forty-eight older adults aged between 65 and 85 years were recruited in the community and divided into two groups: normotensive (n = 26) and controlled hypertensive (n = 22)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617190/television-viewing-duration-during-childhood-and-long-association-with-adolescent-neuropsychological-outcomes
#20
Giselle O'Connor, Maria Piñero Casas, Xavier Basagaña, Mònica López Vicente, Payam Davand, Maties Torrent, David Martínez-Murciano, Raquel García-Esteban, Marcella Marinelli, Jordi Sunyer, Jordi Julvez
This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
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