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Reaction time testing in neuropsychology

Adrian Noriega De La Colina, Rong Wu, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Pierre Larochelle, Maxime Lamarre-Cliche, Louis Bherer, Hélène Girouard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance in older adults treated and controlled for blood pressure (BP) when compared to untreated normotensive subjects, and to determine whether blood pressure still correlates with poorer cognitive performances. DESIGN AND METHOD: Forty-eight older adults aged between 65 and 85 years were recruited in the community and divided into two groups: normotensive (n = 26) and controlled hypertensive (n = 22)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ryan M Gardner, Aaron Yengo-Kahn, Christopher M Bonfield, Gary S Solomon
OBJECTIVES: Baseline and post-concussion neurocognitive testing is useful in managing concussed athletes. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stimulant medications are recognized as potential modifiers of performance on neurocognitive testing by the Concussion in Sport Group. Our goal was to assess whether individuals with ADHD perform differently on post-concussion testing and if this difference is related to the use of stimulants. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study in which 4373 athletes underwent baseline and post-concussion testing using the ImPACT battery...
October 13, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, María Ángeles Rojas-Benjumea, Carlos M Gómez
Correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of behavioral measures from two experimental tasks (Delayed Match-to-Sample and Oddball), and standard scores from a neuropsychological test battery (Working Memory Test Battery for Children) was performed on data from participants between 6-18 years old. The correlation analysis (p 1), the scores of the first extracted component were significantly correlated (p < .05) to most behavioral measures, suggesting some commonalities of the processes of age-related changes in the measured variables...
October 3, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Barbara M Ruf, Katie L Bessette, Godfrey D Pearlson, Michael C Stevens
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety are frequently comorbid disorders associated with different types of abnormal performance on neuropsychological tests. Although some studies have shown that comorbid anxiety alters ADHD test performance, results inconsistently show both improvements and worsening of different abilities, with failures to replicate across different anxiety disorders. Alternatively, trait anxiety may reflect a more stable influence on ADHD test performance than various diagnosable anxiety disorders...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Laszlo A Erdodi, Chantalle L Pelletier, Robert M Roth
Elevations on certain Conners' CPT-II scales are known to be associated with invalid responding. However, scales and cutoffs vary across studies. In addition, the methodology behind developing performance validity tests (PVTs) has been challenged for mistaking true impairment for noncredible presentation. Using ability-based tests as a PVT makes clinicians especially vulnerable to this criticism. The present study examined the ability of CPT-II to dissociate effort from impairment in 47 adults clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment...
September 23, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Jianping Li, Xuemei Chen, Wei Ye, Wenyu Jiang, Huihua Liu, Jinou Zheng
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate alterations in the alertness-related network in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) and explore the functional mechanisms of impaired alertness. METHODS: We recruited twenty patients with rTLE and eighteen matched healthy controls. All participants took a neuropsychological attention network test (ANT) and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning. We extracted the alertness-related network using multiple independent component analysis (MICA)...
September 16, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Leda Klouda, Wayne J Franklin, Anita Saraf, Dhaval R Parekh, David D Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: Congenital heart disease (CHD) can affect the developing central nervous system, resulting in neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. Preoperative neurological abnormalities as well as sequelae of the open heart operations required to correct structural abnormalities of the heart contribute to these deficits. There are few studies examining the neurocognitive functioning of adults with CHD. This study sought to investigate multiple domains of neurocognitive functioning in adult survivors of CHD who had childhood cardiac surgery with either moderate or severe disease complexity...
September 21, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
Adrian Noriega De La Colina, Rong Wu, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Pierre Larochelle, Maxime Lamarre-Cliche, Louis Bherer, Hélène Girouard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance in older adults treated and controlled for blood pressure (BP) when compared to untreated normotensive subjects, and to determine whether blood pressure still correlates with poorer cognitive performances. DESIGN AND METHOD: Forty-eight older adults aged between 65 and 85 years were recruited in the community and divided into two groups: normotensive (n = 26) and controlled hypertensive (n = 22)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Giselle O'Connor, Maria Piñero Casas, Xavier Basagaña, Mònica López Vicente, Payam Davand, Maties Torrent, David Martínez-Murciano, Raquel García-Esteban, Marcella Marinelli, Jordi Sunyer, Jordi Julvez
This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
C Y Shang, C G Yan, H Y Lin, W Y Tseng, F X Castellanos, S S Gau
BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are commonly prescribed for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, their therapeutic neural mechanisms remain unclear. METHOD: After baseline evaluation including cognitive testing of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), drug-naive children with ADHD (n = 46), aged 7-17 years, were randomly assigned to a 12-week treatment with methylphenidate (n = 22) or atomoxetine (n = 24)...
August 30, 2016: Psychological Medicine
William T Tsushima, Andrea M Siu, Nozomi Yamashita, Ross S Oshiro, Nathan M Murata
This replication study re-examined the neuropsychological effects of participation in high and low contact youth sports. Modeled after a recently published investigation, two contact sport groups of participants ages 12 to 18 were formed based on the rate of concussion in their respective sport, with the assumption that more head impacts and neuropsychological effects occur in high contact sports that have a greater number of reported concussions as compared with low contact sports. The preseason baseline ImPACT neuropsychological test scores and symptom scores of non-concussed youth athletes in a High Contact Sport (football, n = 139) and a Low Contact Sport (basketball, baseball, soccer, wrestling, volleyball, paddling, and cheerleading, n = 57) were compared...
August 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Patria A Hume, Alice Theadom, Gwyn N Lewis, Kenneth L Quarrie, Scott R Brown, Rosamund Hill, Stephen W Marshall
AIM: This study investigated differences in cognitive function between former rugby and non-contact-sport players, and assessed the association between concussion history and cognitive function. METHODS: Overall, 366 former players (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 43.3 ± 8.2 years) were recruited from October 2012 to April 2014. Engagement in sport, general health, sports injuries and concussion history, and demographic information were obtained from an online self-report questionnaire...
August 24, 2016: Sports Medicine
Lukman Femi Owolabi, Aliyu Abdu, Aliyu Ibrahim, Desola Shakira Owolabi, Aisha Nalado, Adamu Bappa, Aminu Abdullahi Taura
AIM: The purpose of this comparative study was to evaluate cognitive function in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in comparison with age, sex, and level of education-matched control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 80 ESRD patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis treatment and recruited conservatively at the nephrology unit of our hospital. Eighty apparently healthy control, that were matched with the patients for age, sex and education, were also recruited...
July 2016: Annals of African Medicine
Anna Göbel, Marcus Heldmann, Martin Göttlich, Anna-Luise Dirk, Georg Brabant, Thomas F Münte
AIMS: Disturbed levels of thyroid hormones are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including memory impairments. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of mild induced thyrotoxicosis on working memory and its neural correlates. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy, male subjects with normal thyroid state participated in the study. Functional MRI was acquired during a working memory task (n-back task) before and after ingesting 250 μg L-thyroxin per day for a period of eight weeks...
2016: PloS One
Andreas Stevens, Simone Bahlo, Christina Licha, Benjamin Liske, Elisabeth Vossler-Thies
Subnormal performance in attention tasks may result from various sources including lack of effort. In this report, the derivation and validation of a performance validity parameter for reaction time is described, using a set of malingering-indices ("Slick-criteria"), and 3 independent samples of participants (total n =893). The Slick-criteria yield an estimate of the probability of malingering based on the presence of an external incentive, evidence from neuropsychological testing, from self-report and clinical data...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Ole Bernt Fasmer, Kristin Mjeldheim, Wenche Førland, Anita L Hansen, Vigdis Elin Giæver Syrstad, Ketil J Oedegaard, Jan Øystein Berle
BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder. Therefore it is important to look for factors that can contribute to better diagnosis and classification of these patients. The aims of the study were to characterize adult psychiatric out-patients with a mixture of mood, anxiety and attentional problems using an objective neuropsychological test of attention combined with an assessment of mood instability. METHOD: Newly referred patients (n = 99; aged 18-65 years) requiring diagnostic evaluation of ADHD, mood or anxiety disorders were recruited, and were given a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation including the self-report form of the cyclothymic temperament scale and Conner's Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II)...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Zahid Sadek Chowdhury, Mohammed Monzur Morshed, Mohammad Shahriar, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan, Sardar Mohd Ashraful Islam, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed
Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT) for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
Elisa Wegmann, Matthias Brand, Jan Snagowski, Johannes Schiebener
In everyday life people have to attend to, react to, or inhibit reactions to visual and acoustic cues. These abilities are frequently measured with Go/NoGo tasks using visual stimuli. However, these abilities have rarely been examined with auditory cues. The aims of our study (N = 106) are to develop an auditory Go/NoGo paradigm and to describe brain-healthy participants' performance. We tested convergent validity of the auditory Go/NoGo paradigm by analyzing the correlations with other neuropsychological tasks assessing attentional control and executive functions...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Urszula Stolarska-Weryńska, Małgorzata Steczkowska, Marek Kaciński
UNLABELLED: Explaining associations between neurophysiological and neuropsychological parameteres in children and improving the measurement methods would lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis and course of psychosomatic disease. Goal: clinical assessment of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of psychogenic no- nepileptic seizures and tension type headaches in children. Determining the influence of cognitive behavioral therapy on the cognitive P300 potential and whether P300 parameters in children correlate with neuropsychological parameters...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Arthur C Maerlender, Caitlin J Masterson, Tiffany D James, Jonathan Beckwith, Per Gunner Brolinson, Joe Crisco, Stefan Duma, Laura A Flashman, Rick Greenwald, Steven Rowson, Beth Wilcox, Tom W McAllister
Computerized neuropsychological testing has become an important tool in the identification and management of sports-related concussions; however, the psychometric effect of repeat testing has not been studied extensively beyond test-retest statistics. The current study analyzed data from Division I collegiate athletes who completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments at four sequential time points that varied over the course of their athletic careers. Administrations were part of a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH) study...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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