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Reaction time testing in neuropsychology

Christopher P Tomczyk, Megan Mormile, Megan S Wittenberg, Jody L Langdon, Tamerah N Hunt
CONTEXT:   An estimated 15.3 million adolescent students are enrolled in U.S. high schools, with approximately 7.8 million participating in athletics. Researchers have examined various demographics in high school athletes; however, athletic participation may play a larger role in test performance than previously thought. Currently, investigations of concussion assessment may rely on uninjured athletes as controls. However, due to the intense nature of athletics, this may not be an appropriate practice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Lorenzo Ridola, Vincenzo Cardinale, Oliviero Riggio
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It affects the performance of psychometric tests focused on attention, working memory, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial ability, as well as electrophysiological and other functional brain measures. MHE is a frequent complication of liver disease, affecting up to 80% of tested patients. By being related to falls, an impairment in fitness to drive and the development of overt HE, MHE severely affects the lives of patients and caregivers by altering their quality of life and their socioeconomic status...
March 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Arnaud Saj, Vincent Verdon, Claude-Alain Hauert, Patrik Vuilleumier
Spatial neglect is a complex neuropsychological disorder, in which patients fail to detect and respond to contralesional stimuli. Recent studies suggest that these symptoms may reflect a combination of different component deficits, associated with different lesion substrates. Thus, damage to right lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions produce different degrees of left neglect on cancellation and line bisection tasks, respectively. Here we tested for dissociable behaviors across two tasks designed to assess distinct cognitive processes possibly mediating such components, in 14 patients with right focal lesion in either the frontal or parietal lobe...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Amie Hayley, Maja Green, Luke Downey, Michael Keane, Panagiota Kostakis, Yahya Shehabi
BACKGROUND: The acute and delayed effect of analgesic-range doses of ketamine on neurocognitive and behavioural outcomes is understudied. Using a non-controlled open-labelled design, three (1-h duration) increasing intravenous (IV) ketamine infusions comprising (i) 30 mg bolus of ketamine + 8 mg/h IV infusion, (ii) 12 mg/h IV infusion and (iii) 20 mg/h infusion were administered to 20 participants (15 male, 5 female, mean age = 30.8 years). Whole-blood ketamine and norketamine concentrations were determined at each treatment step and post-infusion...
February 23, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Puga María Celeste, Vaucheret Paz Esteban, Leist Mariana, García Basalo María José, Baliarda Florencia, Ekonen Christy, Lascombes María Isabel, Agosta Guillermo
Data regarding clinical and neuropsychological features of attention deficit in children with lower cognitive ability is still scarce. The objective was to analyze the response patterns on the Continuous Performance Test II in children with Intellectual Disability and Attention Defficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This is a cross-sectional study, in which patients were divided into 2 groups: one group with ADHD and Full IQ > 80 and another group with ADHD + Full IQ score < 80. They were afterwards administered the CPT II (Continuous Performance Test)...
February 23, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Margaréta Tokodi, Eszter Csábi, Ágnes Kiricsi, Rebeka Schultz, Andor Molnár H, László Rovó, Zsolt Bella
Background and purpose: Allergy is an endemic disease and has a considerable impact on the quality of life. This study aimed to measure the effect of active allergic rhinitis on memory functions of physically active and inactive patients with ragweed allergy. Methods: Memory functions were assessed before and after allergen exposure. Participants in both groups were provoked nasally with 30 IR/mL ragweed allergen in each nostril. Explicit memory was measured with story-recalling and implicit memory was investigated with reaction time task...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Jesse Meijers, Joke M Harte, Gerben Meynen, Pim Cuijpers, Erik J A Scherder
Background: Prison can be characterized as an impoverished environment encouraging a sedentary lifestyle with limited autonomy and social interaction, which may negatively affect self-control and executive function. Here, we aim to study the effects of imprisonment on self-control and executive functions, and we report the change in neuropsychological outcome after 3 months of imprisonment. Materials and Methods: Participants were 37 male inmates in a remand prison in Amsterdam, Netherlands, who completed six tests of a computerized neuropsychological test battery (the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery) in the first week of arrival...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
William T Tsushima, Hyeong Jun Ahn, Andrea M Siu, Kara Yoshinaga, So Yung Choi, Nathan M Murata
The aim of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test results of non-concussed high school athletes playing at three different levels of contact sports. Based on the concussion risk data of 12 different sports, a High Contact group (n=2819; wrestling/martial arts, cheerleading, track and field, football), a Moderate Contact group (n=2323; softball, basketball, soccer), and a Low Contact group (n=1580; baseball, volleyball, water polo, tennis, cross-country) were formed and compared in terms of their scores on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT)...
February 2, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
David R Coghill, Tobias Banaschewski, Caleb Bliss, Brigitte Robertson, Alessandro Zuddas
BACKGROUND: SPD489-404 was the first 2-year safety study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. In accordance with advice from the European Medicines Agency, assessment of cognitive function was a predefined safety outcome in SPD489-404. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive function over 2 years in study SPD489-404, using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
January 30, 2018: CNS Drugs
Samuel Keer, Bill Glass, Dave McLean, Elizabeth Harding, Duncan Babbage, Janet Leathem, Yanis Brinkmann, Bradley Prezant, Neil Pearce, Jeroen Douwes
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether contemporary solvent exposures in the vehicle collision repair industry are associated with objectively measured neuropsychological performance in collision repair workers. METHODS: The RBANS battery and additional tests were administered to 47 vehicle collision repair and 51 comparison workers randomly selected from a previous questionnaire study. RESULTS: Collision repair workers performed lower on tests of attention (digit span backwards: -1...
2017: PloS One
Christine Mohn, Anne-Kari Torgalsbøen
Impaired attention and learning functions are common in schizophrenia. The details of this impairment, and how these change across time, are not well known. We aimed to compare the parameters of well-known attention and learning neuropsychological tests in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and healthy controls in a 2-year follow-up period. The performance of 28-25 FES patients and pairwise matched healthy controls on the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the revised Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, and the revised Brief Visuospatial Memory Test was compared at baseline and 2 years later...
December 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Christopher Tsoutsoulas, Benoit H Mulsant, Sanjeev Kumar, Zaid Ghazala, Aristotle N Voineskos, Mahesh Menon, Bruce G Pollock, Tarek K Rajji
OBJECTIVE: Older individuals with schizophrenia are at risk of being treated with anticholinergic medications due to the prevalence of medical comorbidities and polypharmacy. High anticholinergic burden impairs cognition and is a risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. Thus, we assessed the impact of anticholinergic burden on Alzheimer's dementia-related and schizophrenia-related cognitive functions in older patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Anticholinergic burden was measured using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale (ACB) in 60 community-dwelling patients aged ≥ 50 years who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia between May 2007 and November 2011...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Wesley R Cole, Emma Gregory, Jacques P Arrieux, F Jay Haran
OBJECTIVES: The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics 4 TBI-MIL (ANAM4) is a computerized cognitive test often used in post-concussion assessments with U.S. service members (SMs). However, existing evidence remains mixed regarding ANAM4's ability to identify cognitive issues following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Studies typically examine ANAM4 using standardized scores and/ or comparisons to a baseline. A more fine-grained approach involves examining inconsistency within an individual's performance (i...
November 23, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Emma Claesdotter, Matti Cervin, Sofia Åkerlund, Maria Råstam, Magnus Lindvall
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computerized test battery with standardized procedures and solid psychometric properties targeting multiple neuropsychological functions. AIMS: The aim of this study was to look at the effects of ADHD on cognitive performance using CANTAB expressed as a statistical interaction term in regression modeling...
November 21, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Yu-Chi Liao, Nai-Wen Guo, Shin-Jaw Chen, Hsing-Fang Tsai, Jhih-Hong Fang, Jia-Jin Chen, Bei-Yi Su
A deficit of inhibition ability is a neuropsychological problem in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated whether in children who made impulsive error (IE), less error-related negativity (ERN) would correlate with poorer executive attention functions (EAFs). Ninety children (49 with ADHD and 41 without ADHD) were investigated by a 4-minute simple reaction time task and simultaneous electroencephalogram. When they made IE, the ERN in response-locked event-related potential (ERP) was defined as error awareness...
November 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Kimberly Sullivan, Maxine Krengel, William Bradford, Callie Stone, Terri Ann Thompson, Timothy Heeren, Roberta F White
1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans continue to experience debilitating cognitive and mood problems more than two decades following their return from deployment. Suspected causes for these cognitive complaints include additive and/or synergistic effects of the varying combinations of exposures to chemicals in theater, including pesticides and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills. This study was undertaken to address one of the key recommendations of the US Department of Defense Environmental Exposure Report on Pesticides, which was to conduct an epidemiological study to further evaluate the role of neurotoxicant exposures in the expression of central nervous system symptoms reported by GW veterans...
November 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Peter Flachenecker, Heike Meissner, Rebecca Frey, Wolfgang Guldin
BACKGROUND: Attentional deficits may be pathophysiologically relevant in MS-associated fatigue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty MS patients with fatigue and attentional deficits in neuropsychological testing participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The intervention group (IG; n = 14) was treated with 10 h of computerized, specific neuropsychological training performing simple reaction time tasks, whereas the control group (CG; n = 16) also runs through computerized, but unspecific neuropsychological training using tasks without time components...
October 26, 2017: European Neurology
Ned Sacktor, Richard L Skolasky, Richard Moxley, Sheng Wang, Michelle M Mielke, Cynthia Munro, Joseph Steiner, Avindra Nath, Norman Haughey, Justin McArthur
Paroxetine and fluconazole have neuroprotective effects in an in vitro model of HIV protein-mediated neuronal injury. This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of both paroxetine and fluconazole for the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). A 24-week randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial design study was used. HIV+ individuals with cognitive impairment were enrolled in the 24-week trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) paroxetine 20 mg/day, (2) fluconazole 100 mg every 12 h, (3) paroxetine and fluconazole, or (4) placebo...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
Yeon-Jin Kim, Jae A Lim, Ji Yoon Lee, Sohee Oh, Sung Nyun Kim, Dai Jin Kim, Jong Eun Ha, Jun Soo Kwon, Jung-Seok Choi
Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by a loss of control and a preoccupation with Internet games leading to repetitive behavior. We aimed to compare the baseline neuropsychological profiles in IGD, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the spectrum of impulsivity and compulsivity. Methods A total of 225 subjects (IGD, N = 86; AUD, N = 39; OCD, N = 23; healthy controls, N = 77) were administered traditional neuropsychological tests including Korean version of the Stroop Color-Word test and computerized neuropsychological tests, including the stop signal test (SST) and the intra-extra dimensional set shift test (IED)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Marcus Schiltenwolf, Michael Akbar, Eva Neubauer, Simone Gantz, Herta Flor, Andreas Hug, Haili Wang
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the affected cognitive problems in chronic low back pain patients. For this patient cohort research mostly focused on memory of pain, rather than cognitive difficulties related to pain. Chronic pain may be associated with specific (yet undefined) cognitive deficits that affect everyday behaviour. We set out to compare the cognitive function of patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) in the course of multidisciplinary pain treatments before and after therapy...
October 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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