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Reaction time testing in neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781658/rapid-instruction-based-task-learning-ritl-in-schizophrenia
#1
Julia M Sheffield, Hannes Ruge, Sridhar Kandala, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate broad impairments in neurocognitive functioning as measured through laboratory-based tasks. Neuropsychological measures depend on rapid instruction-based task learning (RITL), the ability to rapidly translate task instruction into goal-directed behavior. Here, the authors present the first known investigation of RITL in schizophrenia and aim to test whether RITL deficits exist in schizophrenia, are associated with abnormal brain activation, and contribute to the generalized cognitive deficit...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707393/the-association-between-obesity-and-cognitive-function-in-otherwise-healthy-premenopausal-arab-women
#2
Abdulaziz Farooq, Ann-Marie Gibson, John J Reilly, Nadia Gaoua
Objective: To examine the association between obesity and cognitive function in healthy premenopausal women. Methods: From a cohort of 220 women, 98 were randomly selected that provided complete data. Body composition was examined by dual-energy X-ray scan. All participants completed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to assess cognitive performance in three domains: attention, memory, and planning executive function. The Reaction Time (RTI) test was used to assess motor and mental response speeds; the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) test was used to assess planning executive function...
2018: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706908/event-related-potential-erp-correlates-of-performance-monitoring-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#3
Lynn Marquardt, Heike Eichele, Astri J Lundervold, Jan Haavik, Tom Eichele
Introduction: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and tends to persist into adulthood. Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies indicates that alterations of error processing are core symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD. To test whether adults with ADHD show persisting deficits and compensatory processes, we investigated performance monitoring during stimulus-evaluation and response-selection, with a focus on errors, as well as within-group correlations with symptom scores...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672517/white-matter-alterations-in-the-internal-capsule-and-psychomotor-impairment-in-melancholic-depression
#4
Matthew P Hyett, Alistair Perry, Michael Breakspear, Wei Wen, Gordon B Parker
Emerging evidence suggests that structural brain abnormalities may play a role in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression. We set out to test whether diffusion-derived estimates of white matter structure were disrupted in melancholia in regions underpinning psychomotor function. We hypothesized that those with melancholia (and evidencing impaired psychomotor function) would show disrupted white matter organization in internal capsule subdivisions. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data were acquired from 22 melancholic depressed, 23 non-melancholic depressed, and 29 healthy control participants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670825/thalamic-functional-connectivity-and-its-association-with-behavioral-performance-in-older-age
#5
Aimée Goldstone, Stephen D Mayhew, Joanne R Hale, Rebecca S Wilson, Andrew P Bagshaw
Introduction: Despite the thalamus' dense connectivity with both cortical and subcortical structures, few studies have specifically investigated how thalamic connectivity changes with age and how such changes are associated with behavior. This study investigated the effect of age on thalamo-cortical and thalamo-hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) and the association between thalamic FC and visual-spatial memory and reaction time (RT) performance in older adults. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were obtained from younger ( n  = 20) and older ( n  = 20) adults...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649723/the-relevance-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-self-limited-childhood-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#6
Ellen Marise Lima, Patricia Rzezak, Bernardo Dos Santos, Letícia Gentil, Maria A Montenegro, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the attentional and executive functions in patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with controls and compared with patients with ADHD without epilepsy. We evaluated 12 patients with BCECTS and ADHD (66.7% boys; mean age of 9.67years); 11 children with non-ADHD BCECTS (63.6% boys; mean age of 11.91years); 20 healthy children (75% boys; mean age of 10.15years); and 20 subjects with ADHD without epilepsy (60% boys; mean age of 10...
April 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649014/structural-mri-correlates-of-cognitive-event-related-potentials-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Artemios K Artemiadis, Maria C Anagnostouli, Ioannis G Zalonis, Konstantinos G Chairopoulos, Nikos I Triantafyllou
PURPOSE: Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis has been associated with cognitive event-related potentials and MRI abnormalities. This study aims to explore for the first time the association between P300 and MRI in multiple sclerosis. METHODS: Fifty-eight relapsing-remitting patients (41.5 ± 10.5 years old, 41 women, disease duration 139.7 ± 84.9 months) and 51 healthy controls were used. Visual P300 responses and a set of 2- or 3-dimensional MRI indices were obtained...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543036/an-examination-of-adolescent-athletes-and-nonathletes-on-baseline-neuropsychological-test-scores
#8
Christopher P Tomczyk, Megan Mormile, Megan S Wittenberg, Jody L Langdon, Tamerah N Hunt
CONTEXT:   An estimated 15.3 million adolescent students are enrolled in US high schools, with approximately 7.8 million participating in athletics. Researchers have examined various demographics in high school athletes; however, athletic participation may play a larger role in test performance than previously thought. Currently, investigations of concussion assessment may rely on uninjured athletes as controls. However, due to the intense nature of athletics, this may not be an appropriate practice...
April 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507462/the-burden-of-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-from-diagnosis-to-therapeutic-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Lorenzo Ridola, Vincenzo Cardinale, Oliviero Riggio
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It affects the performance of psychometric tests focused on attention, working memory, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial ability, as well as electrophysiological and other functional brain measures. MHE is a frequent complication of liver disease, affecting up to 80% of tested patients. By being related to falls, an impairment in fitness to drive and the development of overt HE, MHE severely affects the lives of patients and caregivers by altering their quality of life and their socioeconomic status...
March 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477838/dissociable-components-of-spatial-neglect-associated-with-frontal-and-parietal-lesions
#10
Arnaud Saj, Vincent Verdon, Claude-Alain Hauert, Patrik Vuilleumier
Spatial neglect is a complex neuropsychological disorder, in which patients fail to detect and respond to contralesional stimuli. Recent studies suggest that these symptoms may reflect a combination of different component deficits, associated with different lesion substrates. Thus, damage to right lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions produce different degrees of left neglect on cancellation and line bisection tasks, respectively. Here we tested for dissociable behaviors across two tasks designed to assess distinct cognitive processes possibly mediating such components, in 14 patients with right focal lesion in either the frontal or parietal lobe...
February 23, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476241/neurocognitive-and-behavioural-performance-of-healthy-volunteers-receiving-an-increasing-analgesic-range-infusion-of-ketamine
#11
Amie Hayley, Maja Green, Luke Downey, Michael Keane, Panagiota Kostakis, Yahya Shehabi
BACKGROUND: The acute and delayed effect of analgesic-range doses of ketamine on neurocognitive and behavioural outcomes is understudied. Using a non-controlled open-labelled design, three (1-h duration) increasing intravenous (IV) ketamine infusions comprising (i) 30 mg bolus of ketamine + 8 mg/h IV infusion, (ii) 12 mg/h IV infusion and (iii) 20 mg/h infusion were administered to 20 participants (15 male, 5 female, mean age = 30.8 years). Whole-blood ketamine and norketamine concentrations were determined at each treatment step and post-infusion...
April 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474120/continuous-performance-test-in-children-with-intellectual-disability-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Puga María Celeste, Vaucheret Paz Esteban, Leist Mariana, García Basalo María José, Baliarda Florencia, Ekonen Christy, Lascombes María Isabel, Agosta Guillermo
Data regarding clinical and neuropsychological features of attention deficit in children with lower cognitive ability is still scarce. The objective was to analyze the response patterns on the Continuous Performance Test II in children with Intellectual Disability and Attention Defficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This is a cross-sectional study, in which patients were divided into 2 groups: one group with ADHD and Full IQ > 80 and another group with ADHD + Full IQ score < 80. They were afterwards administered the CPT II (Continuous Performance Test)...
February 23, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465897/-effects-of-nasal-provocation-with-a-single-dose-allergen-on-the-explicit-and-implicit-memory-of-physically-active-and-inactive-patients-with-ragweed-allergy
#13
Margaréta Tokodi, Eszter Csábi, Ágnes Kiricsi, Rebeka Schultz, Andor Molnár H, László Rovó, Zsolt Bella
Background and purpose: Allergy is an endemic disease and has a considerable impact on the quality of life. This study aimed to measure the effect of active allergic rhinitis on memory functions of physically active and inactive patients with ragweed allergy. Methods: Memory functions were assessed before and after allergen exposure. Participants in both groups were provoked nasally with 30 IR/mL ragweed allergen in each nostril. Explicit memory was measured with story-recalling and implicit memory was investigated with reaction time task...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449824/reduced-self-control-after-3-months-of-imprisonment-a-pilot-study
#14
Jesse Meijers, Joke M Harte, Gerben Meynen, Pim Cuijpers, Erik J A Scherder
Background: Prison can be characterized as an impoverished environment encouraging a sedentary lifestyle with limited autonomy and social interaction, which may negatively affect self-control and executive function. Here, we aim to study the effects of imprisonment on self-control and executive functions, and we report the change in neuropsychological outcome after 3 months of imprisonment. Materials and Methods: Participants were 37 male inmates in a remand prison in Amsterdam, Netherlands, who completed six tests of a computerized neuropsychological test battery (the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery) in the first week of arrival...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393677/effects-of-repetitive-subconcussive-head-trauma-on-the-neuropsychological-test-performance-of-high-school-athletes-a-comparison-of-high-moderate-and-low-contact-sports
#15
William T Tsushima, Hyeong Jun Ahn, Andrea M Siu, Kara Yoshinaga, So Yung Choi, Nathan M Murata
The aim of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test results of non-concussed high school athletes playing at three different levels of contact sports. Based on the concussion risk data of 12 different sports, a High Contact group (n=2819; wrestling/martial arts, cheerleading, track and field, football), a Moderate Contact group (n=2323; softball, basketball, soccer), and a Low Contact group (n=1580; baseball, volleyball, water polo, tennis, cross-country) were formed and compared in terms of their scores on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT)...
February 2, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383572/cognitive-function-of-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-2-year-open-label-study-of-lisdexamfetamine-dimesylate
#16
David R Coghill, Tobias Banaschewski, Caleb Bliss, Brigitte Robertson, Alessandro Zuddas
BACKGROUND: SPD489-404 was the first 2-year safety study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. In accordance with advice from the European Medicines Agency, assessment of cognitive function was a predefined safety outcome in SPD489-404. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive function over 2 years in study SPD489-404, using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
January 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236771/neuropsychological-performance-in-solvent-exposed-vehicle-collision-repair-workers-in-new-zealand
#17
Samuel Keer, Bill Glass, Dave McLean, Elizabeth Harding, Duncan Babbage, Janet Leathem, Yanis Brinkmann, Bradley Prezant, Neil Pearce, Jeroen Douwes
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether contemporary solvent exposures in the vehicle collision repair industry are associated with objectively measured neuropsychological performance in collision repair workers. METHODS: The RBANS battery and additional tests were administered to 47 vehicle collision repair and 51 comparison workers randomly selected from a previous questionnaire study. RESULTS: Collision repair workers performed lower on tests of attention (digit span backwards: -1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227896/details-of-attention-and-learning-change-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#18
Christine Mohn, Anne-Kari Torgalsbøen
Impaired attention and learning functions are common in schizophrenia. The details of this impairment, and how these change across time, are not well known. We aimed to compare the parameters of well-known attention and learning neuropsychological tests in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and healthy controls in a 2-year follow-up period. The performance of 28-25 FES patients and pairwise matched healthy controls on the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the revised Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, and the revised Brief Visuospatial Memory Test was compared at baseline and 2 years later...
December 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188908/anticholinergic-burden-and-cognition-in-older-patients-with-schizophrenia
#19
Christopher Tsoutsoulas, Benoit H Mulsant, Sanjeev Kumar, Zaid Ghazala, Aristotle N Voineskos, Mahesh Menon, Bruce G Pollock, Tarek K Rajji
OBJECTIVE: Older individuals with schizophrenia are at risk of being treated with anticholinergic medications due to the prevalence of medical comorbidities and polypharmacy. High anticholinergic burden impairs cognition and is a risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. Thus, we assessed the impact of anticholinergic burden on Alzheimer's dementia-related and schizophrenia-related cognitive functions in older patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Anticholinergic burden was measured using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale (ACB) in 60 community-dwelling patients aged ≥ 50 years who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia between May 2007 and November 2011...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168451/intraindividual-cognitive-variability-an-examination-of-anam4-tbi-mil-simple-reaction-time-data-from-service-members-with-and-without-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Wesley R Cole, Emma Gregory, Jacques P Arrieux, F Jay Haran
OBJECTIVES: The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics 4 TBI-MIL (ANAM4) is a computerized cognitive test often used in post-concussion assessments with U.S. service members (SMs). However, existing evidence remains mixed regarding ANAM4's ability to identify cognitive issues following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Studies typically examine ANAM4 using standardized scores and/ or comparisons to a baseline. A more fine-grained approach involves examining inconsistency within an individual's performance (i...
February 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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