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Rafael Sierra-Guzmán, Fernando Jiménez, Javier Abián-Vicén
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported the factors contributing to chronic ankle instability, which could lead to more effective treatments. However, factors such as the reflex response and ankle muscle strength have not been taken into account in previous investigations. METHODS: Fifty recreational athletes with chronic ankle instability and 55 healthy controls were recruited. Peroneal reaction time in response to sudden inversion, isokinetic evertor muscle strength and dynamic balance with the Star Excursion Balance Test and the Biodex Stability System were measured...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Jinkyu Lee, Yongnam Song, Choongsoo S Shin
BACKGROUND: During landing, the ankle angle at initial contact (IC) exhibits relatively wide individual variation compared to the knee and hip angles. However, little is known about the effect of different IC ankle angles on energy dissipation. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between individual ankle angles at IC and energy dissipation in the lower extremity joints. METHODS: Twenty-seven adults performed single-leg landings from a 0...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
Dustin A Bruening, Kota Z Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Kinematic multi-segment foot models have been increasingly used to study foot function. The addition of kinetics to these models may enhance their utility; however, this been hindered by limitations in measuring ground reaction forces (GRFs) under individual foot segments. PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy of partitioning segment GRFs from a single force platform on foot joint kinetics. METHODS: Two potential partitioning methods were applied to a previously published three-segment kinetic foot model...
March 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
Caio M Moreira, Max Rollwage, Kristin Kaduk, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
Humans and other animals constantly evaluate their decisions in order to learn and behave adaptively. Experimentally, such evaluation processes are accessed using metacognitive reports made after decisions, typically using verbally formulated confidence scales. When subjects report high confidence, it reflects a high certainty of being correct, but a low confidence might signify either low certainty about the outcome, or a high certainty of being incorrect. Hence, metacognitive reports might reflect not only different levels of decision certainty, but also two certainty directions (certainty of being correct and certainty of being incorrect)...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Jonas Lorenz, Mike Barbeck, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Robert Sader, Henriette Lerner, Shahram Ghanaati
PURPOSE: In this prospective study, the regenerative potential and pathways of a new injectable bone substitute (IBS) material composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hyaluronan were investigated for its application in alveolar bone regeneration within extraction sockets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bone substitute material was implanted in 44 extraction sockets after removal of teeth not worth preserving in the maxillary and mandibular arches of 21 patients...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Jens Neumann, Sophie Henneberg, Susanne von Kenne, Niklas Nolte, Andreas J Müller, Burkhart Schraven, Michael W Görtler, Klaus G Reymann, Matthias Gunzer, Monika Riek-Burchardt
Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke including an acute and prolonged inflammatory process. The role of neutrophil granulocytes as first driver of the immune reaction from the blood site is under debate due to controversial findings. In bone marrow chimeric mice we were able to study the dynamics of tdTomato-expressing neutrophils and GFP-expressing microglia after photothrombosis using intravital two-photon microscopy. We demonstrate the infiltration of neutrophils into the brain parenchyma and confirm a long-lasting contact between neutrophils and microglia as well as an uptake of neutrophils by microglia clearing the brain from peripheral immune cells...
2018: PloS One
Lu Hu, Wuchao Zhao, Jianghua He, Yuetao Zhang
This work reveals the silyl ketene acetal (SKA)/B(C₆F₅)₃ Lewis pair-catalyzed room-temperature group transfer polymerization (GTP) of polar acrylic monomers, including methyl linear methacrylate (MMA), and the biorenewable cyclic monomers γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MMBL) and α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) as well. The in situ NMR monitored reaction of SKA with B(C₆F₅)₃ indicated the formation of Frustrated Lewis Pairs (FLPs), although it is sluggish for MMA polymerization, such a FLP system exhibits highly activity and living GTP of MMBL and MBL...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Takuya Wakamatsu, Suguru Yamamoto, Toru Ito, Yoko Sato, Koji Matsuo, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Yoshikatsu Kaneko, Shin Goto, Junichiro James Kazama, Fumitake Gejyo, Ichiei Narita
In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality. One of the hallmarks of kidney disease-related cardiovascular disease is intravascular macrophage inflammation, but the mechanism of the reaction with these toxins is not completely understood. Macrophages differentiated from THP-1 cells were exposed to indoxyl sulfate (IS), a representative uremic toxin, and changes in inflammatory cytokine production and intracellular signaling molecules including interleukin (IL)-1, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), nuclear factor (NF)-κ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome were quantified by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 15, 2018: Toxins
Daniel C Crowley, Denis Lynch, Anita R Maguire
Enantioselective intramolecular Buchner reactions of α-diazoketones can be effected using heterogeneous copper-bis(oxazoline) catalysts in batch or using continuous flow processing in up to 83% ee. The catalyst can be reused up to 7 times without loss of activity. For α-diazoketones 3 and 4, the enantioselection achieved in flow with the immobilized catalyst was comparable with the standard homogeneous catalyzed process.
March 15, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Matthew P Kroonblawd, Fabio Pietrucci, Antonino Marco Saitta, Nir Goldman
We demonstrate the capability of creating robust density functional tight binding (DFTB) models for chemical reactivity in prebiotic mixtures through force matching to short time scale quantum free energy estimates. Molecular dynamics using density functional theory (DFT) is a highly accurate approach to generate free energy surfaces for chemical reactions, but the extreme computational cost often limits the time scales and range of thermodynamic states that can feasibly be studied. In contrast, DFTB is a semi-empirical quantum method that affords up to a thousandfold reduction in cost and can recover DFT-level accuracy...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Jiaqi Zhang, Zipeng Xing, Jiayi Cui, Zhenzi Li, Siyu Tan, Junwei Yin, Jinlong Zou, Qi Zhu, Wei Zhou
Herein, C,N co-doped porous TiO2 hollow sphere visible light photocatalysts were fabricated using biocompatible N-lauroyl-l-glutamic acid as a doped precursor and soft-template by a mild and facile self-assembly soft-template method, followed by calcination at 550 °C in air. The structure, morphology, and surface elemental composition were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy...
March 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Christopher P Tomczyk, Megan Mormile, Megan S Wittenberg, Jody L Langdon, Tamerah N Hunt
CONTEXT:   An estimated 15.3 million adolescent students are enrolled in U.S. high schools, with approximately 7.8 million participating in athletics. Researchers have examined various demographics in high school athletes; however, athletic participation may play a larger role in test performance than previously thought. Currently, investigations of concussion assessment may rely on uninjured athletes as controls. However, due to the intense nature of athletics, this may not be an appropriate practice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Rugang Geng, Ram C Subedi, Hoang M Luong, Minh T Pham, Weichuan Huang, Xiaoguang Li, Kunlun Hong, Ming Shao, Kai Xiao, Lawrence A Hornak, Tho D Nguyen
Hyperfine interaction (HFI), originating from the coupling between spins of charge carriers and nuclei, has been demonstrated to strongly influence the spin dynamics of localized charges in organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, the role of charge localization on the HFI strength in organic thin films has not yet been experimentally investigated. In this study, the statistical relation hypothesis that the effective HFI of holes in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is proportional to 1/N^{0.5} has been examined, where N is the number of the random nuclear spins within the envelope of the hole wave function...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Lai Lyu, Dengbiao Yan, Guangfei Yu, Wenrui Cao, Chun Hu
Carbon nitride compounds (CN) complexed with the in-situ produced Cu(II) on the surface of CuAlO2 substrate (CN-Cu(II)-CuAlO2) is prepared via a surface growth process for the first time, which exhibits exceptionally high activity and efficiency for the degradation of the refractory pollutants in water through a Fenton-like process in a wide pH range. The reaction rate for BPA removal is ~25 times higher than that of the CuAlO2. According to the characterization, Cu(II) generation on the surface of CuAlO2 during the surface growth process result in the marked decrease of the surface oxygen vacancies and the formation of the C-O-Cu bridges between CN and Cu(II)-CuAlO2 in the catalyst...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
R Asero, M Piantanida, V Pravettoni
Background. Follow-up data about the onset of novel food allergies in patients allergic to lipid transfer protein (LTP) are missing. We investigated the occurrence of novel allergies over time in LTP hypersensitive patients. Methods. Sixty-seven LTP-allergic patients recommended to avoid foods responsible for systemic reactions and encouraged to eat other sensitizing foods avoiding the association with known co-factors, were re-evaluated after ≥ 1 year to assess the occurrence of allergy to novel foods. IgE to rPru p 3, rBet v 1, and r Phl p 12 were measured...
February 16, 2018: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Geraldine Dowling, Pierce V Kavanagh, Hans-Georg Eckhardt, Brendan Twamley, Gary Hessman, Gavin McLaughlin, John O' Brien, Simon D Brandt
Nitrazolam and clonazolam are two designer benzodiazepines that are available from internet retailers and there is growing evidence suggesting that such compounds have the potential to cause severe adverse events. Information about tolerability in humans is scarce but typically, low doses can be difficult to administer for users when handling bulk material and variability of the active ingredient in tablet formulations can also be of a concern. Customs, toxicology and forensic laboratories are increasingly encountering designer benzodiazepines, both in tablet and powdered forms, and the unavailability of reference standards can impact on the ability to identify these compounds...
March 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Shuli You, Wen Shao, Ye Wang, Ze-Peng Yang, Xiao Zhang
Copper-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric propargylic alkylation of 4-hydroxypyridines has been realized for the first time. In the presence of Cu complex derived from Pybox ligand, the N-propargylated 4-pyridones were obtained under mild reaction conditions with up to 99% yield and 95% ee. The Pybox ligand bearing 4-F-phenyl substituent plays a key role for the high enantioselectivity. The products can be easily transformed to the core structure of quinolizidine alkaloids.
March 15, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Renata Valle Pedroso, José Maria Cancela, Carlos Ayán, Angelica Miki Stein, Gilson Fuzaro, José Luiz Riani Costa, Francisco J Fraga, Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the benefits of physical activity on the mental processing information of patients with Alzheimer's disease assessed objectively is scarce and can be observed through event-related potentials, such as the P300. The aim of the study was to identify the effects of physical exercises on mental processing information in the elderly with Alzheimer's disease through neurophysiological measures (P300 amplitude and latency) and reaction time. METHODS: A total of 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease participated in this study: 14 in functional exercise (FE) group and 17 in social gathering (SG) group who carried out three 1-hour sessions per week of FE and SG activities, respectively, for a 12-week period...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Stefanie Kamann, Olivier Aerts, Lutz Heinemann
In the past decade, new diabetes technologies, including continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, support patients with diabetes in their daily struggle with achieving a good glucose control. However, shortly after the first CGM systems appeared on the market, also the first concerns about adverse skin reactions were raised. Most patients claimed to suffer from (sometimes severe) skin irritation, or even allergy, which they related to the (acrylate-based) adhesive part of the device. For a long time the actual substance that caused these skin reactions with, for example, the Flash Glucose Monitoring system (iscCGM; Freestyle® Libre) could not be identified; however, recently Belgian and Swedish dermatologists reported that the majority of their patients that have developed a contact-allergic while using iscCGM react sensitively to a specific acrylate, that is, isobornyl acrylate (IBOA)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Erika Virmani, Julian M Rotter, Andre Mähringer, Tobias von Zons, Adelheid Godt, Thomas Bein, Stefan Wuttke, Dana D Medina
Controlled on-surface film growth of porous and crystalline frameworks is a central requisite for incorporating these materials into functional platforms and operational devices. Here, we present the synthesis of thin zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) films by vapor-assisted conversion (VAC). We established protocols adequate for the growth of UiO-66, UiO-66(NH2 ), UiO-67, and UiO-68(NH2 ) as well as the porous interpenetrated Zr-organic framework (PPPP-PIZOF-1) as highly oriented thin films. Through the VAC approach, precursors in a cast solution layer on a bare gold substrate are reacting to form a porous continuous MOF film, oriented along the [111] crystal axis by an exposure to a solvent vapor under elevated temperatures of 100 °C and 3 h reaction times...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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