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Auto immune diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546124/stressor-driven-extracellular-acidosis-as-tumor-inducer-via-aberrant-enzyme-activation-a-review-on-the-mechanisms-and-possible-prophylaxis
#1
REVIEW
Seema Patel
When the extracellular pH of the human body vacillates in either direction, tissue homeostasis is compromised. Fluctuations in acidosis have been linked to a wide variety of pathological conditions, including bone loss, cancer, allergies, and auto-immune diseases. Stress conditions may affect oxygen tension and hypoxia modulates the expression and/or activity of membrane tethered transporters/pumps, transcription factors, enzymes and intercellular junctions. These modifications provoke erratic gene expression, aberrant tissue remodeling and oncogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545134/structures-of-the-inactive-and-active-states-of-rip2-kinase-inform-on-the-mechanism-of-activation
#2
Erika Pellegrini, Luca Signor, Saurabh Singh, Elisabetta Boeri Erba, Stephen Cusack
Innate immune receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial peptidoglycans leading to recruitment of adaptor kinase RIP2, which, upon phosphorylation and ubiquitination, becomes a scaffold for downstream effectors. The kinase domain (RIP2K) is a pharmaceutical target for inflammatory diseases caused by aberrant NOD2-RIP2 signalling. Although structures of active RIP2K in complex with inhibitors have been reported, the mechanism of RIP2K activation remains to be elucidated. Here we analyse RIP2K activation by combining crystal structures of the active and inactive states with mass spectrometric characterization of their phosphorylation profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532186/bcg-and-protection-against-inflammatory-and-auto-immune-diseases
#3
Magdalena Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Camille Locht
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine against tuberculosis. Although its protective efficacy against pulmonary tuberculosis is still under debate, it provides protection against other mycobacterial diseases. BCG is also an effective therapy against superficial bladder cancer and potentially decreases overall childhood mortality. Areas covered. The purpose of this paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary of the beneficial effects of BCG in inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. As a strong inducer of Th1 type immunity, BCG has been reported to protect against atopic conditions, such as allergic asthma, a Th2-driven disorder...
May 22, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529199/can-fetuin-a-be-a-marker-for-insulin-resistance-and-poor-glycemic-control-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Ülkü Gül Sıraz, Murat Doğan, Nihal Hatipoğlu, Sabahttin Muhtaroğlu, Selim Kurtoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Backgroud Metabolic impairment in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) with poor glycemic control causes insulin resistance, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis; thus, increased Carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT). The Fetuin-A has protective effect in cardiovascular disorders, which is increased in hepatosteatosis. We aimed to investigate reliability of Fetuin-A levels in early detection of diabetic complications in children with T1DM and to identify a cut-off value that may show poor metabolic control...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526059/severe-polyserositis-induced-by-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-a-case-report
#5
Pierre Tawfik, Elie Gertner, Charlene E McEvoy
BACKGROUND: The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends administration of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in series with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for prevention of pneumonia in the elderly. Reports of autoimmune or auto-inflammatory diseases as a result of pneumococcal vaccination, especially pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, are extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of severe serositis in a 75-year-old Caucasian woman complicated by pericardial and pleural effusions in the setting of recent 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine vaccination and no other obvious etiology...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525250/-unusual-association-between-auto-immune-hepatitis-and-pyoderma-gangrenosum-a-case-report
#6
X Vandemergel, M Lefebvre, I Focant, L Marot, D Ilisei
Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon neutrophilic dermatosis that presents as an inflammatory and ulcerative disorder of the skin. This entity is associated with systemic diseases and autoimmune diseases but exceptionally with autoimmune hepatitis. We report the case of a 40 year-old woman diagnosed with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis 12 years earlier and admitted for the appearance of an ulcerative lesion in the left leg. Histology confirmed pyoderma gangrenosum.
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522827/involvement-of-gata1-and-sp3-in-the-activation-of-the-murine-sting-gene-promoter-in-nih3t3-cells
#7
Yan-Yan Xu, Rui Jin, Guo-Ping Zhou, Hua-Guo Xu
Stimulator of Interferon Gene (STING) is a key mediator of innate immune signaling. STING plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases including infectious diseases, auto-immune diseases and cancer. Many studies have been carried out recently in the field of STING-regulated pathway, however, rarely of transcriptional mechanisms. To characterize the murine STING (mSTING) promoter, we cloned a series of different nucleotide sequences of the 5'-flanking region of the mSTING gene. Transient transfection of promoter-reporter recombinant plasmids and luciferase assay illustrated the region (-77/+177) relative to the transcription start site (TSS) of the mSTING gene was sufficient for full promoter activity...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520799/nonenzymatic-glycosylation-of-human-serum-albumin-and-its-effect-on-antibodies-profile-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Alok Raghav, Jamal Ahmad, Khursheed Alam
BACKGROUND: Albumin glycation and subsequent formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlate with diabetes and associated complications. METHODS: Human Serum Albumin (HSA) was modified with D-glucose for a 40 day period under sterile conditions at 37°C. Modified samples along with native HSA (unmodified) were analyzed for structural modifications by UV and fluorescence, FTIR, Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) and X-ray crystallography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511686/intrathymic-injection-of-hematopoietic-progenitor-cells-establishes-functional-t-cell-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#9
Andrea Z Tuckett, Raymond H Thornton, Richard J O'Reilly, Marcel R M van den Brink, Johannes L Zakrzewski
BACKGROUND: Even though hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be curative in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency, there is a need for additional strategies boosting T cell immunity in individuals suffering from genetic disorders of lymphoid development. Here we show that image-guided intrathymic injection of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) mice is feasible and facilitates the generation of functional T cells conferring protective immunity...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501667/update-and-new-insights-in-encephalitis
#10
REVIEW
Alexandra Mailles, Jean-Paul Stahl, Karen C Bloch
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a medical condition possibly caused by an unlimited number of infectious agents. AIMS: Our review aims at giving an overview of the recent discoveries and advances in encephalitis presentation, diagnosis and management, including in the field of emerging diseases. SOURCES: We search the literature using Pubmed and Embase to identify the most relevant new data published over the last years in the field of infectious encephalitis...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495524/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-wegener-granulomatosis-a-proteinase-3-driven-disease
#11
Véronique Witko-Sarsat, Nathalie Thieblemont
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener granulomatosis) is a systemic autoimmune vasculitis that affects small arteries, arterioles, and capillaries, most notably in the kidneys and lungs. In this disease, proteinase 3 (PR3), produced by neutrophils, is targeted by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Recent work by our group has shown how PR3 impairs the resolution of inflammation and deregulates the immune system. Normally, the clearance of activated neutrophils triggers an anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution process...
May 8, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487480/microbiota-promotes-systemic-t-cell-survival-through-suppression-of-an-apoptotic-factor
#12
Raymond Soto, Charisse Petersen, Camille L Novis, Jason L Kubinak, Rickesha Bell, W Zac Stephens, Thomas E Lane, Robert S Fujinami, Alberto Bosque, Ryan M O'Connell, June L Round
Symbiotic microbes impact the severity of a variety of diseases through regulation of T-cell development. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which this is accomplished. Here we report that a secreted factor, Erdr1, is regulated by the microbiota to control T-cell apoptosis. Erdr1 expression was identified by transcriptome analysis to be elevated in splenic T cells from germfree and antibiotic-treated mice. Suppression of Erdr1 depends on detection of circulating microbial products by Toll-like receptors on T cells, and this regulation is conserved in human T cells...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479489/autoimmune-diseases-and-their-relation-with-immunological-neurological-and-endocrinological-axes
#13
REVIEW
Nicolás Coronel-Restrepo, Iván Posso-Osorio, Juan Naranjo-Escobar, Gabriel J Tobón
The immune response is complex, multifactorial, individualized and often unpredictable. There are multiple interconnected systems that allow a balance between physiological autoreactive processes and pathological autoimmunity with consequent organ-specific or systemic autoimmune disease. Based on the concept of the autoimmunity mosaic, up to 50% of autoimmune disorders do not have a clear etiological factor. In order to achieve a clear understanding of the different systems that influence the development of autoimmune diseases, the clinical auto-immunologist needs a dynamic and comprehensive vision of all interconnected pathways that maintain a precise balance in the organism...
May 4, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471657/discovery-of-a-b-cell-lymphoma-6-protein-protein-interaction-inhibitor-by-a-biophysics-driven-fragment-based-approach
#14
Yusuke Kamada, Nozomu Sakai, Satoshi Sogabe, Koh Ida, Hideyuki Oki, Kotaro Sakamoto, Weston Lane, Gyorgy Snell, Motoo Iida, Yasuhiro Imaeda, Junichi Sakamoto, Junji Matsui
B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) is a transcriptional factor that expresses in lymphocytes and regulates the differentiation and proliferation of lymphocytes. Therefore, BCL6 is a therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases and cancer treatment. This report presents the discovery of BCL6-corepressor interaction inhibitors by using a biophysics-driven fragment-based approach. Using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based fragment screening, we successfully identified fragment 1 (SPR KD = 1200 μM, ligand efficiency (LE) = 0...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457424/what-can-we-do-when-all-collapses-fatal-outcome-of-collapsing-glomerulopathy-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-with-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage-case-report
#15
H Pinto, R Leal, L Rodrigues, L Santos, C Romãozinho, F Macário, R Alves, J Pratas, V Sousa, C Marinho, L Prado E Castro, F Costa, M Campos, A Mota, A Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION: Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) is a rare form of glomerular injury. Although commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, it can occur in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 50-year-old man, with chronic kidney disease secondary to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, who received a cadaveric kidney transplant in 2007. There were no relevant intercurrences until May 2015, when he presented with nephrotic range proteinuria (± 4 g/d)...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455817/induction-of-il-10-cytokine-and-the-suppression-of-t-cell-proliferation-by-specific-peptides-from-red-cell-band-3-and-in-vivo-effects-of-these-peptides-on-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-in-nzb-mice
#16
Abdel-Rahman Youssef, Christopher J Elson
PURPOSE: The anion channel protein band 3 is the main target of the pathogenic red blood cells (RBC) autoantibodies in New Zealand black (NZB) mice. CD4 T cells from NZB mice with autoimmune hemolytic anemia respond to band 3. Previously, we have shown that IL-10 and peptides containing a dominant T cell epitope from red cell band 3 modulate autoimmune hemolytic anemia in NZB mice. Because of the immunoregulatory role of IL-10 in autoimmune diseases, we aim to identify individual band 3 peptides that induce high IL-10 production and simultaneously suppress CD4 T cell proliferation and to investigate the effect intranasal administration of IL-10 producing band 3 peptides on autoantibody responses of NZB mice...
December 2017: Auto- Immunity Highlights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452686/helminths-and-intestinal-barrier-function
#17
Derek M McKay, Adam Shute, Fernando Lopes
Approximately one-sixth of the worlds' population is infected with helminths and this class of parasite takes a major toll on domestic livestock. The majority of species of parasitic helminth that infect mammals live in the gut (the only niche for tapeworms) where they contact the hosts' epithelial cells. Here, the helminth-intestinal epithelial interface is reviewed in terms of the impact on, and regulation of epithelial barrier function, both intrinsic (epithelial permeability) and extrinsic (mucin, bacterial peptides, commensal bacteria) elements of the barrier...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447876/intrinsic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-dysfunction-in-diabetes-mellitus-implications-for-autologous-cell-therapy
#18
Mari van de Vyver
Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) have multifunctional properties that have made them a promising therapeutic agent for many regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and autoimmune applications. Under chronic pathological conditions, however, BM-MSCs can become functionally compromised due to long-term exposure to changes in the systemic and localized stem cell niche microenvironments. In addition to the fact that functionally compromised BM-MSCs may be therapeutically ineffective, impairment of BM-MSCs is potentially a contributing factor to disease progression and development of comorbidities...
May 18, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438569/methylprednisolone-liver-toxicity-a-new-case-and-a-french-regional-pharmacovigilance-survey
#19
Jérôme Dumortier, Judith Cottin, Caroline Lavie, Olivier Guillaud, Valérie Hervieu, Christine Chambon-Augoyard, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Sandra Vukusic, Thierry Vial
Reported hepatotoxicity induced by corticosteroids is very rare, and the diagnosis is highly challenging in the context of auto-immune disease. We report here a case of high-dose methylprednisolone (MP)-induced acute hepatitis confirmed by liver histology in a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) and a case series (n=4) notified to the French Pharmacovigilance center of Lyon. In all 5 cases, other common causes of hepatitis were excluded. The causal relationship with MP pulse therapy was supported by the fact that MP was the only culprit drug...
April 21, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432836/autoimmune-hepatitis-from-current-knowledge-and-clinical-practice-to-future-research-agenda
#20
REVIEW
Marcial Sebode, Johannes Hartl, Diego Vergani, Ansgar W Lohse
Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory liver disease. Unknown triggers lead to a mainly T cell-mediated immune response targeting the liver, the main auto-antigen of which has not been identified yet. The diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis is based on the elevation of immunoglobulin G/hypergammaglobulinemia, detection of characteristic autoantibodies as well as a typical pattern on liver histology. Exclusion of other causes of hepatitis and response to immunosuppressive treatment support the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis...
April 22, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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