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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761777/-clinical-manifestations-of-epstein-barr-virus-infection-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Kristoffer Vogler, Lisbeth Samsø Schmidt
The most commonly known clinical manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection is infectious mononucleosis. In this review we cover the diagnostics and basic patho-physiology of Epstein-Barr virus infection and present the many clinical manifestations of the virus, including less well-known diseases such as hepatitis, auto-immune haemolytic anaemia, and neurological and immunological diseases. Our aim is to strengthen the clinicians' awareness and understanding of these conditions in order to improve diagnostics and avoid delay of treatment...
May 14, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760702/emerging-concepts-in-immune-thrombocytopenia
#2
REVIEW
Maurice Swinkels, Maaike Rijkers, Jan Voorberg, Gestur Vidarsson, Frank W G Leebeek, A J Gerard Jansen
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease defined by low platelet counts which presents with an increased bleeding risk. Several genetic risk factors (e.g., polymorphisms in immunity-related genes) predispose to ITP. Autoantibodies and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (Tc) mediate the anti-platelet response leading to thrombocytopenia. Both effector arms enhance platelet clearance through phagocytosis by splenic macrophages or dendritic cells and by induction of apoptosis. Meanwhile, platelet production is inhibited by CD8+ Tc targeting megakaryocytes in the bone marrow...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756133/biology-of-teeth-and-implants-host-factors-pathology-regeneration-and-the-role-of-stem-cells
#3
F-Michael Eggert, Liran Levin
In chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis, cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved directly in the lesions within the tissues of the patient. Absence of a periodontal ligament around implants does not prevent a biologic process similar to that of periodontitis from affecting osseointegration. Our first focus is on factors in the biology of individuals that are responsible for the susceptibility of such individuals to chronic periodontitis and to peri-implantitis. Genetic factors are of significant importance in susceptibility to these diseases...
2018: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752913/development-and-validation-of-a-targeted-affinity-enrichment-and-lc-ms-ms-proteomics-approach-for-the-therapeutic-monitoring-of-adalimumab
#4
Yifei Yang, Emily Wysocki, Kwasi Antwi, Eric Niederkofler, Edward K Y Leung, Eszter Lazar-Molnar, Kiang-Teck J Yeo
BACKGROUND: The anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), such as adalimumab, are widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and other auto-immune diseases. The administration of adalimumab can elicit the immune responses from the patients, resulting in the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAbs). The ADAbs can diminish the therapeutic effects of adalimumab by neutralizing the TNFα binding site or increase its clearance from circulation...
May 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751810/auto-immune-skin-diseases-in-animals-time-to-reclassify-and-review-after-40-years
#5
EDITORIAL
Thierry Olivry
It has been more than 40 years since the dual descriptions of canine pemphigus vulgaris. Over the ensuing four decades, the reports of-mostly canine-novel autoimmune skin diseases (AISDs) have progressed in successive waves separated by long periods of quiescence. This Editorial introduces a series of comprehensive review papers on the various canine and feline AISDs. This collection of articles aims at remediating the current veterinary literature deficiency on this topic by summarizing the key historical, clinical, histological, immunological and treatment characteristics of animal AISDs...
May 11, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751523/annexin-a1-and-autoimmunity-from-basic-science-to-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Maurizio Bruschi, Andrea Petretto, Augusto Vaglio, Laura Santucci, Giovanni Candiano, Gian Marco Ghiggeri
Annexin A1 is a protein with multifunctional roles in innate and adaptive immunity mainly devoted to the regulation of inflammatory cells and the resolution of inflammation. Most of the data regarding Annexin A1 roles in immunity derive from cell studies and from mice models lacking Annexin A1 for genetic manipulation (Annexin A1-/- ); only a few studies sought to define how Annexin A1 is involved in human diseases. High levels of anti-Annexin A1 autoantibodies have been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting this protein is implicated in auto-immunity...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750108/artificial-macrocycles-as-il-17a-il-17ra-antagonists
#7
Wenjia Wang, Matthew R Groves, Alexander Dömling
Interleukin 17(A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in several auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. Current antagonists against IL17(A) or its receptor (IL17R) that show efficacy in clinical trials are monoclonal-antibodies (mAbs). However, recently designed artificial macrocyles are potent IL17-IL17R antagonists. Based on Co-crystal structures, a better understanding the biological activity and SAR of the macrocycles has been elucidated, demonstrating that macrocycles can compete with mAbs for difficult targets such as PPIs...
January 1, 2018: MedChemComm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743796/increased-incidence-of-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-autoimmune-liver-disease-an-irish-national-experience
#8
Ahmed Abu-Shanab, Yasser Ged, Naeem Ullah, Diarmaid Houlihan, Aiden McCormick
Background: Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (PTLD) is a well-recognized complication post solid organs transplant. PTLD represents a broad spectrum of abnormalities ranging from an infectious mononucleosis like illness to malignant lymphoma. Methods: A retrospective study was performed by collecting data of orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) patients in the National Liver Unit in Ireland from December 1993 to December 2014. Data was analyzed to identify PTLD patients and determine their demographic details, the indication for liver transplant, presenting symptoms, immunosuppression regimens, Epstein"Barr virus (EBV) status and PTLD outcome...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741608/jak-inhibitor-improves-type-i-interferon-induced-damage-proof-of-concept-in-dermatomyositis
#9
Leandro Ladislau, Xavier Suárez-Calvet, Ségolène Toquet, Océane Landon-Cardinal, Damien Amelin, Marine Depp, Mathieu P Rodero, Denisa Hathazi, Darragh Duffy, Vincent Bondet, Corinna Preusse, Boris Bienvenu, Flore Rozenberg, Andreas Roos, Claudia F Benjamim, Eduard Gallardo, Isabel Illa, Vincent Mouly, Werner Stenzel, Gillian Butler-Browne, Olivier Benveniste, Yves Allenbach
Dermatomyositis is an acquired auto-immune disease characterized by skin lesions and muscle-specific pathological features such as perifascicular muscle fibre atrophy and vasculopathy. Dermatomyositis patients display an upregulation of type I interferon-inducible genes in muscle fibres, endothelial cells, skin and peripheral blood. However, the effect of type I interferon on muscle tissue has not yet been determined. Our aim was to study the pathogenicity of type I interferon in vitro and to evaluate the efficacy of the type I interferon pathway blockade for therapeutic purposes...
May 8, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734356/microbiota-epitope-similarity-either-dampens-or-enhances-the-immunogenicity-of-disease-associated-antigenic-epitopes
#10
Sebastian Carrasco Pro, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Sandeep K Dhanda, Chelsea Carpenter, Mikaela Lindvall, Ali A Faruqi, Clark A Santee, Harald Renz, John Sidney, Bjoern Peters, Alessandro Sette
The microbiome influences adaptive immunity and molecular mimicry influences T cell reactivity. Here, we evaluated whether the sequence similarity of various antigens to the microbiota dampens or increases immunogenicity of T cell epitopes. Sets of epitopes and control sequences derived from 38 antigenic categories (infectious pathogens, allergens, autoantigens) were retrieved from the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB). Their similarity to microbiome sequences was calculated using the BLOSUM62 matrix. We found that sequence similarity was associated with either dampened (tolerogenic; e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728403/vaccine-therapy-in-hematologic-malignancies
#11
David Avigan, Jacalyn Rosenblatt
Immune based therapy has emerged as a paradigm shift in cancer therapy with dramatic responses observed in previously incurable disease. Cancer vaccines are being developed to disrupt tumor-associated tolerance and activate and selectively expand tumor specific lymphocytes within the native effector cell repertoire while maintaining immune regulatory protection against auto-immunity. While individual antigen approaches result in immune response with a suggestion of clinical effect in some settings, broader efficacy may be dependent on presentation of multiple antigens that capture clonal diversity presented in the context of functionally potent antigen presenting cells...
May 4, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713318/complement-activation-in-inflammatory-skin-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Jenny Giang, Marc A J Seelen, Martijn B A van Doorn, Robert Rissmann, Errol P Prens, Jeffrey Damman
The complement system is a fundamental part of the innate immune system, playing a crucial role in host defense against various pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Activation of complement results in production of several molecules mediating chemotaxis, opsonization, and mast cell degranulation, which can contribute to the elimination of pathogenic organisms and inflammation. Furthermore, the complement system also has regulating properties in inflammatory and immune responses. Complement activity in diseases is rather complex and may involve both aberrant expression of complement and genetic deficiencies of complement components or regulators...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706856/cd58-leucocyte-function-adhesion-3-lfa-3-could-be-used-as-a-differentiating-marker-between-immune-and-non-immune-thyroid-disorders
#13
Nadia El Menshawy, Mohammed Eissa, Hanaa M Abdeen, Enas M Elkhamisy, Nabil Joseph
The link between Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto' s thyroiditis (HT) has been debated for decades due to the shared pathological and immunological components. Immune intolerance and inappropriate immune reaction against self-thyroid cells are distinctive features of both diseases, but definitive data for the clinical presentation of autoimmune thyroid disease remains unclear. To analyse the expression of T-regulatory cells, CD58, the CD4/CD8 ratio and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and to determine if these parameters could be used as differentiating markers between auto- and non-immune thyroid diseases, 75 patients were enrolled in this study-40 with autoimmune thyroid disease (HT and GD ), 15 with non-immune thyroid disease, and 20 healthy controls...
2018: Comparative Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697861/microglial-mhc-class-ii-is-dispensable-for-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#14
Yochai Wolf, Anat Shemer, Liron Levy-Efrati, Mor Gross, Jung-Seok Kim, Adrien Engel, Eyal David, Louise Chappell-Maor, Jonathan Grozovski, Ron Rotkopf, Inbal Biton, Raya Eilam-Altstadter, Steffen Jung
Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), strategically positioned to clear dead cells and debris, and orchestrate CNS inflammation and immune defense. In steady state, these macrophages lack major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) expression, but microglia activation can be associated with MHCII induction. Whether microglial MHCII serves antigen presentation for critical local T cell re-stimulation in CNS auto-immune disorders or modulates microglial signaling output remains under debate...
April 26, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686675/pathogenetic-and-clinical-aspects-of-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-autoantibody-associated-vasculitides
#15
REVIEW
Peter Lamprecht, Anja Kerstein, Sebastian Klapa, Susanne Schinke, Christian M Karsten, Xinhua Yu, Marc Ehlers, Jörg T Epplen, Konstanze Holl-Ulrich, Thorsten Wiech, Kathrin Kalies, Tanja Lange, Martin Laudien, Tamas Laskay, Timo Gemoll, Udo Schumacher, Sebastian Ullrich, Hauke Busch, Saleh Ibrahim, Nicole Fischer, Katrin Hasselbacher, Ralph Pries, Frank Petersen, Gesche Weppner, Rudolf Manz, Jens Y Humrich, Relana Nieberding, Gabriela Riemekasten, Antje Müller
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) targeting proteinase 3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase expressed by innate immune cells (neutrophils and monocytes) are salient diagnostic and pathogenic features of small vessel vasculitis, comprising granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic GPA. Genetic studies suggest that ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV) constitute separate diseases, which share common immunological and pathological features, but are otherwise heterogeneous...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678394/-dermatologic-toxicities-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#16
REVIEW
V Sibaud, S Boulinguez, C Pagès, L Riffaud, L Lamant, C Chira, S Boyrie, E Vigarios, E Tournier, N Meyer
The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4) represents a significant advance in the treatment of multiple cancers. Given their particular mechanism of action, which involves triggering CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation and proliferation, they are associated with a specific safety profile. Their adverse events are primarily immune-related, and can affect practically all organs. In this context, dermatological toxicity is the most common, though it mostly remains mild to moderate and does not require discontinuation of treatment...
April 17, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674502/dissecting-the-pathophysiology-of-immune-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-interplay-between-genes-and-environmental-triggers
#17
Johana Hrdinová, Silvia D'Angelo, Nuno A G Graça, Bogac Ercig, Karen Vanhoorelbeke, Agnès Veyradier, Jan Voorberg, Paul Coppo
Although outstanding progress has been made in comprehending the pathophysiology of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of the disease is only in its earlier stage. Anti-ADAMTS13 auto-antibodies were shown to block proteolysis of von Willebrand factor and/or induce ADAMTS13 clearance from the circulation. However, which immune cells are involved in the production of anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies and hence account for the remarkable efficacy of the B-cell depleting agents in this disease, remain to be identified...
April 19, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673649/auto-immune-disorders-in-a-child-with-pik3cd-variant-and-22q13-deletion
#18
Kyoko Kiyota, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Ryoko Houbara, Hiroaki Miyahara, Seigo Korematsu, Kenji Ihara
22q13 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion or disruption of the segment of the long arm of chromosome 22. The characteristic clinical features of this syndrome include delayed expressive speech, autistic behavior and hypotonia, and clinically severe complications associated with autoimmunity are rarely reported. We herein report a girl with 22q13 deletion syndrome complicated with multiple inflammatory and autoimmune diseases during early childhood. We performed whole-exome sequencing to identify the genes responsible for her autoimmune diseases and identified the de novo variant p...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670622/immune-reconstitution-after-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-crohn-s-disease-current-status-and-future-directions-a-review-on-behalf-of-the-ebmt-autoimmune-diseases-working-party-and-the-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-refractory
#19
REVIEW
Alan Graham Pockley, James O Lindsay, Gemma A Foulds, Sergio Rutella, John G Gribben, Tobias Alexander, John A Snowden
Patients with treatment refractory Crohn's disease (CD) suffer debilitating symptoms, poor quality of life, and reduced work productivity. Surgery to resect inflamed and fibrotic intestine may mandate creation of a stoma and is often declined by patients. Such patients continue to be exposed to medical therapy that is ineffective, often expensive and still associated with a burden of adverse effects. Over the last two decades, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients with severe autoimmune diseases (ADs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666475/lincrna-cox2-regulates-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-autophagy-mediated-neuroinflammation
#20
Zhenyi Xue, Zimu Zhang, Hongkun Liu, Wen Li, Xiangdong Guo, Zhihui Zhang, Ying Liu, Long Jia, Yan Li, Yinghui Ren, Hongwei Yang, Lijuan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Yurong Da, Junwei Hao, Zhi Yao, Rongxin Zhang
Inflammasome activation plays key roles in host defense, but also contributes to the pathogenesis of auto-inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. As autophagy is connected with both the innate and adaptive immune systems, autophagic dysfunction is also closely related to inflammation, infection, and neurodegeneration. Here we identify that lincRNA-Cox2, previously known as a mediator of both the activation and repression of immune genes expression in innate immune cells, could bind NF-κB p65 and promote its nuclear translocation and transcription, modulating the expression of inflammasome sensor NLRP3 and adaptor ASC...
April 17, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
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