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Auto immune diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745239/therapeutic-interventions-of-tissue-specific-autoimmune-onset-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#1
Subhajit Dasgupta
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a female predominant autoimmune disease. The onset of SLE has been found to affect kidney, bone, cardiovascular and central nervous system. Auto activation of B cells and T helper cells together are known to develop self-reactive immune responses in SLE. The therapy still includes corticosteroids to prevent allergic manifestations and inflammatory immune responses. Recent observations suggested that, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide treatment in combination with corticosteroids have benefit to control disease manifestations...
July 25, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743596/the-plasma-contact-system-a-protease-cascade-at-the-nexus-of-inflammation-coagulation-and-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Henri Weidmann, Laura Heikaus, Andy T Long, Clément Naudin, Hartmut Schlüter, Thomas Renné
The contact system is a potent procoagulant and proinflammatory plasma protease cascade that is initiated by binding ("contact")-induced, auto-activation of factor XII zymogen. Formed active serine protease FXIIa then cleaves plasma prekallikrein to kallikrein that in turn liberates the mediator bradykinin from its precursor high molecular weight kininogen. Bradykinin induces inflammation with implications for host defense and innate immunity. FXIIa also triggers the intrinsic pathway of coagulation that has been shown to critically contribute to thrombosis...
July 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728309/escherichia-coli-outer-membrane-protein-f-ompf-an-immunogenic-protein-induces-cross-reactive-antibodies-against-escherichia-coli-and-shigella
#3
Xiao Wang, Da Teng, Qingfeng Guan, Ruoyu Mao, Ya Hao, Xiumin Wang, Junhu Yao, Jianhua Wang
Diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most serious infectious diseases in humans and animals. Due to antibiotics resistance and the lack of efficient vaccine, more attention should be paid to find potential versatile vaccine candidates to prevent diseases. In this study, the sequence homology analysis indicated that OmpF from E. coli CVCC 1515 shares a high identity (90-100%) with about half of the E. coli (46.7%) and Shigella (52.8%) strains. Then the recombinant OmpF was supposed to be developed as a versatile vaccine to prevent E...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718063/new-insights-on-platelets-and-platelet-derived-microparticles-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
REVIEW
Marc Scherlinger, Vanja Sisirak, Christophe Richez, Estibaliz Lazaro, Pierre Duffau, Patrick Blanco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current knowledge on the role of platelets and platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) on the immune system has been fast-growing. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic auto-immune disorder characterized by a loss of tolerance toward nuclear auto-antigens. Although recent studies allowed a better understanding of SLE pathogenesis, there is an urgent need for the development of new treatments and the identification of new biomarkers to assess the disease activity...
August 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711432/inactivated-orf-virus-shows-disease-modifying-antiviral-activity-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-genital-herpesvirus-infection
#5
Astrid Friebe, Angela Siegling, Olaf Weber
BACKGROUND: Inactivated Orf virus (iORFV) has been used as a preventative as well as a therapeutic immunomodulator in veterinary medicine in different species. iORFV elicits strong effects on cytokine secretion in mice and human immune cells leading to an auto-regulated loop of initial up-regulation of inflammatory and Th1-related cytokines followed by Th2-related cytokines that attenuate immunopathology. The therapeutic potential of iORFV has been recognized in several models for difficult-to-treat disease areas such as chronic viral diseases, liver fibrosis or various forms of cancer...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701998/thyroid-autoimmunity-and-lichen
#6
REVIEW
Fabrizio Guarneri, Roberta Giuffrida, Flavia Di Bari, Serafinella Patrizia Cannavò, Salvatore Benvenga
Lichen planus (LP) and lichen sclerosus (LS) are cutaneous-mucous diseases with uncertain epidemiology. Current data, which are likely to be underestimated, suggest a prevalence in the general population of 0.1-4% for cutaneous LP, 1.27-2.0% for oral LP, and 0.1-3.3% for LS. While etiology of lichen is still unknown, clinical and histological evidence show an (auto)immune pathogenesis. Association of lichen with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has been investigated in few studies. This association appears better defined in the case of LS, while is more controversial for LP...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695293/hla-class-ii-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-the-bumpy-road-of-revelation
#7
REVIEW
Arieke S B Kampstra, René E M Toes
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic auto-immune disease primarily targeting the joints. Approximately 1% of the population is affected by RA, and despite the improvements in therapeutic interventions, elucidation of the disease pathogenesis is still in its infancy. RA patients can be subdivided on basis of the presence of autoantibodies, especially anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). ACPA(+) and ACPA(-) disease most likely differ in aetiology, as different genetic and environmental risk factors are associated with these two disease entities...
July 11, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685247/vitiligo-focus-on-clinical-aspects-immunopathogenesis-and-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal, Mauro Picardo, Alain Taïeb
Vitiligo is an acquired chronic depigmenting disorder of the skin, with an estimated prevalence of 0.5% of the general population, characterized by the development of white macules resulting from a loss of epidermal melanocytes. The nomenclature has been revised after an extensive international work within the vitiligo global issues consensus conference, and vitiligo (formerly non-segmental vitiligo) is now a consensus umbrella term for all forms of generalized vitiligo. Two other subsets of vitiligo are segmental vitiligo and unclassified/undetermined vitiligo, which corresponds to focal disease and rare variants...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683959/-oral-diseases-in-auto-immune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1
#9
Emmanuelle Proust-Lemoine, Sylvie Guyot
Auto-immune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) also called Auto-immune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy (APECED) is a rare monogenic childhood-onset auto-immune disease. This autosomal recessive disorder is caused by mutations in the auto-immune regulator (AIRE) gene, and leads to autoimmunity targeting peripheral tissues. There is a wide variability in clinical phenotypes in patients with APSI, with auto-immune endocrine and non-endocrine disorders, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis...
July 3, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678867/gut-bacterial-peptides-with-autoimmunity-potential-as-environmental-trigger-for-late-onset-complex-diseases-in-silico-study
#10
Sapna Negi, Harpreet Singh, Anirban Mukhopadhyay
Recent evidences suggest that human gut microbiota with major component as bacteria can induce immunity. It is also known that gut lining depletes with ageing and that there is increased risk of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders with ageing. It is therefore likely that both may be correlated as depletion of gut lining exposes the gut bacterial antigens to host immune mechanisms, which may induce immunity to certain bacterial proteins, but at the same time such immunity may also be auto-immunogenic to host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668464/low-level-exposure-to-inorganic-mercury-interferes-with-b-cell-receptor-signaling-in-transitional-type-1-b-cells
#11
R Gill, M J McCabe, A J Rosenspire
Mercury (Hg) has been implicated as a factor contributing to autoimmune disease in animal models and humans. However the mechanism by which this occurs has remained elusive. Since the discovery of B cells it has been appreciated by immunologists that during the normal course of B cell development, some immature B cells must be generated that produce immunoglobulin reactive to self-antigens (auto-antibodies). However in the course of normal development, the vast majority of immature auto-reactive B cells are prevented from maturing by processes collectively known as tolerance...
June 28, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661105/-recommendation-for-evaluation-and-treatment-of-chronic-urticaria-the-israeli-association-for-allergy-and-clinical-immunology
#12
Nancy Levin Agmon, Aharon Kessel, Ramit Maoz Segal, Menachem Rottem, Yuval Tal, Ronit Confino-Cohen, Elias Tobi
Chronic urticaria is a disease manifested by a pruritic rash lasting longer than 6 weeks that may severely affect quality of life and daily function. Chronic urticaria can be further divided into chronic spontaneous urticaria which appears without a trigger and chronic inducible urticaria which evolves following distinct physical triggers. These two clinical manifestations could coexist in the same patient. The pathogenesis of chronic urticaria is not fully elucidated, although it is considered an autoimmune disease in at least 50% patients that produce auto- IgG antibodies targeted against the high affinity Fc receptor and to a lesser extent against IgE itself...
June 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657314/discovery-of-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-interleukin-15-pharmacophore-based-virtual-screening-and-hit-optimization
#13
Agnès Quéméner, Mike Maillasson, Laurence Arzel, Benoit Sicard, Romy Vomiandry, Erwan Mortier, Didier Dubreuil, Yannick Jacques, Jacques Lebreton, Monique Mathé-Allainmat
Interleukin (IL)-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which is structurally close to IL-2 and shares with it the IL-2 β and γ receptor (R) subunits. By promoting the activation and proliferation of NK, NK-T, and CD8+ T cells, IL-15 plays important roles in innate and adaptative immunity. Moreover, the association of high levels of IL-15 expression with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has led to the development of various antagonistic approaches targeting IL-15. This study is an original approach aimed at discovering small-molecule inhibitors impeding IL-15/IL-15R interaction...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649880/understanding-type-1-diabetes-through-proteomics
#14
Inne Crèvecoeur, Saurabh Vig, Chantal Mathieu, Lut Overbergh
Auto-immunity against pancreatic beta-cells leads to an absolute shortage of the hormone insulin, resulting in hyperglycemia and the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Proteomic approaches have been used to elucidate the mechanisms of beta-cell dysfunction and death. Areas covered: In the present review, we discuss discoveries in the beta-cell proteome that have contributed to better insights in the role of the beta-cell in T1D. Techniques, such as 2D-DIGE and MALDI imaging, together with new approaches for sample preparation, including laser capture microdissection and immunopeptidomics, have resulted in novel mechanistic insights in the pathogenesis of T1D...
June 28, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642703/different-regulation-of-interleukin-1-production-and-activity-in-monocytes-and-macrophages-innate-memory-as-an-endogenous-mechanism-of-il-1-inhibition
#15
Mariusz P Madej, Elfi Töpfer, Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani
Production and activity of interleukin (IL)-1β are kept under strict control in our body, because of its powerful inflammation-promoting capacity. Control of IL-1β production and activity allows IL-1 to exert its defensive activities without causing extensive tissue damage. Monocytes are the major producers of IL-1β during inflammation, but they are also able to produce significant amounts of IL-1 inhibitors such as IL-1Ra and the soluble form of the decoy receptor IL-1R2, in an auto-regulatory feedback loop...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634486/%C3%AE-cell-replacement-strategies-the-increasing-need-for-a-%C3%AE-cell-dogma
#16
REVIEW
Andhira Vieira, Noémie Druelle, Fabio Avolio, Tiziana Napolitano, Sergi Navarro-Sanz, Serena Silvano, Patrick Collombat
Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease resulting in the loss of pancreatic β-cells and, consequently, in chronic hyperglycemia. Insulin supplementation allows diabetic patients to control their glycaemia quite efficiently, but treated patients still display an overall shortened life expectancy and an altered quality of life as compared to their healthy counterparts. In this context and due to the ever increasing number of diabetics, establishing alternative therapies has become a crucial research goal. Most current efforts therefore aim at generating fully functional insulin-secreting β-like cells using multiple approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633038/hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-diffuse-large-b-cell-and-follicular-lymphoma-current-controversies-and-advances
#17
REVIEW
Narendranath Epperla, Mehdi Hamadani
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) constitutes a collection of lymphoproliferative disorders with diverse biologic, histologic, and clinical features. With a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, recently there have been major advances in the treatment of NHLs including addition of novel monoclonal antibodies, targeted therapies, and immune activators to the therapy armamentarium. Despite these remarkable developments, autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) remains not only a standard-of-care curative option for aggressive NHL but also an important therapeutic option for indolent NHL...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624107/recurrence-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-auto-immune-hepatitis-after-liver-transplantation
#18
REVIEW
T Visseren, S Darwish Murad
Liver transplantation is a well-accepted treatment for decompensated chronic liver disease due to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and auto-immune hepatitis (AIH). Survival after liver transplantation is generally good with 1 and 5-year survival rates around 90% and 70-85%. After transplantation, however, these diseases recur in 8.6-27% (rPSC), 10.9-42.3% (rPBC) and 7-42% (rAIH), and this poses significant challenges in terms of management and graft outcome in these patients...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612332/cocaine-levamisole-induced-vasculitis-vasculopathy-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Javier Marquez, Lina Aguirre, Carolina Muñoz, Andres Echeverri, Mauricio Restrepo, Luis F Pinto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the clinical spectrum of cocaine-levamisole-induced vasculitis. Worldwide recreational drug consumption is high among the adult population from various social strata. The use of cocaine with levamisole, a frequently added antiparasitic diluent, favors the manifestations of vasculitic lesions, especially in the skin. RECENT FINDINGS: New insights into immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. There are still many unknown aspects in the pathogenesis of this disease, such as the immune system interaction with p-ANCAs and the release of inflammatory NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps), which are the origin of auto-antigens and tissue damage, manifesting as vasculitic purpura on the skin...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606032/metformin-a-new-era-for-an-old-drug-in-the-treatment-of-immune-mediated-disease
#20
Mark Schuiveling, Nadia Vazirpanah, Timothy R D J Radstake, Maili Zimmermann, Jasper C A Broen
Metformin, a widely prescribed blood glucose normalizing antidiabetic drug, is now beginning to receive increasing attention due to its potential anti-inflammatory properties. Metformin suppresses immune responses mainly through its direct effect on the cellular functions of various immune cell types by induction of AMPK and subsequent inhibition of mTORC1, and by inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production. Among key immune events, this results in inhibited monocyte to macrophage differentiation and restrained inflammatory capacity of activated macrophages...
June 12, 2017: Current Drug Targets
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