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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938518/antimicrobial-peptides-amps-the-quintessential-offense-and-defense-molecules-are-more-than-antimicrobials
#1
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Nadeem Akhtar
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic amphiphilic molecules with α-helix or β-sheet linear motifs and linear or cyclic configurations. For their role in 'defense and offense', they are present in all living organisms. AMPs are named so, as they inhibit a wide array of microbes by membrane pore formation and subsequent perturbation of mitochondrial membrane ionic balance. However, their functional repertoire is expanding with validated roles in cytotoxicity, wound healing, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and chemotaxis [1]...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938101/exposure-to-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-two-large-cohorts-of-us-nurses
#2
N Palacios, K L Munger, K C Fitzgerald, J E Hart, T Chitnis, A Ascherio, F Laden
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is thought to raise the risk of neurological disease by promoting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, glial activation and cerebrovascular damage. Multiple Sclerosis is a common auto-immune disorder, primarily affecting young women. We conducted, to a large prospective study of particulate matter (PM) exposure and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in two prospective cohorts of women: the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and the Nurses Health Study II (NHS II). METHODS: Cumulative average exposure to different size fractions of PM up to the onset of MS was estimated using spatio-temporal models...
September 19, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928836/preoperative-serum-macrophage-activated-biomarkers-soluble-mannose-receptor-smr-and-soluble-haemoglobin-scavenger-receptor-scd163-as-novel-markers-for-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-gastric-cancer
#3
Dongbing Ding, Yang Song, Yao Yao, Songbai Zhang
Soluble mannose receptor (sMR) and soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor (sCD163) are macrophage activation markers which have previously been demonstrated to be increased in patients with inflammation, auto-immunity and malignancies. To investigate the clinical diagnostic and prognostic significance of preoperative serum sMR and sCD163, the present study investigated 143 gastric cancer (GC) patients, 66 subjects with benign gastric disease and 59 healthy controls, using an ELISA assay. Preoperative serum levels of sMR and sCD163 ranged from 0...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927891/vitiligo-skin-is-imprinted-with-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells-expressing-cxcr3
#4
Katia Boniface, Clément Jacquemin, Anne-Sophie Darrigade, Benoît Dessarthe, Christina Martins, Nesrine Boukhedouni, Charlotte Vernisse, Alexis Grasseau, Denis Thiolat, Jérôme Rambert, Fabienne Lucchese, Antoine Bertolotti, Khaled Ezzedine, Alain Taieb, Julien Seneschal
Vitiligo is a chronic auto-immune depigmenting skin disorder that results from a loss of melanocytes. Multiple combinatorial factors have been involved in disease development, with a prominent role of the immune system, in particular T cells. After repigmentation, vitiligo frequently recurs in the same area, suggesting that vitiligo could involve the presence of resident memory T cells (TRM). We sought to perform a thorough characterization of the phenotype and function of skin memory T cells in vitiligo. We show that stable and active vitiligo perilesional skin is enriched with a population of CD8 TRM expressing both CD69 and CD103 compared to psoriasis and control unaffected skin...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922472/mirna-506-promotes-primary-biliary-cholangitis-like-features-in-cholangiocytes-and-immune-activation
#5
Oihane Erice, Patricia Munoz-Garrido, Javier Vaquero, Maria J Perugorria, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Elena Saez, Alvaro Santos-Laso, Ander Arbelaiz, Raul Jimenez-Agüero, Joaquin Fernandez-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaria, Verónica Torrano, Arkaitz Carracedo, Meenakshisundaram Ananthanarayanan, Marco Marzioni, Jesus Prieto, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P Oude Elferink, Nicholas F LaRusso, Luis Bujanda, Jose J G Marin, Jesus M Banales
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune phenomena targeting intrahepatic bile duct cells (cholangiocytes). Although PBC etiopathogenesis still remains obscure, development of anti-mitochondrial auto-antibodies against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2) is a common feature. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation occurs in liver and immune cells of PBC patients, but their functional relevance is largely unknown. We previously reported that miR-506 is overexpressed in PBC cholangiocytes and directly targets both Cl(-) /HCO3(-) anion exchanger 2 (AE2) and type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R3), leading to cholestasis...
September 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919897/altered-immune-activation-and-il-23-signaling-in-response-to-candida-albicans-in-autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1
#6
Øyvind Bruserud, Eirik Bratland, Alexander Hellesen, Nicolas Delaleu, Håkon Reikvam, Bergithe E Oftedal, Anette S B Wolff
OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare, childhood onset disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is one of the three major disease components and is, to date, mainly explained by the presence of neutralizing auto-antibodies against cytokines [interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22] from T helper 17 cells, which are critical for the protection against fungal infections. However, patients without current auto-antibodies also present CMC and we, therefore, hypothesized that other immune mechanisms contribute to CMC in APS-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915632/decitabine-inhibits-t-cell-proliferation-via-a-novel-tet2-dependent-mechanism-and-exerts-potent-protective-effect-in-mouse-auto-and-allo-immunity-models
#7
Xue Wang, Jun Wang, Yong Yu, Tonghui Ma, Ping Chen, Bing Zhou, Ran Tao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the dysregulated immune response including innate and adaptive immune responses. Increasing evidence has proven the importance of epigenetic modification in the progression of MS. Recent studies revealed that low-dose decitabine (Dec, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine), which incorporates into replicating DNA and inhibits DNA methylation, could prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) development by increasing the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912336/elevated-semaphorin-5a-in-patients-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-a-case-control-study
#8
Yongping Liu, Shuo Wang, Qingling Guo, Yongze Li, Jing Qin, Na Zhao, Yushu Li, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
OBJECTIVE: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is characterised by elevated specific auto-antibodies, including TgAb and TPOAb. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the essential role of Th17 cells in HT. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Semaphorin 5A (Sema5A) is involved in several autoimmune diseases through regulation of immune cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Sema5A in HT. METHODS: We measured serum Sema5A levels in HT (n = 92) and healthy controls (n = 111) by ELISA...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906208/pattern-recognition-receptors-signaling-pathways-and-dysregulation-in-canine-chronic-enteropathies-brief-review
#9
Romy M Heilmann, Karin Allenspach
Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are expressed by innate immune cells and recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. With a large potential for synergism or convergence between their signaling pathways, PRRs orchestrate a complex interplay of cellular mediators and transcription factors, and thus play a central role in homeostasis and host defense. Aberrant activation of PRR signaling, mutations of the receptors and/or their downstream signaling molecules, and/or DAMP/PAMP complex-mediated receptor signaling can potentially lead to chronic auto-inflammatory diseases or development of cancer...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903847/dengue-hemorrhagic-fever-arare-cause-of-acute-liver-failure
#10
Aisha Nazeer, Ayesha Aslam Rai, Nasir Hassan Luck, Abbas Ali Yousuf Tasneem
Acute liver failure (ALF) is an acute medical emergency which carries high mortality without liver transplantation. Various hepatotropic viruses, drug induced liver injury, auto immune hepatitis, and metabolic liver diseases are the commonly implicated etiologic agents. Liver involvement in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is quite common, but acute liver failure is its rare complication. Neurological complications are also commonly seen in DHF. Ateenage girl presented with high grade fever and subconjunctival hemorrhage, and later developed jaundice due to acute liver failure...
August 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901644/the-truncated-nlr-protein-tir-nbs13-is-a-mos6-importin-%C3%AE-3-interaction-partner-and-required-for-plant-immunity
#11
Charlotte Roth, Daniel Lüdke, Melanie Klenke, Annalena Quathamer, Oliver Valerius, Gerhard H Braus, Marcel Wiermer
Importin-α proteins mediate the translocation of nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Genetically, Arabidopsis IMPORTIN-α3/MOS6 (MODIFIER OF SNC1, 6) is required for basal plant immunity and constitutive disease resistance activated in the auto-immune mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), suggesting that MOS6 plays a role in nuclear import of proteins involved in plant defense signaling. Here, we sought to identify and characterize defense-regulatory cargo proteins and interaction partners of MOS6...
September 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899854/non-classical-fcgr2c-haplotype-is-associated-with-protection-from-red-blood-cell-allo-immunization-in-sickle-cell-disease
#12
Sanne M Meinderts, Joep W R Sins, Karin Fijnvandraat, Sietse Q Nagelkerke, Judy Geissler, Michael W Tanck, Christine Bruggeman, Bart J Biemond, Anita W Rijneveld, Jean-Louis H Kerkhoffs, Sadaf Pakdaman, Anoosha Habibi, Robin van Bruggen, Taco W Kuijpers, France Pirenne, Timo K van den Berg
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are of vital importance in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, a major complication of transfusion therapy is allo-immunization. The low-affinity Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), expressed on immune cells, are important regulators of antibody responses. Genetic variation in FCGR genes has been associated with various auto- and allo-immune diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between genetic variation of FCGR and RBC allo-immunization in SCD...
September 12, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891307/a-comprehensive-narrative-review-of-diagnostic-biomarkers-in-human-primary-membranous-nephropathy
#13
Shiva Kalantari, Mohsen Nafar
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is relatively major cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults which is recognized as an organ-specific autoimmune disease. The etiology of most cases is idiopathic, whereas the secondary MN is caused by systemic autoimmune diseases, infections, medications and malignancies. The idiopathic disease is developed by the formation of sub-epithelial immune complex deposits most likely due to binding the circulating auto-antibodies to intrinsic antigen on podocytes. The major auto antibody is the anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R), however, it is not enough sensitive...
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882619/variable-domain-glycosylation-of-acpa-igg-a-missing-link-in-the-maturation-of-the-acpa-response
#14
Ayla C Kempers, Lise Hafkenscheid, Hans Ulrich Scherer, René E M Toes
Anti-citrullinated Protein Antibodies (ACPA) are excellent markers for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are postulated to have a pathogenic role in the disease process. A multistep model for the evolution of the ACPA response in RA was proposed in which an initial break of tolerance causes, as "first hit", "silent" production of ACPA without any clinical symptoms. The model further proposes that the ACPA immune response matures upon a certain (unknown) trigger, a "second hit", which leads to epitope spreading, an increase in ACPA titres and extended isotype usage before clinical RA manifestations...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881959/maboss-2-0-an-environment-for-stochastic-boolean-modeling
#15
Gautier Stoll, Barthélémy Caron, Eric Viara, Aurélien Dugourd, Andrei Zinovyev, Aurélien Naldi, Guido Kroemer, Emmanuel Barillot, Laurence Calzone
Motivation: Modeling of signaling pathways is an important step towards the understanding and the treatment of diseases such as cancers, HIV or auto-immune diseases. MaBoSS is a software that allows to simulate populations of cells and to model stochastically the intracellular mechanisms that are deregulated in diseases. MaBoSS provides an output of a Boolean model in the form of time-dependent probabilities, for all biological entities (genes, proteins, phenotypes, etc.) of the model...
July 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874781/immunization-of-cervidized-transgenic-mice-with-multimeric-deer-prion-protein-induces-self-antibodies-that-antagonize-chronic-wasting-disease-infectivity-in-vitro
#16
Dalia H Abdelaziz, Simrika Thapa, Basant Abdulrahman, Li Lu, Shikha Jain, Hermann M Schatzl
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the most contagious prion disease. It is expanding rapidly in North America, was found recently in Europe, and the potential for transmission to humans cannot be excluded yet. We hypothesized that it is possible to prevent peripheral CWD infection and CWD prion shedding by inducing auto-antibodies against the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) by active vaccination. Our objective is to overcome self-tolerance against PrP by using a multimeric recombinant PrP (recPrP) as an immunogen...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868796/ige-auto-reactivity-in-bullous-pemphigoid-eosinophils-and-mast-cells-as-major-targets-of-pathogenic-immune-reactants
#17
P C Freire, C H Muñoz, G Stingl
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune disease characterised by tense blisters that are usually preceded by urticarial eruptions. Affected patients exhibit IgG and/or IgE auto-antibodies against BP180 and/or BP230. Their relative importance in disease pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to better characterise circulating and tissue-resident IgE in BP patients at the serological, structural and functional level...
September 4, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862054/lysosomal-targeting-strategies-for-design-and-delivery-of-bioactive-for-therapeutic-interventions
#18
Ankur Sharma, Kalpesh Vaghasiya, Eupa Ray, Rahul Kumar Verma
Lysosomes are of particular interest for the design and delivery of pH dependent pro-drugs, enhancing selectivity and developing strategies to inhibit drug degradation inside the cells. There is great potential to bring intracellular drug delivery and distribution using nano-therapeutic approaches to target lysosomes for therapeutic interventions. Lysosomal targeting strategies involve two contrasting facets. One aspect is to directly target therapeutics to the lysosome through receptor-mediated endocytosis and the other facet involves strategies, which ensure escape from the lysosome in order to prevent their degradation, so that therapeutics may remain intact and available in the cytosol for their further action...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855898/quantitative-analysis-of-repertoire-scale-immunoglobulin-properties-in-vaccine-induced-b-cell-responses
#19
Ilja V Khavrutskii, Sidhartha Chaudhury, Sabrina M Stronsky, Donald W Lee, Jacqueline G Benko, Anders Wallqvist, Sina Bavari, Christopher L Cooper
Recent advances in the next-generation sequencing of B-cell receptors (BCRs) enable the characterization of humoral responses at a repertoire-wide scale and provide the capability for identifying unique features of immune repertoires in response to disease, vaccination, or infection. Immunosequencing now readily generates 10(3)-10(5) sequences per sample; however, statistical analysis of these repertoires is challenging because of the high genetic diversity of BCRs and the elaborate clonal relationships among them...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852124/oxidative-stress-and-immune-responses-during-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-tupaia-belangeri
#20
Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh, Sayeh Ezzikouri, Takahiro Sanada, Haiying Chi, Yukiko Hayashi, Khadija Rebbani, Bouchra Kitab, Aya Matsuu, Noriaki Miyoshi, Tsunekazu Hishima, Michinori Kohara, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. To address the molecular basis of HCV pathogenesis using tupaias (Tupaia belangeri), we characterized host responses upon HCV infection. Adult tupaias were infected with HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, or 4a. Viral RNA, alanine aminotransferase, anti-HCV core and anti-nonstructural protein NS3 antibody titres, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and anti-3β-hydroxysterol-Δ24reductase (DHCR24) antibody levels were measured at 2-week intervals from 0 to 41 weeks postinfection...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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