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Auto immune diseases

Hans Lassmann, Monika Bradl
One of the most frequent statements, provided in different variations in the introduction of experimental studies on multiple sclerosis (MS), is that "Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating autoimmune disease and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a suitable model to study its pathogenesis". However, so far, no single experimental model covers the entire spectrum of the clinical, pathological, or immunological features of the disease. Many different models are available, which proved to be highly useful for studying different aspects of inflammation, demyelination, remyelination, and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system...
October 20, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Luigi Martino, Louise Holland, Evangelos Christodoulou, Simone Kunzelmann, Diego Esposito, Katrin Rittinger
NOD-like receptors represent an important class of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that play key roles in the regulation of inflammatory signalling pathways. They function as danger sensors and initiate inflammatory responses and the production of cytokines. Since NLR malfunction results in chronic inflammation and auto-immune diseases, there is a great interest in understanding how they work on a molecular level. To date, a lot of insight into the biological functions of NLRs is available but biophysical and structural studies have been hampered by the difficulty to produce soluble and stable recombinant NLR proteins...
2016: PloS One
Xiaonan Zhong, Honghao Wang, Zhiwei Ye, Wei Qiu, Zhengqi Lu, Rui Li, Yaqing Shu, Yanyu Chang, Xueqiang Hu
It is believed that auto-inflammatory activity, including cellular and humoral immunity responses, especially T cell-B cell collaboration, is one of the most important components of the pathogenesis of inflammatory demyelinating disease. CD40L is critical for T cell-B cell collaboration. Actually, serum CD40L levels have been shown to increase in MS. In the present study, serum CD40L levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in NMO (n=27) and MS (n=19) patients and controls (n=14)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Matheus Trovão de Queiroz, Vanessa Gonçalves Pereira, Cinthia Castro do Nascimento, Vânia D'Almeida
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a functional class of RNA involved in the regulation of several cellular processes which may modulate disease onset, progression, and prognosis. Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) are a group of rare disorders caused by mutations of genes encoding specific hydrolases or non-enzymatic proteins, characterized by a wide spectrum of manifestations. The alteration of ncRNA levels is well established in several human diseases such as cancer and auto-immune disorders; however, there is a lack of information focused on the role of ncRNA in rare diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Virginie Deswaerte, Saleela M Ruwanpura, Brendan J Jenkins
Over the last decade it has emerged that inflammasome complexes provide a pivotal platform for the host innate immune system to respond to exogenous infectious microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi) and non-infectious environmental agents (cigarette smoke, pollution), as well as endogenous "danger" signals. Upon the canonical activation of inflammasomes, a key effector function is to catalyze, via caspase-1, the maturation of the potent pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, which, in addition to chronic inflammatory responses have also been intimately linked to the inflammatory form of lytic cell death, pyroptosis...
September 30, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Daniel R Machin, Heather L Clifton, Ryan S Garten, Jayson R Gifford, Russell S Richardson, D Walter Wray, Tracy M Frech, Anthony John Donato
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare, auto-immune disease characterized by debilitating fibrosis and vascular dysfunction, however, little is known about the circulatory response to exercise in this population. Therefore, we examined the peripheral hemodynamic and vasodilatory responses to handgrip exercise in 10 patients with SSc (61 ± 4 yr) and 15 age-matched healthy controls (56 ± 5 yr). Brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and mean arterial pressure (MAP), were determined at rest and during progressive static-intermittent handgrip exercise...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Ivana Nikolic, Ivana Stojanovic, Milica Vujicic, Paolo Fagone, Katia Mangano, Stanislava Stosic-Grujicic, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Tamara Saksida
Bovine colostrum is a rich source of nutrients and immunologically active components that play a role in conveying passive immunity to the offspring, protection and maturation of new-born's gastrointestinal tract. Colostrum has exerted positive effects in diseases affecting gastrointestinal tract, as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, health-promoting effects in type 1 diabetes have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate therapeutic value of oral administration of standardized bovine colostrum derivative (SBCD) in three models of type 1 diabetes (T1D): spontaneously developed T1D in NOD mice and BB-DP rats, and in chemically induced T1D in C57BL/6 mice with multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS)...
September 24, 2016: Immunobiology
K Dahan
Membranous nephropathy (MN) accounts for about 20% of cases of nephrotic syndrome in the adult. Thickening of glomerular capillary walls results from subepithelial formation of immune deposits containing IgG and the membrane attack complex of complement, which is the major mediator of proteinuria, and antigens. Idiopathic forms of MN (IMN) represent 70 to 80% of all cases. A major breakthrough was the identification of the podocyte antigen PLA2R as the target of circulating antibodies in about 70% of IMN, which confirmed that the disease was auto-immune in nature...
May 25, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Namrata Adhauliya, Anupama N Kalappanavar, I M Ali, Rajeshwari G Annigeri
Autophagy is a catabolic process involving cellular recycling and is believed to play a distinct role in cell survival especially when exposed to stressors, rendering it comparable to the elixir sustaining life. It plays a significant role in various conditions like cancers, neuropathies, heart diseases, auto-immune diseases, etc. Its role in tumorigenesis and cancer therapeutics is worth exploring. Autophagy is believed to help in survival and longevity of cancer cells by buffering metabolic stress. Inhibition of autophagy in an environment of nutrient deprivation leads to cell death...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
Yuehui Zhang, Fangbing Liu, Yanzhi Yuan, Chaozhi Jin, Cheng Chang, Yunping Zhu, Xiuyuan Zhang, Chunyan Tian, Fuchu He, Jian Wang
Exosomes are secreted small vesicles that mediate various biological processes, such as tumorigenesis and immune response. However, whether the inflammasome signaling leads to the change of constituent of exosomes and its roles in immune response remains to be determined. We isolated the exosomes from macrophages with treatment of mock, endotoxin, or endotoxin/nigericin. A label-free quantification method by MS/MS was used to identify the components of exosomes. In total, 2331 proteins were identified and 513 proteins were exclusively detected in exosomes with endotoxin and nigericin treatment...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Soheila Alyasin, Marzieh Adab, Asieh Hosseinpour, Reza Amin, Maryam Babaei
BACKGROUND: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease which is characterized by B-cell abnormality and auto-antibody generation. Since bacterial infections are the most important causes of mortality in these patients, pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for children with SLE. OBJECTIVE: To investigate humoral immunity and specific-antibody formation in response to a 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccination in SLE children and asthmatic control group...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Giuseppe Barilaro, Claudia Spaziani Testa, Antonella Cacciani, Giuseppe Donato, Mira Dimko, Amalia Mariotti
An immunologic adjuvant is a substance that enhances the antigen-specific immune response preferably without triggering one on its own. Silicone, a synthetic polymer used for reconstructive and cosmetic purposes, can cause, once injected, local and/or systemic reactions and trigger manifestations of autoimmunity, occasionally leading to an overt autoimmune disease. Siliconosis, calcinosis cutis with hypercalcemia and chronic kidney disease have all been reported in association with silicone injection. Here, we describe a case of autoimmune/auto-inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants, calcinosis cutis and chronic kidney disease after liquid silicone multiple injections in a young man who underwent a sex reassignment surgery, followed by a review of the literature...
September 24, 2016: Immunologic Research
Miha Lavric, María Auxiliadora Miranda-García, Dirk Holzinger, Dirk Foell, Helmut Wittkowski
Alarmins are endogenous molecules with homeostatic roles that have reached the focus of research in inflammatory arthritis in the last two decades, mostly due to their ability to indicate tissue related damage after active or passive release from injured cells. From HMGB1, S100A8/A9 and S100A12 proteins, over heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and purine metabolites (e.g. uric acid, ATP) to altered matrix proteins and interleukin-33 (IL-33), a number of alarmins have been determined until now as having a role in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, as well as spondyloarthritis and gout...
September 19, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Marcel D Waldinger
Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Zhilin Hu, Bin Song, Lei Xu, Yiling Zhong, Fei Peng, Xiaoyuan Ji, Fang Zhu, Chengkui Yang, Jinying Zhou, Yuanyuan Su, Suning Chen, Yao He, Sudan He
The NF-κB pathway plays crucial roles in inflammatory responses and cell survival. Aberrant constitutive NF-κB activation is associated with various human diseases including cancer and inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. Consequently, it is highly desirable to develop new kinds of inhibitors, which are highly efficacious for blocking the NF-κB pathway. In this study, by using a typical kind of aqueous synthesized quantum dots (QDs), i.e., CdTe QDs, as a model, we for the first time demonstrated that the QDs could selectively affect the cellular nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, but do not affect the AKT or ERK pathways...
November 2016: Biomaterials
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho, Javier R Caso, Yolanda Sanz, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: In steady state conditions intestinal immune homeostasis is maintained by a sophisticated bidirectional dialogue between the microbiota and the intestinal immune system. This "cross talk" is enabled by the presence of highly adapted secretory cells, sampling cells and pattern recognition receptors in the gastric epithelium. METHODS: Herein we discuss the mechanisms involved in the breakdown of intestinal homeostasis and the development of systemic immune activation and neuroinflammation with a view to discussing the importance of these processes, in tandem with genetic and environmental factors, in the pathophysiology of (auto)immune diseases...
September 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Subhajit Dasgupta
Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) is a female predominant autoimmune disease. The auto reactive B cells and T helper cells together are known to develop self-reactive immune responses in different tissues like kidney, bone, cardiovascular and central nervous system. Progression of disease is associated with deposition of immune complex which initiates tissue damage. The therapy for lupus still includes corticosteroids to reduce allergic manifestations and inflammatory immune responses. Recent observations suggested that, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide treatment in combination with corticosteroids have benefit in lupus therapy...
September 12, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Bangwei Luo, Fuyu Han, Kai Xu, Jinsong Wang, Zongwei Liu, Zigang Shen, Jia Li, Yu Liu, Man Jiang, Zhi-Yuan Zhang, Zhiren Zhang
UNLABELLED: Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is the animal model of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies (AIDP), an auto-immune inflammatory demyelination disease of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the world's leading cause of acute autoimmune neuromuscular paralysis. EAN and AIDP are characterized by self-limitation with spontaneous recovery; however, endogenous pathways that regulate inflammation resolution in EAN and AIDP remain elusive. A pathway of endogenous mediators, especially resolvins and clearance of apoptotic cells, may be involved...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alban Deroux, Chantal Dumestre-Perard, Camille Dunand-Faure, Laurence Bouillet, Pascale Hoffmann
On average, 10 % of infertile couples have unexplained infertility. Auto-immune disease (systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome) accounts for a part of these cases. In the last 20 years, aspecific auto-immunity, defined as positivity of auto-antibodies in blood sample without clinical or biological criteria for defined diseases, has been evoked in a subpopulation of infertile women. A systematic review was performed (PUBMED) using the MESH search terms "infertility" and "auto-immunity" or "reproductive technique" or "assisted reproduction" or "in vitro fertilization" and "auto-immunity...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Jiří Ehrmann, Květa Aiglová, Michal Konečný, Vlastimil Procházka, Drahomíra Vrzalová
UNLABELLED: There are 40 000-60 000 patients with cirrhosis in the Czech Republic. 2 000 die of this disease yearly. This group of patients needs a complex treatment and it is mostly an internist cooperating with other specialists. The most important for an ambulant internist is to diagnose the disease as soon as possible and start with treatment of chronic liver disease that could lead to a cirrhosis. It means especially chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholic or non-alcoholic steatosis/steatohepatitis, auto-immune liver damage and metabolic disease...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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