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V Clergue-Duval, E Pot, J Azuar
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are fully concerned with the care of patients suffering from addiction and must have the support of a specialized network. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of the addict follow-up care by GPs, their use of addictological care facilities and their needs in communicating with specialists. METHODS: Private and salaried GPs working in the 9th, 10th, 18th and 19th districts of Paris were contacted by phone, and a questionnaire was sent to those who agreed to respond...
March 12, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Mark K Su, Jessica Hetherington Lopez, Aldo Crossa, Robert S Hoffman
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of 10mg intramuscular (IM) methadone in patients with opioid withdrawal syndrome (OWS). METHODS: This was a prospective observational, convenience sample of patients presenting to the ED with mild to moderate OWS. Evaluations included the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Withdrawal Symptoms Scale (WSS), Altered Mental Status Scale (AMSS) and a physician assessment of the patient's WSS (MDWSS). After enrollment, 10mg of IM methadone was administered and patients were reassessed at 30min post-methadone administration...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Elmira Ghasemi, Maryam Azadi, Saeed Semnanian
During the past decades, the use/misuse of opioids has increased dramatically among adolescent population. It is now well acknowledged that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the brain during adolescence. During this critical period, brain development and maturation could be affected by several factors including stress, drug abuse, nutritional status, etc. Although studies on transgenerational effects of substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine have focused on both paternal and maternal drug exposure, most reports on transgenerational effects of morphine are restricted to maternal exposure...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Ramón E Ruiz-Curiel, Ydaly Bonilla H, Alberto Baptista, Manuel Bronstein
OBJECTIVES: propofol is a rapid acting hypnotic that is becoming the drug of choice for sedation in digestive endoscopy worldwide. There is some controversy with regard to the use of propofol by physicians who are not anesthesiologists. We present our experience of the administration of propofol by endoscopist and nursing personnel. METHODS: this was a retrospective study of sedation in endoscopy. Propofol was exclusively used and administered by the endoscopist who performed the procedure and the nursing staff...
March 15, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr, Stephanie A Sassoon, Wesley K Thompson, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Importance: The prevalence of alcohol misuse increased substantially over a decade in adults, particularly in those aged 65 years or older. Ramifications for brain structural integrity are significant, especially in older adults. Objectives: To combine cross-sectional, longitudinal data to test age-alcoholism interactions and examine the association between prevalent comorbidities (drug dependence and hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection) and cortical volume deficits in alcohol dependence...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Michael James Zoorob
BACKGROUND: Although polydrug incidents comprise a substantial proportion of overdose deaths, scholarly and popular focus has centered on prescription opiates. This study examines the role of benzodiazepine and opioid prescriptions on overdose-both individually and synergistically-using data from Medicare Part D, a source of prescription drug claims for about 35 million Americans. METHODS: Prescribing data from the Medicare Part D Public Use Files for 2013, 2014, and 2015 (approximately 3...
March 14, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Kamilla L Venner, Victoria Sánchez, Jacqueline Garcia, Robert L Williams, Andrew L Sussman
PURPOSE: Rates of risky substance use and substance use disorders are high in primary-care practices, yet the adoption of universal screening and brief intervention (SBI) has been slow and uneven. This study aimed to describe SBI-related attitudes, practices, and perspectives regarding practice change among medical providers in a minority-majority state. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, on-line survey of a practice-based research network of medical providers serving predominantly Hispanic/Latinx and Native American patients in rural and urban settings...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Kiffer G Card, Nathan J Lachowsky, Heather L Armstrong, Zishan Cui, Lu Wang, Paul Sereda, Jody Jollimore, Thomas L Patterson, Trevor Corneil, Robert S Hogg, Eric A Roth, David M Moore
INTRODUCTION: Among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM), collinearity between polysubstance use and mental health concerns has obscured their combined effects on HIV risk with multivariable results often highlighting only one or the other. METHODS: We used mediation and moderation analyses to examine the effects of polysubstance use and depressive symptoms on high-risk sex (i.e., condomless anal sex with serodiscordant/unknown status partner) in a sample of sexually-active GBM, aged ≥16 years, recruited in Metro Vancouver using respondent driven sampling...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Pini Koplovitch, Marshall Devor
Ectopic impulse discharge (ectopia) generated in the soma of afferent neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) following nerve injury is thought to be a major contributor to neuropathic pain. The DRG is thus a prime interventional target. The process of electrogenesis (impulse generation) in the DRG is far more sensitive to systemically administered Na channel blockers than the process of impulse propagation along sensory axons. It should therefore be possible to selectively suppress DRG ectopia with local application of membrane stabilizing agents without blocking normal impulse traffic...
March 12, 2018: Pain
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
O Somasundaram, Ponnudurai Ratnaraj
Period of Custodial Care Only: The magnificent "Institute of Mental Health" has its history almost from 1795 when the East India company appointed Surgeon Valentine Conolly to be in charge of a "House for accommodating persons of unsound mind." After a few transitions, backed by a government order for the construction of a lunatic asylum in a 66 1/2 acre site, the asylum started functioning from 1871. The period of about six decades from its inception could be referred to as "the period of custodial care...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
William A Frosch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Angelo Antonini, Michele Tinazzi, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Alfredo Berardelli, K Ray Chaudhuri, Giovanni Defazio, Joaquim Ferreira, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Claudia Trenkwalder, Olivier Rascol
BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the most common and troublesome non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease; it can appear at any time during the disease, and it is often present before diagnosis. However, there is little or no consensus on its definition. METHODS: An expert group of clinicians with relevant research experience met to review the existing evidence, and to identify gaps in our understanding towards an optimized therapy of pain in Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: Key findings from epidemiologic, neurophysiologic, neuroimaging and clinical studies are reviewed...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Ritchy Hodebourg, Jennifer E Murray, Maxime Fouyssac, Mickaël Puaud, Barry J Everitt, David Belin
The alarming increase in heroin overdoses in the USA is a reminder of the need for efficacious and novel treatments for opiate addiction. This may reflect the relatively poor understanding of the neural basis of heroin, as compared to cocaine, seeking behavior. While cocaine reinforcement depends on the mesolimbic system, well established cocaine seeking is dependent on dorsolateral striatum (aDLS) dopamine-dependent mechanisms which are disrupted by N-acetylcysteine, through normalisation of corticostriatal glutamate homeostasis...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Justyna Piekielna-Ciesielska, Adriano Mollica, Stefano Pieretti, Jakub Fichna, Agata Szymaszkiewicz, Marta Zielińska, Radzisław Kordek, Anna Janecka
Opioid peptides and opiate drugs such as morphine, mediate their analgesic effects, but also undesired side effects, mostly through activation of the mu opioid receptor. However, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors can also contribute to the analgesic effects of opioids. Recent findings showed that simultaneous activation of multiple opioid receptors may result in additional analgesia with fewer side effects. Here, we evaluated the pharmacological profile of our formerly developed mixed mu/kappa-opioid receptor ligands, Dmt-c[D-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]NH2 (C-36) and Dmt-c[D-Lys-Phe-p-CF3 -Phe-Asp]NH2 (F-81)...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Smita Bakhai, Bright Thilagar, Jessica L Reynolds, Kenneth E Leonard
OBJECTIVE: Determine correlates of opiate misuse based on urine drug test (UDT) among patients on chronic opiate therapy (COT) for chronic noncancer pain. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Urban, academic clinic. PARTICIPANTS: UDT performed in 206 patients on COT for at least 3 months duration within a one-year period. Patients were classified based on UDT results: (1) Appearance of Opiate Adherence: Positive UDT for prescribed opiate and negative for illicit drugs and nonprescribed control substances; (2) Opiate Misuse; Overt nonadherence: (a) Positive UDT for illicit drugs and/or nonprescribed controlled substances AND positive or negative for prescribed opiates (b) Overdose; (3) Possible opiate nonadherence: Negative for prescribed opiates and negative for illicit and nonprescribed controlled substances...
January 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Gina C Dobbs, Susanne A Fogger
In the wake of epidemic of opioid overdoses in the United States, patients who are receiving treatment for chronic pain with opioid have come under increasing scrutiny. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a guideline for managing chronic pain in 2016, which makes recommendations for opioids based on current evidence. This review will highlight key components of the guideline including differentiating addiction from dependence to assist nurses to better inform patient care in managing chronic pain...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Christine L Kempton, Tyler W Buckner, Moshe Fridman, Neeraj N Iyer, David L Cooper
INTRODUCTION: Levels of pain and dysfunction appear to differ among people with hemophilia despite similar levels of joint disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine patient characteristics that influence pain and function independent of joint status. METHODS: US adults with hemophilia completed a survey that included information on clinical characteristics, demographics, and patient-reported outcome instruments assessing pain (Brief Pain Inventory v2 Short Form [BPI]), functional impairment (Hemophilia Activities List [HAL]), and health status (EQ-5D-5L)...
April 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Anne Yee, Huai Seng Loh, Chong Guan Ng, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman
Low sexual desire (SD) is not life threatening, but its negative impact on the quality of life and intimacy of a relationship among the patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is significant. This cross-sectional study involved 183 men on MMT who were interviewed and who completed the Malay version of the SDI-2 (SDI-2-BM), the Malay version of the self-rated Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-BM) and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaires. Findings showed 32...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Wissam K Kabbara, Hani Dimassi, Marwan Sheikh-Taha
BACKGROUND: Pain is common in older adults and clinicians are often faced by many challenges when selecting appropriate treatment due to age-related changes in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, increased comorbidities, and polypharmacy. METHODS: We assessed the patterns of pain medications used at home among older adults admitted to the cardiology service in a tertiary care teaching center in USA from March to May 2016. A retrospective chart review was conducted where adults, 65 years of age or older, with cardiovascular diseases admitted to the cardiology service and taking at least one pain medication at home were studied...
March 1, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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