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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233210/optical-coherence-tomography-indices-of-structural-retinal-pathology-in-schizophrenia
#1
Steven M Silverstein, Danielle Paterno, Lindsay Cherneski, Stuart Green
BACKGROUND: Prior optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies of schizophrenia have identified thinning of retinal layers. However, findings have varied across reports, and most studies have had serious methodological limitations. To address unresolved issues, we determined whether: (1) retinal thinning in schizophrenia occurs independently of comorbid medical conditions that affect the retina; (2) thinning is independent of antipsychotic medication dose; (3) optic nerve parameters are abnormal in schizophrenia; and (4) OCT indices are related to visual and cognitive impairments common in schizophrenia...
December 13, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#2
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229445/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#3
REVIEW
Richard F Spaide, James G Fujimoto, Nadia K Waheed, Srinivas R Sadda, Giovanni Staurenghi
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was one of the biggest advances in ophthalmic imaging. Building on that platform, OCT angiography (OCTA) provides depth resolved images of blood flow in the retina and choroid with levels of detailed far exceeding that obtained with older forms of imaging. This new modality is challenging because of the need for new equipment and processing techniques, current limitations of imaging capability, and rapid advancements in both imaging and in our understanding of the imaging and applicable pathophysiology of the retina and choroid, and the requirement for understanding the origins of image artifacts...
December 8, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229444/neural-control-of-choroidal-blood-flow
#4
REVIEW
Anton Reiner, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Chunyan Li
The choroid is richly innervated by parasympathetic, sympathetic and trigeminal sensory nerve fibers that regulate choroidal blood flow in birds and mammals, and presumably other vertebrate classes as well. The parasympathetic innervation has been shown to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow, the sympathetic input has been shown to vasoconstrict and decrease choroidal blood flow, and the sensory input has been shown to both convey pain and thermal information centrally and act locally to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow...
December 8, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#5
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222266/impact-of-bone-disease-and-pain-in-thalassemia
#6
REVIEW
Antonio Piga
Conventional treatment of thalassemia, namely regular blood transfusion and iron chelation, improves perspectives and quality of life; however, successful treatment leads to more time in which long-term complications such as bone disease can develop. Thalassemia bone disease (TBD) is unique: all aspects, from bone anatomy and bone quality to mineral density, may be affected, with important morbidity including osteoporosis, fractures, spinal deformities, nerve compression, and pain. Clinical presentations include growth impairment, rickets-like features, back pain, spinal deformities, any sign of nerve compression, severe osteoporosis, and fragility fractures...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221815/corneal-confocal-microscopy-as-a-non-invasive-test-to-assess-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#7
Qian Xiong, Bin Lu, Hong-Ying Ye, Si-Ying Liu, Hang-Ping Zheng, Rui-Yun Zhang, Xiao-Na Qiao, Shuo Zhang, Xiao-Xia Liu, Qing-Chun Li, Na Yi, Liang-Cheng Wu, Jie Wen, Tian-Song Zhang, Yi-Ming Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of corneal confocal microscopy (CCM)as a non-invasive test to assess diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) and its severity degrees were assessed based on the modified Toronto diagnostic criteria in 128 patients with type 2 diabetes (No DSPN [n = 49], mild DSPN [n = 43], moderate-to-severe DSPN [n = 36]) and 24 age-matched controls...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219945/vats-plication-of-the-diaphragm-a-descriptive-observational-10-year-southampton-experience
#8
Rhona J Taberham, Adnan Raza, Aiman Alzetani, Edwin B Woo, Martin H Chamberlain, George Koulaxouzidis, Khalid M Amer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to report the safety and efficacy of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) plication of the diaphragm at our institution between 2006 and 2016. METHODS: Adult patients selected on etiology and combination of investigations including plain chest x-ray, computed tomography of chest and abdomen, lung functions in supine and sitting positions, radiological/ultrasonic screening for diaphragmatic movement, and phrenic nerve conduction studies...
December 6, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217500/peripheral-neuropathy-as-a-complication-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-child-with-newly-diagnosed-diabetes-type-1-case-report
#9
Marta Baszyńska-Wilk, Marta Wysocka-Mincewicz, Anna Świercz, Jolanta Świderska, Magdalena Marszał, Mieczysław Szalecki
BACKGROUND: Neurological complications of diabetic ketoacidosis are considered to be very serious clinical problem. The most common complication is cerebral edema. However this group includes also less common syndromes such as ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis or very rare peripheral neuropathy. CASE REPORT: We present a case of 9-year old girl with new onset type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, cerebral edema, multifocal vasogenic brain lesions and lower limbs peripheral paresis...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214401/predictors-of-surgical-outcomes-for-severe-cubital-tunnel-syndrome-a-review-of-146-patients
#10
Jinsong Tong, Zhen Dong, Bin Xu, Chenggang Zhang, Yudong Gu
BACKGROUND: Full recovery is unlikely for severe cubital tunnel syndrome, and prognostic factors remain uncertain. We aimed to identify predictors of surgical outcome for these patients. METHODS: One hundred forty-six patients with McGowan grade III cubital tunnel syndrome were evaluated retrospectively with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. All patients underwent either in situ decompression or subcutaneous transposition. The primary outcome measure was postoperative McGowan grade...
December 7, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214310/tear-levels-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3-correlate-with-subbasal-nerve-plexus-changes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Whitney L Stuard, Rossella Titone, Danielle M Robertson
Purpose: This study investigated the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in basal tears of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to nondiabetic controls; and correlated tear levels of IGFBP-3 with morphologic changes in the subbasal nerve plexus and density of basal corneal epithelial cells. Methods: This was a single visit, cross-sectional study. Diabetic and control subjects were matched for age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209025/oblique-corpectomy-in-the-cervical-spine
#12
Tomasz Tykocki, Łukasz A Poniatowski, Marcin Czyz, Guy Wynne-Jones
STUDY DESIGN: A narrative review. OBJECTIVES: A literature review of studies reporting on the application of oblique corpectomy (OC) in various pathologies of the cervical spine. SETTING: UK. METHODS: A search was carried out using the PubMed and Google Scholar up to 18 March 2017. Finally, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: A multilevel OC shows good clinical outcomes in various pathologies in the cervical spine...
December 5, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206758/early-microvascular-and-neural-changes-in-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-without-clinical-signs-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#13
Stela Vujosevic, Andrea Muraca, Micol Alkabes, Edoardo Villani, Fabiano Cavarzeran, Luca Rossetti, Stefano De Cillaʼ
PURPOSE: To assess and compare early modifications in inner retinal layer thickness and optical coherence tomography angiography parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) Types 1 and 2 without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Ninety eyes of 90 subjects (24 Type 1 DM, 36 Type 2 DM, and 30 healthy controls) were prospectively evaluated with spectral domain OCT, swept-source OCT angiography, and color fundus photography (on the same day). Retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer (GCL+), and nerve fiber layer + GCL+ (GCL++) thickness were automatically determined by the instrument in the 1, 3, and 6 central mm...
December 4, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204366/assessment-of-diabetic-polyneuropathy-in-zanzibar-comparison-between-traditional-methods-and-an-automated-point-of-care-nerve-conduction-device
#14
Elinor C Vogt, Marianne Øksnes, Faiza Suleiman, Buthayna Ali Juma, Hrafnkell B Thordarson, Ola Ommedal, Eirik Søfteland
Aim: Scant information is available about the prevalence of diabetic polyneuropathy, as well as the applicability of screening tools in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to investigate these issues in Zanzibar (Tanzania). Methods: One hundred consecutive diabetes patients were included from the diabetes clinic at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital. Clinical characteristics were recorded. Further, we investigated: a) self-reported numbness of the lower limbs, b) ten-point monofilament test, c) the Sibbald 60-s Tool and d) nerve conduction studies (NCS, using an automated handheld point-of-care device, the NC-stat DPNCheck)...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204008/a-clinical-and-electrophysiological-study-of-peripheral-neuropathies-in-predialysis-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-and-relation-of-severity-of-peripheral-neuropathy-with-degree-of-renal-failure
#15
Dushyanth Babu Jasti, Sarat Mallipeddi, A Apparao, B Vengamma, V Sivakumar, Satyarao Kolli
Objective: To study the prevalence, clinical features, electrophysiological features, and severity of peripheral neuropathy in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with respect to severity of renal failure and presence of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Between May 2015 and December 2016, 200 predialysis CKD patients were assessed prospectively. Results: The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in predialysis CKD patients in the present study was 45% based on clinical symptoms and 90% electrophysiologically...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203371/high-glucose-up-regulates-semaphorin-3a-expression-via-the-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-keratinocytes-a-potential-mechanism-and-therapeutic-target-for-diabetic-small-fiber-neuropathy
#16
Liang-Yan Wu, Mei Li, Min-Li Qu, Xin Li, Lin-Hua Pi, Zi Chen, Shan-Lei Zhou, Xiao-Qing Yi, Xia-Jie Shi, Jing Wu, Shan Wang
Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is a common complication in diabetes, and is characterized by decreased intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), which is produced by keratinocytes, has a chemorepulsive effect on intraepidermal nerve fibers. mTOR signaling can mediate local protein synthesis that is critical for growth of axons and dendrites. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether Sema3A is up-regulated in diabetic keratinocytes via the mTOR-mediated p70 S6K and 4E-BP1 signaling pathways, and furthermore whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic SFN...
December 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203260/the-helsinki-face-transplantation-surgical-aspects-and-1-year-outcome
#17
Patrik Lassus, Andrew Lindford, Jyrki Vuola, Leif Bäck, Sinikka Suominen, Karri Mesimäki, Tommy Wilkman, Tuija Ylä-Kotola, Erkki Tukiainen, Hannu Kuokkanen, Jyrki Törnwall
BACKGROUND: Since 2005, at least 38 facial transplantations have been performed worldwide. We herein describe the surgical technique and 1-year clinical outcome in Finland's first face transplant case. METHODS: A 34-year-old male who had a severe facial deformity following ballistic trauma in 1999 underwent facial transplantation at the Helsinki University Hospital on 8th February 2016. Three-dimensional (3D) technology was used to manufacture donor and recipient patient-specific osteotomy guides and a donor face mask...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199767/oxcarbazepine-for-neuropathic-pain
#18
REVIEW
Muke Zhou, Ning Chen, Li He, Mi Yang, Cairong Zhu, Fengbo Wu
BACKGROUND: Several anticonvulsant drugs are used in the management of neuropathic pain. Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug closely related to carbamazepine. Oxcarbazepine has been reported to be efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain, but evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is conflicting. Oxcarbazepine is reportedly better tolerated than carbamazepine. This is the first update of a review published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of oxcarbazepine for different types of neuropathic pain...
December 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196938/the-hemodynamic-and-pain-impact-of-peripheral-nerve-block-versus-spinal-anesthesia-in-diabetic-patients-undergoing-diabetic-foot-surgery
#19
Hou Yee Lai, Li Lian Foo, Siu Min Lim, Chen Fei Yong, Pui San Loh, Sook Hui Chaw, Mohd Shahnaz Hasan, Chew Yin Wang
PURPOSE: Comparison of hemodynamic profiles and pain scores in diabetic patients undergoing diabetic foot surgery receiving peripheral nerve block (PNB) or spinal anesthesia [subarachnoid block (SAB)]. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised controlled trial. We recruited diabetic patients aged > 18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class II-III, who were scheduled for unilateral diabetic foot surgery below the knee. All patients were assessed for autonomic dysfunction using the Survey of Autonomic Symptoms score...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194856/toronto-clinical-neuropathy-score-is-valid-for-a-wide-spectrum-of-polyneuropathies
#20
Alon Abraham, Carolina Barnett, Hans D Katzberg, Leif E Lovblom, Bruce A Perkins, Vera Bril
BACKGROUND: The Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (TCNS) is a valid and reliable scale for the diagnosis and staging of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. In this study, we aimed to explore the performance of the TCNS in non-diabetic polyneuropathies. METHODS: We performed a prospective study from November 2016 to May 2017 of patients with non-diabetic polyneuropathy. Patients had clinical, electrophysiological and functional assessments of their polyneuropathy, and the findings were correlated with the TCNS...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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