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Diabetic nerves

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815909/proximal-neuropathy-and-associated-skeletal-muscle-changes-resembling-denervation-atrophy-in-hind-limbs-of-chronic-hypoglycaemic-rats
#1
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Molck, Henrik Soeborg, Jette Nowak, Melissa Chapman, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bogh
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetic hyperglycaemia. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) might potentially exacerbate or contribute to neuropathy as hypoglycaemia also causes peripheral neuropathy. In rats, IIH induces neuropathy associated with skeletal muscle changes. Aims of the present study were to investigate the progression and sequence of histopathologic changes caused by chronic IIH in rat peripheral nerves and skeletal muscle, and whether such changes were reversible...
August 16, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811061/surgical-demographics-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-and-cubital-tunnel-syndrome-over-5-years-at-a-single-institution
#2
Dafang Zhang, Jamie E Collins, Brandon E Earp, Philip Blazar
PURPOSE: Carpal tunnel and cubital tunnel syndrome are the 2 most common upper-limb compressive neuropathies. However, whether the characteristics of patient populations undergoing surgery for these conditions are similar is unclear in terms of demographics and concomitant pathologies. Our null hypothesis was that there are no identifiable differences between these patient populations. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed by billing system query using Common Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for all patients who underwent open carpal tunnel release (CTR) (CPT code 64721) and/or open cubital tunnel surgery (CPT code 64718) by 1 of 4 hand surgeons from August 2008 to July 2013...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810595/sudoscan-an-effective-tool-for-screening-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Fei Mao, Siying Liu, Xiaona Qiao, Hangping Zheng, Qian Xiong, Jie Wen, Shuo Zhang, Zhaoyun Zhang, Hongying Ye, Hongli Shi, Bin Lu, Yiming Li
SUDOSCAN is a non-invasive method of measuring peripheral small fiber and autonomic nerve activity by detection of abnormal sweat gland function through electrochemical skin conductance. It has been reported to be an effective screening tool in early detection of microvascular type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complications including diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy in recent studies. However, previous studies used estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as the golden standard, which has a 90% chance of being within 30% of the measured GFR at best...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807775/the-potential-benefits-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-diabetic-retinopathy
#4
REVIEW
Baoying Pang, Huanran Zhou, Hongyu Kuang
For a long time, diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been one of the most severe complications of diabetes. The early treatment of DR is not clearly recognized. The additional benefit of hypoglycemic agents for DR has become a new research field. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) has been shown to be widely expressed in tissues including retina. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) have been generally used in the treatment of diabetic patients. Studies shows that GLP-1RA could inhibit nerve damage by decrease apoptosis of nerve cells and activation of glial cells...
August 11, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805947/penile-neurovascular-structure-revisited-immunohistochemical-studies-with-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#5
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803751/insulin-prevents-aberrant-mitochondrial-phenotype-in-sensory-neurons-of-type-1-diabetic-rats
#6
Mohamad-Reza Aghanoori, Darrell R Smith, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Mohammad Golam Sabbir, Nigel A Calcutt, Paul Fernyhough
Diabetic neuropathy affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Down-regulation of mitochondrial gene expression and function has been reported in both human tissues and in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that loss of direct insulin signaling in diabetes contributes to loss of mitochondrial function in DRG neurons and to development of neuropathy. Sensory neurons obtained from age-matched adult control or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were cultured with or without insulin before determining mitochondrial respiration and expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain and insulin signaling-linked proteins...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796876/the-distribution-of-leakage-on-fluorescein-angiography-in-diabetic-macular-edema-a-new-approach-to-its-etiology
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bilal Haj Najeeb, Christian Simader, Gabor Deak, Clemens Vass, Jutta Gamper, Alessio Montuoro, Bianca S Gerendas, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
Purpose: To determine the distribution of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA) and explore the clinically protective role of astrocytes against damage to the inner blood retinal barrier (iBRB) in diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: A consecutive case series of 87 eyes of 87 patients with DME was included. We measured the leakage area in each field of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid on late-phase FA images. The normative thickness of the nerve fiber layer (NFL), in which the astrocytes are confined, was derived from a previous work using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794688/aberrantly-methylated-differentially-expressed-genes-and-pathways-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
Jingwei Liu, Hao Li, Liping Sun, Zhenning Wang, Chengzhong Xing, Yuan Yuan
BACKGROUND: Methylation plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to identify aberrantly methylated-differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways in CRC by comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. METHODS: Data of gene expression microarrays (GSE68468, GSE44076) and gene methylation microarrays (GSE29490, GSE17648) were downloaded from GEO database. Aberrantly methylated-DEGs were obtained by GEO2R. Functional and enrichment analyses of selected genes were performed using DAVID database...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794073/rock-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-ocular-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Ramin Nourinia, Shintaro Nakao, Souska Zandi, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Hamid Ahmadieh
The Rho-kinase/ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase) pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple ocular and systemic disorders. Recently, ROCK inhibitors have been suggested as novel treatments for various ocular diseases. Several in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of ROCK inhibitors in the management of ocular disorders such as corneal epithelial and endothelial damage, glaucoma, retinal and choroidal neovascularisation, diabetic macular oedema and optic nerve disorders...
August 9, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790232/corneal-sensitivity-as-a-potential-marker-of-diabetic-neuropathy
#10
Ratna Sitompul
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex and chronic metabolic disorder leading to many complications. One of the most common complications of DM is diabetic neuropathy. There are many studies exploring corneal sensitivity as a potential marker of diabetic neuropathy. This review aims to explore association between corneal sensitivity and diabetic neuropathy. In diabetic neuropathy, corneal sensitivity is impaired due to low level of corneal nerve trophic factors, impaired sensory nerve fibers, and lost communication of dendtritic cell...
April 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782427/berberine-improves-diabetic-encephalopathy-through-sirt1-er-stress-pathway-in-db-db-mice
#11
Hong-Ying Li, Xin-Chen Wang, Yu-Min Xu, Na-Chuan Luo, Si Luo, Xu-Yi Hao, Shu-Yi Cheng, Jian-Song Fang, Qi Wang, Shi-Jie Zhang, Yun-Bo Chen
The association between diabetes and dementia has been well-demonstrated by epidemiologic studies. Berberine (BBR) has been reported to ameliorate diabetes and diabetic encephalopathy (DE). However, the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we employ a diabetic model, db/db mice, to explore whether BBR could protect DE through SIRT1/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. The behavioral results (Morris water maze, Y-maze spontaneous alternation test and fearing condition test) showed that oral administration of BBR (50 mg/kg) improved the learning and memory ability...
August 7, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780619/evaluation-of-optic-disc-retinal-nerve-fiber-and-macular-ganglion-cell-layers-in-pediatric-diabetes
#12
Evre Pekel, Selda Ayça Altıncık, Gökhan Pekel
PURPOSE: Our aim was to compare optic disc parameters, retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell layers between children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus (type 1) and healthy controls. METHODS: Sixty-three eyes of 63 pediatric diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy and 44 eyes of 44 healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional and comparative study. Diabetic and control groups were similar in the aspect of age, gender and refractive error...
August 5, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772216/minocycline-attenuates-the-development-of-diabetic-neuropathy-by-inhibiting-spinal-cord-notch-signaling-in-rat
#13
Cheng Yang, Jie Gao, Banglin Wu, Nuo Yan, Hui Li, Yiqing Ren, Yufei Kan, Jiamin Liang, Yang Jiao, Yonghao Yu
We studied the effects of minocycline (an inhibitor of microglial activation) on the expression and activity of Notch-1 receptor, and explored the therapeutic efficacy of minocycline combined with Notch inhibitor DAPT in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). Diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection (ip) of Streptozotocin (STZ). Expression and activity of Notch-1 and expression of macrophage/microglia marker Iba-1 were detected by WB. Diabetes induction significantly attenuated sciatic nerve conduction velocity, and dramatically augmented the expression and the activity of Notch-1 in the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord...
July 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768837/vitamin-d-in-the-spectrum-of-prediabetes-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction
#14
REVIEW
Rumyana Dimova, Tsvetalina Tankova, Nevena Chakarova
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone with pleiotropic effects. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D coordinates the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, which regulate cardiovascular autonomic function and may explain its putative role in the development of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). CAN is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with diabetes and prediabetes and is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767433/association-of-myelinated-primary-afferents-impairment-with-mechanical-allodynia-in-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#15
Chenlong Liao, Min Yang, Wenxiang Zhong, Pengfei Liu, Wenchuan Zhang
To investigate the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of surgical treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Rats were initially divided into 3 groups (I, control rats, II, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, III, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with latex tube encircling the sciatic nerve without compression). When mechanical allodynia (MA) became stable in the third week, one third of group III rats were sacrificed and the remainder were further divided into subgroups depending on whether the latex tube was removed...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762104/ngf-attenuates-high-glucose-induced-er-stress-preventing-schwann-cell-apoptosis-by-activating-the-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-and-erk1-2-pathways
#16
Rui Li, Yanqing Wu, Shuang Zou, Xiaofang Wang, Yiyang Li, Ke Xu, Fanghua Gong, Yanlong Liu, Jian Wang, Yi Liao, Xiaokun Li, Jian Xiao
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common and troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus. It has been demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts a pivotal role in the regulation of neuronal growth and the promotion of DPN recovery. However, the exact molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Recent studies have indicated that as a novel therapeutic target, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress participates in the onset and progression of DPN. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that NGF prevents the sciatic nerve from degeneration and demyelination in DPN rats...
July 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761412/immunomodulators-and-micrornas-as-neurorestorative-therapy-for-ischemic-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Most of all strokes are ischemic due to occlusion of a vessel, and comprise two main types, thrombotic and embolic. Inflammation and immune response play an important role in the outcome of ischemic stroke. Pharmaceutical and cell-based therapies with immunomodulatory properties could be of benefit in treating ischemic stroke. Possible changes in microRNAs brought about by immunomodulatory treatments may be important. The pharmaceutical studies described in this review have identified several differentially regulated miRNAs associated with disregulation of mRNA targets or the upregulation of several neuroprotective genes, thereby highlighting the potential neuroprotective roles of specific miRNAs such as miR-762, -1892, -200a, -145...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758077/effects-of-exercise-on-neuropathy-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#18
Eui Chang Lee, Myeong Ok Kim, Gill Ho Roh, Sang Eun Hong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of early regular exercise and to assess the electrophysiological and histopathological findings of the rat tail nerve in relation to the timing of exercise training for swimming exercise in rats with diabetic neuropathy. METHODS: We used 70 Sprague-Dawley male rats, and the experimental group comprised 60 rats, and the control group comprised 10 rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Blood glucose concentrations were measured in tail vein blood samples...
June 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757109/the-effect-of-empagliflozin-on-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-patients-with-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Jens Jordan, Jens Tank, Karsten Heusser, Tim Heise, Christoph Wanner, Martina Heer, Sreeraj Macha, Michaela Mattheus, Søren S Lund, Hans J Woerle, Uli C Broedl
Inhibition of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 with empagliflozin results in caloric loss by increasing urinary glucose excretion and has a mild diuretic effect. Diuretic effects are usually associated with reflex-mediated increases in sympathetic tone, whereas caloric loss is associated with decreased sympathetic tone. In an open-label trial, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) (burst frequency, burst incidence, and total MSNA) was assessed using microneurography performed off-treatment and on day 4 of treatment with empagliflozin 25 mg once daily in 22 metformin-treated patients with type II diabetes (mean [range] age 54 [40-65] years)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748985/brief-update-on-diabetes-for-general-practitioners
#20
A Barquilla García
Diabetes includes a group of metabolic disorders in which there is hyperglycemia. This can be due to impaired insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with serious long-term complications in several organs, especially in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. In our country this disorder affects 13.8% of the population. There are several types of diabetes although most patients suffer type 2 diabetes. We set out to review the diagnostic process, screening recommendations, prevention strategies, initial assessment upon diagnosis, therapeutic targets regarding both blood glucose levels and the other vascular risk factors while also considering healthy lifestyles and brief references to medications recommended in each section...
December 2017: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
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