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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092529/sub-category-classifiers-for-multiple-instance-learning-and-its-application-to-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-visibility-classification
#1
Siyamalan Manivannan, Caroline Cobb, Stephen Burgess, Emanuele Trucco
We propose a novel multiple instance learning method to assess the visibility (visible/not visible) of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in fundus camera images. Using only image-level labels, our approach learns to classify the images as well as to localize the RNFL visible regions. We transform the original feature space to a discriminative subspace, and learn a region-level classifier in that subspace. We propose a margin-based loss function to jointly learn this subspace and the region-level classifier...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091556/vegf-b-promotes-recovery-of-corneal-innervations-and-trophic-functions-in-diabetic-mice
#2
Guohu Di, Xiaowen Zhao, Xia Qi, Songmei Zhang, Lu Feng, Weiyun Shi, Qingjun Zhou
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B possesses the capacity of promoting injured peripheral nerve regeneration and restore their sensory and trophic functions. However, the contribution and mechanism of VEGF-B in diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression and role of VEGF-B in diabetic corneal neuropathy by using type 1 diabetic mice and cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Hyperglycemia attenuated the endogenous expression of VEGF-B in regenerated diabetic corneal epithelium, but not that of VEGF receptors in diabetic TG neurons and axons...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078103/the-potential-of-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-imaging-based-retinal-biomarkers
#3
REVIEW
Prateep Phadikar, Sandeep Saxena, Surabhi Ruia, Timothy Y Y Lai, Carsten H Meyer, Dean Eliott
BACKGROUND: Biomarker", a merged word of "biological marker", refers to a broad subcategory of medical signs that objectively indicate the state of health, and well-being of an individual. Biomarkers hold great promise for personalized medicine as information gained from diagnostic or progression markers can be used to tailor treatment to the individual for highly effective intervention in the disease process. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proved useful in identifying various biomarkers in ocular and systemic diseases...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077315/inhibition-of-inos-alleviates-cognitive-deficits-and-depression-in-diabetic-mice-through-downregulating-the-no-sgc-cgmp-pkg-signal-pathway
#4
Xiao Yan Zhou, Fang Zhang, Chang Jiang Ying, Jing Chen, Ling Chen, Jing Dong, Yue Shi, Mang Tang, Xiao Tong Hu, Zhi Hua Pan, Na Na Xu, Kui Yang Zheng, Ren Xian Tang, Yuan Jian Song
Diabetes mellitus often results in a number of complications involving impaired brain function, including cognitive deficits and depression. However, the potential mechanisms for diabetes-related cognitive deficits and depression are not fully understood. Neurons in the hippocampal, cortical and amygdala functional regions are more susceptible to damage during hyperglycemia. Neuroprotection in the brain can rescue cognitive deficits and depression induced by hyperglycemia. This study investigated the potential mechanisms underlying diabetes-related congnitive deficits and depression, determined whether the inflammatory factor inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway, play key roles in cognitive deficits and depression associated...
January 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074305/clinical-effectiveness-of-low-level-laser-treatment-on-peripheral-somatosensory-neuropathy
#5
REVIEW
Alireza Fallah, Alireza Mirzaei, Norbert Gutknecht, Amir Saberi Demneh
Peripheral sensory neuropathy treatment is one of the common treatment problems and causes morbidity and mortality in people suffering from that. Although treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition, nevertheless, in some cases, there is no cure for it, and it requires palliative and symptomatic treatment. In laboratory studies, low-level laser has been effective in the nerves protection and restoration. The aim of this article is to investigate the clinical efficacy of low-level laser on improvement of the peripheral somatosensory neuropathy...
January 10, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073787/col6a5-variants-in-familial-neuropathic-chronic-itch
#6
Filippo Martinelli-Boneschi, Marina Colombi, Marco Castori, Grazia Devigili, Roberto Eleopra, Rayaz A Malik, Marco Ritelli, Nicoletta Zoppi, Chiara Dordoni, Melissa Sorosina, Paola Grammatico, Hassan Fadavi, Monique M Gerrits, Rowida Almomani, Catharina G Faber, Ingemar S J Merkies, Daniela Toniolo, Massimiliano Cocca, Claudio Doglioni, Stephen G Waxman, Sulayman D Dib-Hajj, Michela M Taiana, Jenny Sassone, Raffaella Lombardi, Daniele Cazzato, Andrea Zauli, Silvia Santoro, Margherita Marchi, Giuseppe Lauria
Itch is thought to represent the peculiar response to stimuli conveyed by somatosensory pathways shared with pain through the activation of specific neurons and receptors. It can occur in association with dermatological, systemic and neurological diseases, or be the side effect of certain drugs. However, some patients suffer from chronic idiopathic itch that is frequently ascribed to psychological distress and for which no biomarker is available to date. We investigated three multigenerational families, one of which diagnosed with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), characterized by idiopathic chronic itch with predominantly proximal distribution...
January 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070856/mir-29c-prkci-regulates-axonal-growth-of-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons-under-hyperglycemia
#7
Longfei Jia, Lei Wang, Michael Chopp, Chao Li, Yi Zhang, Alexandra Szalad, Zheng Gang Zhang
Diabetes initially induces distal axonal damage of peripheral nerves, but molecular mechanisms that mediate axonal injury are not fully understood. MircoRNAs (miRNAs) regulate axonal growth. We found that diabetic db/db mice exhibited substantial upregulation of miR-29c in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, sciatic nerve, and foot pad tissues. Bioinformatic analysis revealed PRKCI, a gene that encodes a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) iota, as a putative target for miR-29c. Western blot analysis showed that diabetic mice exhibited a considerable reduction of PRKCI protein levels in sciatic nerve tissues and DRG neurons...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070828/hypofractionated-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-pituitary-metastases
#8
Haemin Chon, KyoungJun Yoon, Do Hoon Kwon, Chang Jin Kim, Min-Seon Kim, Young Hyun Cho
Pituitary metastases (PMs) are uncommon, representing only 1% of pituitary lesions. The diagnosis of PMs can be challenging and an optimal management remains to be determined. Here, we present a pilot clinical study on the efficacy and safety of hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with an optimized dosimetric plan in treating PMs. Between June 2013 and December 2014, seven consecutive patients (4 men and 3 women; median age 62 years) had been diagnosed with PMs based on their characteristic clinical and radiological features and subsequently treated using hypofractionated SRS...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066953/diabetic-and-idiopathic-gastroparesis-is-associated-with-loss-of-cd206-positive-macrophages-in-the-gastric-antrum
#9
M Grover, C E Bernard, P J Pasricha, H P Parkman, S J Gibbons, J Tonascia, K L Koch, R W McCallum, I Sarosiek, W L Hasler, L A B Nguyen, T L Abell, W J Snape, M L Kendrick, T A Kellogg, T J McKenzie, F A Hamilton, G Farrugia
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have increasingly highlighted the role of macrophages in the development of delayed gastric emptying. However, their role in the pathophysiology of human gastroparesis is unclear. Our aim was to determine changes in macrophages and other cell types in the gastric antrum muscularis propria of patients with diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. METHODS: Full thickness gastric antrum biopsies were obtained from patients enrolled in the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium (11 diabetic, 6 idiopathic) and 5 controls...
January 9, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065675/altered-expression-of-irs2-and-grb2-in-demyelination-of-peripheral-neurons-implications-in-diabetic-neuropathy
#10
Mallahalli S Manu, Kuruvanthe S Rachana, Gopal M Advirao
Demyelination of the peripheral nerves and dysfunction of Schwann cells (SCs) are the chronic complications involved in the development of peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients. Insulin signaling plays an important role in restoring the myelin proteins in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Since insulin levels are altered in diabetes, it becomes of great interest to appreciate the role and regulation of docking and adaptor protein, how these proteins respond to variations in the levels of insulin as experienced in juvenile diabetes...
December 29, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061417/concurrent-hyphema-and-orbital-apex-syndrome-following-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus-in-a-middle-aged-lady
#11
Khairuddin Othman, Li Min Evelyn-Tai, Mohd Noor Raja-Azmi, Muhammed Julieana, Ahmad Tajudin Liza-Sharmini, John Tharakan, Alwi Muhd Besari, Embong Zunaina, Ismail Shatriah
INTRODUCTION: Hyphema and orbital apex syndrome occurring concurrently in a patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus have not been reported previously. We present a case with these unique findings and discuss the pathogenesis of these conditions and their management. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 59-year-old Malay lady with underlying diabetes mellitus presented with manifestations of zoster ophthalmicus in the left eye. Two weeks later, she developed total hyphema, and complete ophthalmoplegia suggestive of orbital apex syndrome...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057794/purinergic-signaling-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#12
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock
There is nervous control of the heart by ATP as a cotransmitter in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory-motor nerves, as well as in intracardiac neurons. Centers in the brain control heart activities and vagal cardiovascular reflexes involve purines. Adenine nucleotides and nucleosides act on purinoceptors on cardiomyocytes, AV and SA nodes, cardiac fibroblasts, and coronary blood vessels. Vascular tone is controlled by a dual mechanism. ATP, released from perivascular sympathetic nerves, causes vasoconstriction largely via P2X1 receptors...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053822/bulbocavernosus-reflex-test-for-diagnosis-of-pudendal-nerve-injury-in-female-patients-with-diabetic-neurogenic-bladder
#13
Xiaoting Niu, Xun Wang, Huanjie Huang, Peiqi Ni, Yuanshao Lin, Bei Shao
The study was designed to investigate the clinical application and significance of the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) test for diagnosing diabetic neurogenic bladder (DNB) in female subjects. In this study, 68 female patients with DNB and 40 female normal controls were subjected to a nerve conduction study (NCS) of all four limbs and the BCR test. The data were analyzed and compared, and the corresponding diagnostic sensitivities were discussed. Mean BCR latency for female DNB patients was significantly prolonged, compared to that of the control group, suggesting pudendal nerve injuries in female DNB patients...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052647/the-modulative-effects-of-microcurrent-electrical-nerve-stimulation-on-diabetic-mice
#14
Wen-Ching Huang, Wen-Chieh Chang, Yi-Ju Hsu, Chun-Feng Huang, Chi-Chang Huang, Cheng-Yan Kao, Che-Li Lin
Diabetes (one of non-communicable diseases) is serious due to its complications, such like, cardiovascular ailments, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, wound gangrene and sexual impotence. Diabetes and associated chronic conditions are rapidly emerging as major health problems. In clinical, there were different drugs for diabetes treatment on different mechanisms. However, there were limited studies on the efficacy of electric stimulations on diabetes therapeutic application. In current study, we try to evaluate the effect of microcurrent electrical nerve stimulator (MENS) on diabetes modulation as an alternative medicine...
28, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051224/erdheim-chester-disease-and-radiobiphosphonates-bone-scan-from-a-simple-peripheral-form-to-a-rare-axial-location-a-case-report
#15
Salah Oueriagli Nabih
The Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare form of non Langherans histiocytosis. It can be expressed by a multi systemic disease interesting: bone, lung, heart, brain, retro peritoneum, skin and retro-orbital tissue. The diagnosis is established under the radiological aspect, bone scan uptake and immunohistological profile. The bone lesions are almost constant and rather characteristic of bone scintigraphy. We related the case of a young female patient of 26 years old with Erdheim-Chester bone disease. Diagnosis was revealed by diabetes insipidus (nerve damage) and diffuses bones pain...
June 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045630/outcomes-of-vestibular-schwannoma-surgery-among-the-elderly
#16
Michael J Sylvester, Darshan N Shastri, Viral M Patel, Milap D Raikundalia, Jean Anderson Eloy, Soly Baredes, Yu-Lan Mary Ying
Objective To compare comorbidities and in-hospital complications between elderly and nonelderly patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. To examine average length of stay (LOS) and hospital charges among elderly patients. Study Design Population-based inpatient registry analysis. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample for patients undergoing VS surgery from 2002 to 2010: 4137 patients met inclusion criteria, with 519 (12.5%) in the elderly cohort (≥65 years)...
January 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044424/ocular-nerve-growth-factor-administration-modulates-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-in-prefrontal-cortex-of-healthy-and-diabetic-rats
#17
Pamela Rosso, Sara De Nicolò, Valentina Carito, Marco Fiore, Angela Iannitelli, Sandra Moreno, Paola Tirassa
AIMS: Nerve growth factor (NGF) eyedrops (ed-NGF) activate brain neurons, stimulate growth factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and exert neuroprotection in the forebrain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). In this study, the effects of ed-NGF on BDNF signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were explored in healthy and STZ-diabetic rats, in which cortical neuronal and axonal loss, and altered circulating BDNF associated with depressive phenotype are also described...
January 3, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041589/ovarian-aging-in-women-with-diabetes-an-overview
#18
REVIEW
Melissa F Wellons, Juliana J Matthews, Catherine Kim
Type 2 diabetes is a global epidemic, and the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes are increasing. The negative effects of diabetes on kidneys, nerves, and vessels are well established. The effect of diabetes on reproductive function is less well understood, but important to characterize, given the increasing numbers of young women with diabetes. In this review, we summarize the available literature on how women with diabetes experience ovarian aging, from menarche to menopause. We report that women with type 1 diabetes appear more likely to have ovarian dysfunction, manifested by delayed menses, menstrual irregularities, and possibly earlier menopause...
February 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038479/acute-improvement-in-intraoperative-emg-following-common-fibular-nerve-decompression-in-patients-with-symptomatic-diabetic-sensorimotor-peripheral-neuropathy-1-emg-results
#19
James C Anderson, D Scott Nickerson, Brian L Tracy, Roger J Paxton, Dwayne S Yamasaki
Background and Study Aims Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of the fibularis longus (FL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were performed intraoperatively during common fibular nerve (CFN) nerve decompression (ND) in patients with symptomatic diabetic sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) and clinical nerve compression. Materials and Methods Forty-six legs in 40 patients underwent surgical ND by external neurolysis; FL and TA muscles were monitored intraoperatively. Evoked EMGs were recorded just prior to and within 1 minute after ND...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033582/diosgenin-ameliorates-development-of-neuropathic-pain-in-diabetic-rats-involvement-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#20
Zahra Kiasalari, Tayebeh Rahmani, Narges Mahmoudi, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Neuropathic pain is one of the prevalent complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Oxidative stress and inflammation are the principal determinants for its development. Pharmacological interventions targeted at alleviating or suppressing these pathways are clinically promising. Diosgenin is a natural steroidal saponin with anti-diabetic and multiple protective properties. This study was designed to study the efficacy of chronic diosgenin administration on alleviation of hyperalgesia in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats...
December 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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