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Diabetic nerves

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044087/bilateral-disc-drusen-in-a-diabetic-patient-simulating-diabetic-papillopathy-as-a-cause-of-disc-edema
#1
Rohan Chawla, Soman Nair, Pradeep Venkatesh, Satpal Garg, Kanhaiya Mittal
Bilateral optic disc edema in a diabetic patient may be caused by diabetic papillopathy. We herein report on a patient with bilateral optic disc drusen simulating diabetic papillopathy. A 55-year-old patient with type 2 diabetes presented with decreased vision of 1-month. Diabetic papillopathy was initially considered as there was disc edema in both eyes with focal hemorrhages at the disc margin and mild visual loss. Ultrasound of the optic nerve head revealed optic disc drusen in both eyes and this was also confirmed by the control photograph...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040280/quantitative-analysis-of-neural-tissues-around-the-optic-disc-after-panretinal-photocoagulation-in-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
Hyun Seung Yang, June-Gone Kim, Jae Bong Cha, Young In Yun, Jong Hoon Park, Jong Eun Woo
In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we quantitatively analyzed the tomographic features in the neural tissues around the optic disc in patients with diabetic retinopathy with and without panretinal photocoagulation. We analyzed 206 eyes, comprising 33 normal eyes in subjects without diabetes (group I), 30 eyes without diabetic retinopathy (group II), 66 eyes with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (group III), 45 eyes with panretinal photocoagulation (group IV), and 32 eyes with normal tension glaucoma (group V)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038932/mr-t2-value-of-the-tibial-nerve-can-be-used-as-a-potential-non-invasive-and-quantitative-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-of-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#3
Dongye Wang, Chuan Wang, Xiaohui Duan, Zehong Yang, Zhiqiang Bai, Huijun Hu, Li Yan, Jun Shen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of quantitative tibial nerve T2 value in the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). METHODS: MR imaging and T2 mapping of the tibial nerve were performed in 22 diabetic patients with DPN, 20 diabetic patients without DPN and 20 healthy controls. Nerve T2 values were measured, and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic ability of T2 value to identify DPN...
October 16, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038244/overactivity-of-liver-related-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-electrophysiological-findings-in-db-db-mice
#4
Hong Gao, Adrien Jr Molinas, Kayoko Miyata, Xin Qiao, Andrea Zsombok
Preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus play a large role in the regulation of hepatic functions via the autonomic nervous system. Activation of hepatic sympathetic nerves increases glucose and lipid metabolism and contributes to the elevated hepatic glucose production observed in type 2 diabetic condition. This augmented sympathetic output could originate from altered activity of liver-related PVN neurons. Remarkably, despite the importance of the brain-liver pathway, the cellular properties of liver-related neurons are not known...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031726/reduced-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-contributes-to-elevated-glycosuria-and-improved-glucose-tolerance-in-hypothalamus-specific-pomc-knockout-mice
#5
Kavaljit H Chhabra, Donald A Morgan, Benjamin P Tooke, Jessica M Adams, Kamal Rahmouni, Malcolm J Low
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus-specific pro-opiomelanocortin deficient (ArcPomc(-/-)) mice exhibit improved glucose tolerance despite massive obesity and insulin resistance. We demonstrated previously that their improved glucose tolerance is due to elevated glycosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms that link glucose reabsorption in the kidney with ArcPomc remain unclear. Given the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in controlling sympathetic outflow, we hypothesized that reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in ArcPomc(-/-) mice could explain their elevated glycosuria and consequent enhanced glucose tolerance...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026761/postherpetic-neuralgia-diabetic-neuropathy-and-trigeminal-neuralgia-chronic-peripheral-neuropathic-pain-in-58-480-rural-italian-primary-care-patients
#6
Nicola Buono, Hans Thulesius, Ferdinando Petrazzuoli, Elena Castelli, Marco Cambielli
INTRODUCTION: Chronic peripheral neuropathic pain (CPNP) is a condition due to peripheral nervous system diseases or injury, but its prevalence is unknown in Italian primary care. AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of CPNP in a rural primary care area in Northern Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter audit study was carried out in a rural area in Northern Italy with 113 participating general practitioners (GPs) seeing 58,480 patients >18 years during 3 months...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023304/association-of-insulin-and-cholesterol-levels-with-peripheral-nervous-system-function-in-overweight-adults-a-3-year-follow-up
#7
Henri Isojärvi, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Mika Kallio, Kaisu Kaikkonen, Timo Jämsä, Juha Korpelainen, Raija Korpelainen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this prospective 3-year follow-up was to investigate the association of glucose, insulin, and cholesterol levels with peripheral nervous system function in overweight and obese subjects. METHODS: Forty nondiabetic overweight and obese adults were enrolled, of whom 29 completed the follow-up. Peripheral nervous system function was measured and defined by conduction studies of the peroneal motor nerve and the radial, sural, and medial plantar sensory nerves...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022292/changes-in-macular-retinal-layers-and-peripapillary-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-after-577-nm-pattern-scanning-laser-in-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
Ji Soo Shin, Young Hoon Lee
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in thickness of each macular retinal layer, the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and central macular thickness (CMT) after 577-nm pattern scanning laser (PASCAL) photocoagulation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: This retrospective study included 33 eyes with diabetic retinopathy that underwent 577-nm PASCAL photocoagulation. Each retinal layer thickness, peripapillary RNFL thickness, and CMT were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography before 577-nm PASCAL photocoagulation, as well as at 1, 6, and 12 months after 577-nm PASCAL photocoagulation...
August 26, 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018135/corneal-confocal-microscopy-detects-corneal-nerve-damage-in-patients-admitted-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#9
Adnan Khan, Naveed Akhtar, Saadat Kamran, Georgios Ponirakis, Ioannis N Petropoulos, Nahel A Tunio, Soha R Dargham, Yahia Imam, Faheem Sartaj, Aijaz Parray, Paula Bourke, Rabia Khan, Mark Santos, Sujatha Joseph, Ashfaq Shuaib, Rayaz A Malik
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Corneal confocal microscopy can identify corneal nerve damage in patients with peripheral and central neurodegeneration. However, the use of corneal confocal microscopy in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke is unknown. METHODS: One hundred thirty patients (57 without diabetes mellitus [normal glucose tolerance], 32 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 41 with type 2 diabetes mellitus) admitted with acute ischemic stroke, and 28 age-matched healthy control participants underwent corneal confocal microscopy to quantify corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density, and corneal nerve fiber length...
October 10, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017758/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacological-characterization-of-asp8477-a-novel-highly-selective-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibitor
#10
Tomonari Watabiki, Noriko Tsuji, Tetsuo Kiso, Tohru Ozawa, Fumie Narazaki, Shuichiro Kakimoto
Although exogenous agonists for cannabinoid (CB) receptors are clinically effective for treating chronic pain, global activation of brain CB receptors causes frequent central nervous system (CNS) side-effects. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a primary catabolic enzyme for anandamide (AEA), an endogenous CB. Recently, we discovered a novel FAAH inhibitor, 3-pyridyl 4-(phenylcarbamoyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (ASP8477). In vitro studies demonstrated that ASP8477 inhibited human FAAH-1, FAAH-1 (P129T) and FAAH-2 activity with IC50 values of 3...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994815/in-vitro-characterization-of-the-electrophysiological-properties-of-colonic-afferent-fibers-in-rats
#11
Youqiang Meng, Li Dong, Biying Sun, Ping Luo, Guohua Zhang, Weifang Rong
Dysfunction of the colonic sensory nerves has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several common conditions, including functional and inflammatory bowel diseases and diabetes. Here, we describe a protocol for the in vitro characterization of the electrophysiological properties of colonic afferents in rats. The colorectum, with the intact pelvic ganglion (PG) attached, is removed from the rat; superfused with carbogenated Krebs solution in the recording chamber; and cannulated at the oral and anal ends to allow for distension...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993757/painful-and-prolonged-muscle-cramps-following-insulin-injections-in-a-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-revisiting-the-1992-duke-case
#12
Rami A Ballout, Asma Arabi
A 56-year-old middle-eastern male with a long-standing history of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to us complaining of severely painful bilateral upper and lower extremity cramps occurring shortly after his rapid-acting insulin analog injection(s). The cramps had started 6 months ago and have been occurring intermittently in non-predictable episodes since then. He had otherwise never experienced any insulin-related adverse reaction(s) before. His cramps are very painful and debilitating, interfering with his daily activities and placing him in a state of constant fear/anxiety of re-experiencing them...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988945/neurodegeneration-in-diabetic-retinopathy-potential-for-novel-therapies
#13
Alistair J Barber, Basma Baccouche
The complex pathology of diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects both vascular and neural tissue. The characteristics of neurodegeneration are well-described in animal models but have more recently been confirmed in the clinical setting, mostly by using non-invasive imaging approaches such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The most frequent observations report loss of tissue in the nerve fiber layer and inner plexiform layers, confirming earlier findings from animal models. In several cases the reduction in inner retinal layers is reported in patients with little evidence of vascular lesions or macular edema, suggesting that degenerative loss of neural tissue in the inner retina can occur after relatively short durations of diabetes...
October 5, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987189/diseases-of-the-peripheral-nerves
#14
Istvan Katona, Joachim Weis
This chapter reviews the diseases of the peripheral nerves from a neuropathologic point of view, with a special focus on specific morphologic changes, and includes a summary of the histopathologic methods available for their diagnosis. As the rate of obesity and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increase, diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Many systemic disorders with metabolic origin, like amyloidosis, hepatic failure, vitamin deficiencies, uremia, lipid metabolism disorders, and others, can also cause axonal or myelin alterations in the peripheral nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976888/modifications-of-expression-of-genes-and-proteins-involved-in-dna-repair-and-nitric-oxide-metabolism-by-carbatonides-disodium-2-6-dimethyl-1-4-dihydropyridine-3-5-bis-carbonyloxyacetate-derivatives-in-intact-and-diabetic-rats
#15
Kristīne Ošiņa, Elina Leonova, Sergejs Isajevs, Larisa Baumane, Evita Rostoka, Tatjana Sjakste, Egils Bisenieks, Gunars Duburs, Brigita Vīgante, Nikolajs Sjakste
Studies on the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus complications indicate that the compounds reducing free radicals and enhancing DNA repair could be prospective as possible remedies. Carbatonides, the disodium-2,6-dimethyl-1,4- dihydropyridine-3,5-bis(carbonyloxyacetate) derivatives, were tested for these properties. EPR spectroscopy showed that metcarbatone was an effective scavenger of hydroxyl radicals produced in the Fenton reaction, etcarbatone, and propcarbatone were less effective, styrylcarbatone was ineffective...
September 26, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972155/defining-a-mechanistic-link-between-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-corneal-nerve-regeneration
#16
Thang Luong Pham, Jiucheng He, Azucena Kakazu, Bokkyoo Jun, Nicolas G Bazan, Haydee E P Bazan
The cornea is densely innervated to sustain the integrity of the ocular surface. Corneal nerve damage produced by aging, diabetes, refractive surgeries and viral or bacterial infections impairs tear production, the blinking reflex and epithelial wound healing, resulting in loss of transparency and vision. A combination of the known neuroprotective molecule, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been shown to stimulate corneal nerve regeneration, but the mechanisms involved are unclear...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971611/nerve-growth-factor-inhibitor-with-novel-binding-domain-demonstrates-nanomolar-efficacy-in-both-cell-based-and-cell-free-assay-systems
#17
Allison E Kennedy, Corey A Laamanen, Mitchell S Ross, Rahul Vohra, Douglas R Boreham, John A Scott, Gregory M Ross
Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is known to regulate the development and survival of a select population of neurons through the binding and activation of the TrkA receptor. Elevated levels of NGF have been associated with painful pathologies such as diabetic neuropathy and fibromyalgia. However, completely inhibiting the NGF signal could hold significant side effects, such as those observed in a genetic condition called congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis (CIPA). Previous methods of screening for NGF-inhibitors used labeling techniques which have the potential to alter molecular interactions...
October 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970182/pathophysiological-profiles-of-sdt-fatty-rats-a-potential-new-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-model
#18
Tatsuya Maekawa, Hironobu Tadaki, Tomohiko Sasase, Yu Motohashi, Katsuhiro Miyajima, Takeshi Ohta, Shinichi Kume
INTRODUCTION: To establish an animal model for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at an earlier stage, we performed functional and pathophysiological evaluations in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats before 16weeks of age. METHODS: Male SDT fatty rats were treated with vehicle or phlorizin (100 to 150mg/kg/day) from 5 to 16weeks. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as age-matched controls. Body weights and biochemical parameters were measured over time...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969950/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-lateral-femoral-cutaneous-nerve-palsy-in-the-beach-chair-position
#19
Ari J Holtzman, Christopher D Glezos, Eric J Feit, Konrad I Gruson
PURPOSE: To report on the prevalence of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) palsy in patients who had undergone shoulder surgery in the beach chair position and to identify patient and surgical risk factors for its development. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 397 consecutive patients who underwent either open or arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach chair position by a single surgeon. Patient demographic and surgical data including age, gender, weight, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, procedure duration, and anesthesia type (general, regional, regional/general) were recorded...
September 29, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969623/protective-effects-of-methanolic-extract-of-juglans-regia-l-leaf-on-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-in-rats
#20
Davood Nasiry, Ali Reza Khalatbary, Hassan Ahmadvand, Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri, Esmaeil Akbari
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common and debilitating complications of diabetes mellitus. There is accumulating evidence that Juglans regia L. (GRL) leaf extract, a rich source of phenolic components, has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of Juglans regia L. leaf extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rat...
October 2, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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