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Shosuke Ito, Misa Agata, Kotono Okochi, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
RS-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (rhododendrol, RD), a skin-whitening agent, is known to induce leukoderma in some consumers. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we previously showed that the oxidation of RD with mushroom or human tyrosinase produces cytotoxic quinone oxidation products and RD-eumelanin exerts a potent pro-oxidant activity. Cellular antioxidants were oxidized by RD-eumelanin with a concomitant production of H2 O2 . In this study, we examined whether this pro-oxidant activity of RD-eumelanin is enhanced by ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation because most RD-induced leukoderma lesions are found in sun-exposed areas...
February 23, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Pei-Tseng Lee, Guang Lin, Wen-Wen Lin, Fengqiu Diao, Benjamin H White, Hugo J Bellen
In Drosophila , long-term memory (LTM) requires the cAMP-dependent transcription factor CREBB, expressed in the mushroom bodies (MB) and phosphorylated by PKA. To identify other kinases required for memory formation, we integrated Trojan exons encoding T2A-GAL4 into genes encoding putative kinases and selected for genes expressed in MB. These lines were screened for learning/memory deficits using UAS-RNAi knockdown based on an olfactory aversive conditioning assay. We identified a novel, conserved kinase, Meng-Po ( MP , CG11221 , SBK1 in human), the loss of which severely affects 3 hr memory and 24 hr LTM, but not learning...
February 23, 2018: ELife
So Yeon Kim, Yang Hyun Baek, Sang Young Han, Sung Wook Lee, Young Hoon Roh, Kwan Woo Kim, Sung Hwa Kang, Jin Sook Jeong
There are currently over 5,000-known species of mushrooms worldwide. Only 20-25% of mushrooms have been named, and 3% of these are poisonous. More than 95% of mushroom poisoning cases occur due to difficulties associated with the identification of mushroom species. Most of the fatal mushroom poisoning cases recorded to date have been related to the Amanita species. Until now, a case of fatal poisoning caused by Macrolepiota neomastoidea ( M. neomastoidea ) has not been reported in Asia. A 57-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain...
February 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Livia Francine Soriano, Bernard Cummings, Victoria Jolliffe
Flagellate dermatitis (FD) exhibits a striking clinical appearance similar to whiplash marks. General dermatologists are likely to encounter this clinical appearance as a more localized presentation of phytophotodermatosis. Jellyfish stings may also cause localized linear or FD. Chemotherapeutic agents such as bleomycin, doxorubicin, docetaxel, and trastuzumab are well-recognized causes of a widespread FD and it may more rarely be seen in connective tissue disease such as dermatomyositis or Still disease. In our case, this was a presentation of shiitake mushroom dermatitis...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Thara Nagarajan, Leah Lalor, Anne Housholder
Flagellate erythema secondary to shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) ingestion is a condition that was first documented in 1977 by Nakamura and has been reported in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Herein, we present two cases of flagellate erythema after a couple ate a meal containing shiitake mushrooms at a chain restaurant. We hypothesize that this condition may not be as rare or as dependent on volume of exposure as previously suggested, considering that two genetically unrelated individuals simultaneously developed the eruption after minimal exposure...
September 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Ángela Rojas, Paloma Gallego, Antonio Gil-Gómez, Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Lourdes Rojas, Rosario Maldonado, Rocío Gallego, Marta García-Valdecasas, José A Del Campo, Juan D Bautista, Manuel Romero-Gómez
Background & aims. G-allele of PNPLA3 (rs738409) favours triglycerides accumulation and steatosis. In this study, we examined the effect of quercetin and natural extracts from mushroom and artichoke on reducing lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Huh7.5 cells were exposed to oleic acid (OA) and treated with quercetin and extracts to observe the lipid accumulation, the intracellular-TG concentration and the LD size. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα-γ) and cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) gene expression levels were analysed...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Takako Miki, Masafumi Eguchi, Shamima Akter, Takeshi Kochi, Keisuke Kuwahara, Ikuko Kashino, Huanhuan Hu, Isamu Kabe, Norito Kawakami, Akiko Nanri, Tetsuya Mizoue
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 3-year adherence to a dietary pattern based on nutrients that may be related to mood with the development of depressive symptoms in Japanese employees. METHODS: Participants were 903 employees free from depressive symptoms at baseline and who attended the 3-year follow-up. Participants with depressive symptoms were defined as those with a score ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Dietary patterns were derived using reduced-rank regression at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up survey using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
Ewa Witkowska-Banaszczak
OBJECTIVES: This article describes the flavonoid composition of the flowers of Trollius europaeus and the method of isolation thereof and provides an attempt at investigating the antioxidant activity of the isolated flavonoids and the antityrosinase activity of the extracts from the investigated material. METHODS: The compositional data were acquired by combining results of nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet spectroscopy, electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses and those of an analysis of the products of acid hydrolysis of the compounds...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Shi Zheng, Luying Shan, Yongliang Zhuang, Ying Shang
As a well-known edible fungus rich in nutrients, Pleurotus ostreatus has been used as an alternative to expensive wild edible fungi. Specifically, the fact that using P. ostreatus instead of other expensive wild edible fungi has damaged the rights and interests of consumers. Among the existing methods for detection of food adulteration, the amplification of endogenous reference gene is the most accurate method. However, an ideal endogenous reference gene for P. ostreatus has yet to be developed. In this study, a DNA extraction method for P...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Food Science
M Donzellini, C Lorini, S Palazzoni, M Becciolini, A Cibecchini, M Talini, G Bonaccorsi
BACKGROUND: Production and consumption of fresh mushrooms reached high levels in recent years but only a few data regarding microbiological quality of these products are available, although their potential microbial load is expected to be high. EU and Italian legislation have not set a limit on microbial counts in these products and label information is often unclear. This study investigates the microbial quality of samples of fresh cultivated mushrooms sold in Tuscany so that both food business operators and legislators can obtain data about potential microbial risk for consumers and debate about the opportunity of realizing an update on fresh mushrooms labels that should include information to protect consumers' health...
March 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Qiuhui Hu, Biao Yuan, Hang Xiao, Liyan Zhao, Xian Wu, Kanyasiri Rakariyatham, Lei Zhong, Yanhui Han, Benard Muinde Kimatu, Wenjian Yang
Edible mushrooms are rich sources of bioactive components. In this study, a polyphenol-rich extract, designated as PPEP, was isolated from an edible mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii. Using ultra high performance liquid chromatograph combined with triple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS/MS), gallic acid monohydrate, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid, methyl gallate, syringic acid, ellagic acid and catechin were identified in PPEP. This phenolic-rich extract PPEP exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
M V Sheraton, K H Yam, C H Tan, H S Oh, E Mancini, L Yang, S A Rice, P M A Sloot
Segregation of bacteria based on their metabolic activity in biofilms plays an important role in the development of antibiotic drug resistance. Mushroom-shaped biofilm structures, which are reported for many bacteria, exhibit topographically varying levels of multiple drug resistance from the cap of the mushroom to its stalk. Understanding the dynamics behind the formation of such structures can aid in design of drug delivery systems, antibiotics, or physical systems for removal of biofilms. We explore the development of metabolically heterogenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using numerical models and laboratory knock-out experiments on wild-type and chemotaxis deficient mutants...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Lih-Jeng Juang, Xiang-Yu Gao, Shou-Ting Mai, Cheng-Hung Lee, Ming-Chung Lee, Chao-Ling Yao
OBJECTIVE: Currently, the cosmetic and medical industries are paying considerable attention to solve or prevent skin damage or diseases, such as hyperpigmentation and oxidation and free radical damage. In this study, the effective compounds in Myrica rubra fruit were extracted and studied the biological effects of these M. rubra fruit extracts. METHODS: In this study, we extracted M. rubra fruit using solutions with various ratios of water to ethanol (100:0, 50:50, 5:95) and studied the anti-melanogenesis, anti-oxidation and radical scavenging effects of these M...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Shuyan Li, Danyang Li, Jijin Li, Yangyang Li, Guoxue Li, Bing Zang, Yun Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the gaseous emissions (CH4 , N2 O, and NH3 ) and compost quality during the pig manure composting by adding spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a bulking agent. The control treatment was also studied using corn stalk (CS) as a bulking agent. The experiment was conducted in a pilot scale composting reactor under aerobic condition with the initial C/N ratio of 20. Results showed that bulking agents significantly affected gaseous emissions and compost quality. Using SMS as a bulking agent improved composting efficiency by shortening the time for maturity...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Luona Ye, Mengpei Guo, Pengfei Ren, Gangzheng Wang, Yinbing Bian, Yang Xiao, Yan Zhou
Coprinus comatus is an edible mushroom widely cultivated in China as a delicious food. Various diseases have occurred on C. comatus with the cultivated area increasing. In this study, the pathogenic bacterium JTG-B1, identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans by 16S rDNA and nrdA gene sequencing, was isolated from edible mushroom Coprinus comatus with serious rot disease on its stipe. A. xylosoxidans has been confirmed as an important opportunistic human pathogenic bacterium and has been isolated from respiratory samples from cystic fibrosis...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Tahereh Jafari, Aino-Liisa Alanne, Jouni Issakainen, Kati Pihlaja, Jari Sinkkonen
Herbarium specimens are a treasure trove for biochemical studies. However, this implies understanding of the chemical changes during the drying and storage of the specimen. We compared herbarium specimens at different ages and fresh samples of four mushroom species (Kuehneromyces mutabilis, Hypholoma capnoides, Kuehneromyces lignicola, Hypholoma fasciculare) of two genera in the family Strophariaceae by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA)...
February 2018: Fungal Biology
Lan Zhang, Yu Hu, Xiaoyu Duan, Tingting Tang, Yingbin Shen, Bin Hu, Aiping Liu, Hong Chen, Cheng Li, Yuntao Liu
Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Angela Trovato Salinaro, Manuela Pennisi, Rosanna Di Paola, Maria Scuto, Rosalia Crupi, Maria Teresa Cambria, Maria Laura Ontario, Mario Tomasello, Maurizio Uva, Luigi Maiolino, Edward J Calabrese, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Vittorio Calabrese
Human life develops and expands not only in time and space, but also in the retrograde permanent recollection and interweaving of memories. Therefore, individual human identity depends fully on a proper access to the autobiographical memory. Such access is hindered or lost under pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, including recently associated oxidant pathologies, such as ocular neural degeneration occurring in glaucoma or neurosensorial degeneration occurring in Menière's disease. Oxidative stress and altered antioxidant systems have been suggested to play a role in the aetiology of major neurodegenerative disorders, and altered expression of genes sensing oxidative stress, as well as decreased cellular stress response mechanisms could synergistically contribute to the course of these oxidant disorders...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Ali Noorafshan, Fatemeh Karimi, Ali-Mohammad Kamali, Saied Karbalay-Doust, Mohammad Nami
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of chronic sleep restriction (CSR) with or without curcumin (CUR) treatment on dendritic lengths and spines of the CA1 hippocampus using the virtual space-ball method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats were randomly submitted to nine groups, including distilled water, CUR (100 mg/kg/day), olive oil, CSR plus distilled water, CSR plus CUR, CSR plus olive oil, grid-floor plus distilled water, grid-floor plus CUR, and grid-floor plus olive oil groups...
February 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Roghayeh Karimirad, Mahdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan
The aim of present study was to design a controlled release system using Cuminum cyminum essential oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CEO-CSNPs) and evaluate its effect on catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD) activity and ascorbic acid content of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies during 20 days of storage at 4 °C. The success of encapsulation was evaluated through TEM, DLS, FT-IR and spectrophotometry and its release behavior was studied in buffer solutions with different pH. The CEO-CSNPs exhibited an average size of 30 to 80 nm with a spherical shape...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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