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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345827/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-edible-mushrooms-from-niger-delta-nigeria-carcinogenic-and-non-carcinogenic-health-risk-assessment
#1
Sorbari Igbiri, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle, Osazuwa Clinton Ekhator, Rose Ngozi Asomugha, Zelinjo Nkeiruka Igweze, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
In the oil-rich Niger Delta, hydrocarbon pollution and oil spillages, gas flaring and sundry anthropogenic activities constitute sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with food contamination playing a major role in human exposure. In this study we assessed PAH levels in wild and cultivated edible mushroom species consumed by the general population from the oil producing Niger Delta, Nigeria. The concentrations of USEPA-16 PAHs were determined by gas chromatography and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were calculated...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344593/agaricus-brasiliensis-polysaccharides-stimulate-human-monocytes-to-capture-candida-albicans-express-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-and-produce-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#2
Priscila Raquel Martins, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Andrea Vanessa da Silva Pinto Domeneghini, Márjorie Assis Golim, Ramon Kaneno
BACKGROUND: Agaricus brasiliensis is a medicinal mushroom with immunomodulatory and antitumor activities attributed to the β-glucans presented in the polysaccharide fraction of its fruiting body. Since β-glucans enhance cellular immunoresponsiveness, in this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of an acid-treated polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF) of A. brasiliensis on the ability of human monocytes to adhere/phagocyte C. albicans yeast cells, their expression of pattern recognition receptors and their ability to produce cytokines...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344548/gsk-3%C3%AE-overexpression-alters-the-dendritic-spines-of-developmentally-generated-granule-neurons-in-the-mouse-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus
#3
Noemí Pallas-Bazarra, Asta Kastanauskaite, Jesús Avila, Javier DeFelipe, María Llorens-Martín
The dentate gyrus (DG) plays a crucial role in hippocampal-related memory. The most abundant cellular type in the DG, namely granule neurons, are developmentally generated around postnatal day P6 in mice. Moreover, a unique feature of the DG is the occurrence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a process that gives rise to newborn granule neurons throughout life. Adult-born and developmentally generated granule neurons share some maturational aspects but differ in others, such as in their positioning within the granule cell layer...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343049/stabilisation-of-spent-mushroom-substrate-for-application-as-a-plant-growth-promoting-organic-amendment
#4
Fabiana S Paula, Enrico Tatti, Florence Abram, Jude Wilson, Vincent O'Flaherty
Over three million tonnes of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced in Europe every year as a by-product of the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The management of SMS has become an increasing challenge for the mushroom production industry, and finding environmentally and economically sustainable solutions for this organic residue is, therefore, highly desirable. Due to its physical properties and nutrient content, SMS has great potential to be employed in agricultural and horticultural sectors, and further contribute to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as peat...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338645/development-of-44-novel-polymorphic-ssr-markers-for-determination-of-shiitake-mushroom-lentinula-edodes-cultivars
#5
Hwa-Yong Lee, Suyun Moon, Donghwan Shim, Chang Pyo Hong, Yi Lee, Chang-Duck Koo, Jong-Wook Chung, Hojin Ryu
The shiitake mushroom (Lentinulaedodes) is one of the most popular edible mushrooms in the world and has attracted attention for its value in medicinal and pharmacological uses. With recent advanced research and techniques, the agricultural cultivation of the shiitake mushroom has been greatly increased, especially in East Asia. Additionally, demand for the development of new cultivars with good agricultural traits has been greatly enhanced, but the development processes are complicated and more challenging than for other edible mushrooms...
March 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337140/antioxidant-and-anti-tyrosinase-activities-of-phenolic-extracts-from-rape-bee-pollen-and-inhibitory-melanogenesis-by-camp-mitf-tyr-pathway-in-b16-mouse-melanoma-cells
#6
Liping Sun, Yan Guo, Yanxin Zhang, Yongliang Zhuang
Rape bee pollen possesses many nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its abundant nutrimental and bioactive components. In this study, free (FPE) and bound (BPE) phenolic extracts of rape bee pollen were obtained, phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, and composition of phenolic acids was analyzed. In vitro antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase (TYR) activities of FPE and BPE were compared, and inhibitory melanogenesis of FPE was further evaluated. Results showed FPE and BPE contain total phenolic contents of 11...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337138/motor-skill-learning-in-an-insect-inspired-neuro-computational-control-system
#7
Eleonora Arena, Paolo Arena, Roland Strauss, Luca Patané
In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336263/environmental-radioactivity-study-of-austrian-and-bavarian-forest-ecosystems-long-term-behaviour-of-contamination-of-soil-vegetation-and-wild-boar-and-its-radioecological-coherences
#8
Maria Kocadag, Veronika Exler, Burger-Scheidlin Christopher, Andreas Baumgartner, Michael Stietka, Claudia Landstetter, Martin Korner, Franz Josef Maringer
(137)Cs and (40)K in soil, vegetation and flesh of wild boar samples from Austrian and Bavarian regions were investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and (90)Sr in bones of wild boar with Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) after radiochemical separation. The soil core profiles revealed that 70-97% of the soil caesium content is still accumulated in the 0-10cm soil depth. From all vegetation samples the mushrooms, particularly the bay boletus showed the highest (137)Cs contamination. The activity concentration of (137)Cs in muscle tissue of boar ranged from 14...
March 18, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334042/whole-body-counter-wbc-and-food-radiocesium-contamination-surveys-in-namie-fukushima-prefecture
#9
Yoichiro Hosokawa, Kazuki Nomura, Eiki Tsushima, Kohsei Kudo, Yuka Noto, Yoshiko Nishizawa
PURPOSE: This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. METHODS: The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331625/bioremediation-of-soil-contaminated-crude-oil-by-agaricomycetes
#10
M Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani, M Mazaheri Assadi, A Farazmand, M Kianirad, A M Ahadi, H Hadian Ghahderijani
BACKGROUND: One of the most important environmental problems is the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soil, particularly in the oil-rich country. Bioremediation is the most effective way to remove these pollutants in the soil. Spent mushroom compost has great ability to decompose lignin-like pollution. The purpose of this study was the bioremediation of soil contaminated with crude oil by an Agaricomycetes. METHODS: Soil sample amended with spent mushroom compost into 3%, 5% and 10% (w/w) with or without fertilizer...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331193/transcription-factors-of-schizophyllum-commune-involved-in-mushroom-formation-and-modulation-of-vegetative-growth
#11
Jordi F Pelkmans, Mohini B Patil, Thies Gehrmann, Marcel J T Reinders, Han A B Wösten, Luis G Lugones
Mushrooms are the most conspicuous fungal structures. Transcription factors (TFs) Bri1 and Hom1 of the model fungus Schizophyllum commune are involved in late stages of mushroom development, while Wc-2, Hom2, and Fst4 function early in development. Here, it is shown that Bri1 and Hom1 also stimulate vegetative growth, while biomass formation is repressed by Wc-2, Hom2, and Fst4. The Δbri1Δbri1 and the Δhom1Δhom1 strains formed up to 0.6 fold less biomass when compared to wild-type, while Δwc-2Δwc-2, Δhom2Δhom2, and Δfst4Δfst4 strains formed up to 2...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330749/identification-purification-and-expression-patterns-of-chitinase-from-psychrotolerant-pedobacter-sp-pr-m6-and-antifungal-activity-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
Yong-Su Song, Dong-Jun Seo, Woo-Jin Jung
In this study, a novel psychrotolerant chitinolytic bacterium Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 that displayed strong chitinolytic activity on 0.5% colloidal chitin was isolated from the soil of a decayed mushroom. Chitinase activity of PR-M6 at 25 °C (C25) after 6 days of incubation with colloidal chitin increased rapidly to a maximum level (31.3 U/mg proteins). Three chitinase isozymes (chiII, chiIII, and chiIV) from the crude enzyme at 25 °C (C25) incubation were expressed on SDS-PAGE gels at 25 °C. After purification by chitin-affinity chromatography, six chitinase isozymes (chiI, chiII, chiIII, chiIV, chiV, and chiVI) from C25-fractions were expressed on SDS-PAGE gels at 25 °C...
March 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330308/construction-of-aspergillus-niger-integrated-with-cellulase-gene-from-ampullaria-gigas-spix-for-improved-enzyme-production-and-saccharification-of-alkaline-pretreated-rice-straw
#13
Peizhou Yang, Haifeng Zhang, Lili Cao, Zhi Zheng, Shaotong Jiang
Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism that has been used for decades to produce extracellular enzymes. In this study, a novel Aspergillus niger strain integrated with a eukaryotic expression vector harboring the gpd-Shi promoter of shiitake mushrooms and cellulase gene of Ampullaria gigas Spix was engineered to improve cellulase production for the achievement of highly efficient saccharification of agricultural residues. In one strain, designated ACShi27, which exhibited the highest total cellulase expression, total cellulase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and xylanase expression levels were 1...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328153/behavioral-transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-social-challenge-in-honey-bees
#14
Hagai Y Shpigler, Michael C Saul, Emma E Murdoch, Amy C Cash-Ahmed, Christopher H Seward, Laura Sloofman, Sriram Chandrasekaran, Saurabh Sinha, Lisa J Stubbs, Gene E Robinson
Understanding how social experiences are represented in the brain and shape future responses is a major challenge in the study of behavior. We addressed this problem by studying behavioral, transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to intrusion in honey bees. Previous research showed that initial exposure to an intruder provokes an immediate attack; we now show that this also leads to longer-term changes in behavior in the response to a second intruder, with increases in the probability of responding aggressively and the intensity of aggression lasting two and one hours, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326929/dendritic-spine-dysgenesis-in-superficial-dorsal-horn-sensory-neurons-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Xiaoyu C Cao, Laura W Pappalardo, Stephen G Waxman, Andrew M Tan
Neuropathic pain is a major complication of spinal cord injury, and despite aggressive efforts, this type of pain is refractory to available clinical treatment. Our previous work has demonstrated a structure-function link between dendritic spine dysgenesis on nociceptive sensory neurons in the intermediate zone, laminae IV/V, and chronic pain in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system injury models of neuropathic pain. To extend these findings, we performed a follow-up structural analysis to assess whether dendritic spine remodeling occurs on superficial dorsal horn neurons located in lamina II after spinal cord injury...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324737/neuroscience-intelligence-in-the-honeybee-mushroom%C3%A2-body
#16
Sophie Caron, Larry F Abbott
Intelligence, in most people's conception, involves combining pieces of evidence to reach non-obvious conclusions. A recent theoretical study shows that intelligence-like brain functions can emerge from simple neural circuits, in this case the honeybee mushroom body.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322150/a-novel-technique-for-rejuvenation-of-degenerated-caterpillar-medicinal-mushroom-cordyceps-militaris-ascomycetes-a-valued-traditional-chinese-medicine
#17
Anhui Chen, Yulong Wang, Ying Shao, Bo Huang
Cordyceps militaris has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for many years, but its frequent degeneration during continuous maintenance in culture can lead to substantial commercial losses. In this study, a degenerated strain of C. militaris was obtained by subculturing a wild-type strain through 10 successive subcultures. The relative abundance of the 2 mating types seems to be out of balance in the degenerated strain. By cross-mating 4 single-ascospore isolates (2 for MAT 1-1 and 2 for MAT 1-2) from the degenerated strain, we were able to restore fruiting body production to wild-type levels...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322148/effects-of-exogenous-salicylic-acid-on-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-and-the-expression-of-key-genes-in-the-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-lingzhi-or-reishi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lucidum-agaricomycetes
#18
Peng-Fei Cao, Chen-Gao Wu, Zhi-Hao Dang, Liang Shi, Ai-Liang Jiang, Ang Ren, Ming-Wen Zhao
We demonstrate herein that salicylic acid (SA) can enhance ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Following treatment with different concentrations of SA, the GA content was increased 22.72% to 43.04% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA at different times, the GA content was improved 10.21% to 35.24% compared with the control group. By choosing the optimum point based on response surface methodology, the GA content could be increased up to 229...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322147/molecular-characterization-and-antioxidant-potential-of-three-wild-culinary-medicinal-mushrooms-from-tripura-northeast-india
#19
Aparajita Roy Das, Madhusmita Borthakur, Ajay Krishna Saha, Santa Ram Joshi, Panna Das
The aim of this study was to characterize 3 wild culinary-medicinal mushrooms using molecular tools and to analyze their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties were studied by evaluating free radical scavenging, reducing power, and chelating effect. The mushrooms were identified as Lentinus squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium, and Macrocybe gigantean by amplifying internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. The results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of M. gigantean has the highest free radical scavenging effect and chelating effect, whereas the methanolic extract of L...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322146/chemical-composition-and-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-activities-of-cultured-mycelia-of-four-clavicipitaceous-mushrooms-ascomycetes-from-the-indian-himalayas
#20
Sapan Kumar Sharma, Nandini Gautam
Cultured mycelia of 4 clavicipitaceous fungi belonging to 2 genera, Cordyceps (C. gracilis, C. cicadae, C. sinclairii) and Metacordyceps (M. dhauladharensis), were analyzed for their chemical composition and antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Experiments to determine these characteristics were performed following standard methods. The fatty acid profiles of mycelia of all the species were analysed using gas chromatography. Chemical composition analysis of mycelial samples revealed carbohydrates (46.72 ± 0...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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