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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240717/a-novel-antibiotic-mechanism-of-l-cyclopropylalanine-blocking-the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-essential-amino-acid-l-leucine
#1
Bingji Ma, Jinwen Shen, Wandee Yindeeyoungyeon, Yuan Ruan
The unusual amino acid l-cyclopropylalanine was isolated from the mushroom Amanita virgineoides after detection in an anti-fungal screening test. l-Cyclopropylalanine was found to exhibit broad-spectrum inhibition against fungi and bacteria. The anti-fungal activity was found to be abolished in the presence of the amino acid l-leucine, but not any other amino acids, indicating that l-cyclopropylalanine may block the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid l-leucine, thereby inhibiting fungal and bacteria growth...
December 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239435/formation-of-uniform-carrot-like-cu31s16-cuins2-heteronanostructures-assisted-by-citric-acid-at-the-oil-aqueous-interface
#2
Yongjie Li, Aiwei Tang, Zhenyang Liu, Lan Peng, Yi Yuan, Xifeng Shi, Chunhe Yang, Feng Teng
A simple two-phase strategy was developed to prepare Cu31S16-CuInS2 heterostructures (HNS) at the oil/aqueous interface, in which the In(OH)3 phase was often obtained in the products due to the reaction between indium ions and hydroxyl ions in the aqueous phase. To prevent the formation of the In(OH)3 phase, citric acid was incorporated into the aqueous phase to assist in the synthesis of uniform carrot-like Cu31S16-CuInS2 semiconductor HNS at the oil/aqueous interface for the first time. By manipulating the dosage of citric acid and Cu/In precursor ratios, the morphology of the Cu31S16-CuInS2 HNS could be tailored from mushroom to carrot-like, and the presence of citric acid played a critical role in the synthesis of high-quality Cu31S16-CuInS2 HNS, which inhibited the formation of the In(OH)3 phase due to the formation of the indium(iii)-citric acid complex...
December 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238712/cytotoxic-effect-on-human-myeloma-cells-and-leukemic-cells-by-the-agaricus-blazei-murill-based-mushroom-extract-andosan%C3%A2
#3
Jon-Magnus Tangen, Toril Holien, Mohammad Reza Mirlashari, Kristine Misund, Geir Hetland
Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which has been found to contain a number of compounds with antitumor properties, such as proteoglycans and ergosterol. In the present investigation, we show that the commercial mushroom product Andosan, which contains 82.4% Agaricus blazei Murill, together with medicinal mushrooms Hericium erinaceus (14.7%) and Grifola frondosa (2.9%), has a cytotoxic effect on primary myeloma cells, other myeloma cell lines, and leukemia cell lines in vitro...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237384/ros-scavenging-and-anti-tyrosinase-properties-of-crocetin-on-b16f10-murine-melanoma-cells
#4
Seyed Hamed Hashemi-Shahri, Alireza Golshan, Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri, Javad Baharara, Elaheh Amini, Farzaneh Salek, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
BACKGROUND: Crocus sativus (Iridaceae) has been traditionally used in the Iranian folk medicine and as a culinary additive. Major components of the plant that are responsible for biological properties are saffranal, crocin, picrocrocin and crocetin. Although the level of crocetin is not high, some of the important activities of saffron such as antioxidant activity have been attributed to crocetin. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated the effects of crocetin on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells...
December 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236477/plasma-assisted-large-scale-nanoassembly-of-metal-insulator-bioplasmonic-mushrooms
#5
Nikhil Bhalla, Shivani Sathish, Casey James Galvin, Robert Anthony Campbell, Abhishek Sinha, Amy Q Shen
Large-scale plasmonic substrates consisting of metal-insulator nanostructures coated with a bio-recognition layer can be exploited for enhanced label-free sensing, by utilizing the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Most often the uniformity and thickness of the bio-recognition layer determines the sensitivity of plasmonic resonances as the inherent LSPR sensitivity of nanomaterials is limited to 10-20 nm from the surface. However, due to time-consuming nanofabrication processes, there is limited work on both the development of large-scale plasmonic materials, and the subsequent surface functionalizing with bio-recognition layers...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234526/usefulness-of-urea-as-a-means-of-improving-the-solubility-of-poorly-water-soluble-ascorbyl-palmitate
#6
Yutaka Inoue, Daichi Niiyama, Isamu Murata, Ikuo Kanamoto
The aim of this study was to evaluate complexes of L-ascorbyl palmitate (ASCP) and urea (UR). This evaluation involved differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), a solubility test, a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test, and a mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assay. Physicochemical evaluation revealed that ASCP/UR complexes form at a molar ratio of 1/12. The solubility test revealed that ASCP/UR complexes had increased solubility compared to ASCP...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234409/antcin-h-isolated-from-antrodia-cinnamomea-inhibits-renal-cancer-cell-invasion-partly-through-inactivation-of-fak-erk-c-ebp-%C3%AE-c-fos-mmp-7-pathways
#7
Kun-Yuan Chiu, Tzu-Hsiu Chen, Chi-Luan Wen, Jin-Mei Lai, Chi-Chih Cheng, Hsiang-Chun Liu, Shih-Lan Hsu, Yew-Min Tzeng
Antcin-H, a natural triterpene, is purified from a famous anticancer medicinal mushroom, Antrodia cinnamomea, in Taiwan. This study showed that antcin-H inhibited the growth of human renal carcinoma 786-0 cells; the IC50 value (for 48 h) was 170 μM. Besides, the migration and invasion of 786-0 cells were suppressed by antcin-H under noncytotoxic concentrations (<100 μM); these events were accompanied by inhibition of FAK and Src kinase activities, decrease of paxillin phosphorylation, impairment of lamellipodium formation, and upregulation of TIMPs and downregulation of MMPs, especially MMP-7 expression...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234399/antimicrobial-activities-and-time-kill-kinetics-of-extracts-of-selected-ghanaian-mushrooms
#8
Theresa Appiah, Yaw Duah Boakye, Christian Agyare
The rapid rise of antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem. This has necessitated the need to search for new antimicrobial agents. Mushrooms are rich sources of potential antimicrobial agents. This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of methanol extracts of Trametes gibbosa, Trametes elegans, Schizophyllum commune, and Volvariella volvacea. Agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-kill kinetic assays were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts against selected test organisms...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229546/changes-in-cognition-and-dendritic-complexity-following-intrathecal-methotrexate-and-cytarabine-treatment-in-a-juvenile-murine-model
#9
Tyler C Alexander, Christy M Simecka, Frederico Kiffer, Thomas Groves, Julie Anderson, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Gwendolyn Carter, Antiño R Allen
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent childhood cancer and accounts for 26.8% of cancer diagnoses among children, worldwide-approximately 3,000 children each year. While advancements in treating ALL have led to a remission rate of more than 90%, many survivors experience adverse neurocognitive and/or neurobehavioral effects as a result of intrathecal chemotherapy. Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly administered with cytosine arabinoside (AraC, cytarabine) during intrathecal chemotherapy for ALL...
December 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228376/effects-of-cyclophosphamide-cyp-and-or-doxorubicin-dox-in-a-murine-model-of-post-chemotherapy-cognitive-impairment
#10
Timothy J Flanigan, Julie E Anderson, Ikram Elayan, Antiño R Allen, Sherry A Ferguson
Post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment, or PCCI, is a common complaint, particularly among breast cancer patients. However, the exact nature of PCCI appears complex. To model the human condition, ovariectomized C57BL/6J mice were treated iv weekly for 4 weeks with saline, 2 mg/kg doxorubicin (DOX), 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CYP), or DOX+CYP. For the subsequent 10 weeks, mice were assessed on several behavioral tests, including those measuring spatial learning and memory. After sacrifice, hippocampal spine density and morphology in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 regions were measured...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222576/microbial-ecology-of-the-agaricus-bisporus-mushroom-cropping-process
#11
REVIEW
Conor F McGee
Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions...
December 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222012/macrophage-immunomodulatory-activity-of-the-polysaccharide-isolated-from-collybia-radicata-mushroom
#12
Yufeng Wang, Youqiu Tian, Jiangjuan Shao, Xu Shu, Jinxia Jia, Xiaojie Ren, Yue Guan
Polysaccharides from Collybia radicata mushroom (CRP) possess many functions, such as antiviral, anti-aging and hypolipidemic activities. However, little is known about their immunomodulatory activity. To address this issue, we did a thorough research into their immune effects on murine macrophages. The results showed that the 14942Da polysaccharide not only obviously improved the proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages, but also induced the secretion of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin factors (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10)...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216732/vitamin-b12-sources-and-microbial-interaction
#13
Fumio Watanabe, Tomohiro Bito
Vitamin B12 is synthesized only by certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants. The synthesized vitamin B12 is transferred and accumulates in animal tissues, which can occur in certain plant and mushroom species through microbial interaction. In particular, the meat and milk of herbivorous ruminant animals (e.g. cattle and sheep) are good sources of vitamin B12 for humans. Ruminants acquire vitamin B12, which is considered an essential nutrient, through a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria present in their stomachs...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216574/methane-production-and-characteristics-of-the-microbial-community-in-the-co-digestion-of-spent-mushroom-substrate-with-dairy-manure
#14
Xiaosha Luo, Xufeng Yuan, Shiyu Wang, Fanrong Sun, Zhanshan Hou, Qingxiu Hu, Limei Zhai, Zongjun Cui, Yajie Zou
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a potential biomass material generated during mushroom cultivation. In this study, the methane yield and microbial community resulting from co-digestion of SMS and dairy manure (DM) at different mixing ratios (0:4, 1:1, 3:1, and 1:3), were evaluated. Co-digestion analysis showed that the methane yield from the mixtures was 6%-61% higher than the yield from SMS or DM alone, indicating a synergistic effect of co-digestion of SMS with DM. For the SMS of F.velutipes (SFv) and P...
November 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210029/photoacoustic-spectroscopy-applied-to-the-direct-detection-of-bioactive-compounds-in-agaricus-brasiliensis-mycelium
#15
Fernando Maia de Oliveira, João Benhur Mokochinski, Yohandra Reyes Torres, Herta Stutz Dalla Santa, Pedro Pablo González-Borrero
This paper describes the application of the photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) for detection of bioactive compounds in Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium. The mycelium was cultivated by solid-state fermentation and by submerged fermentation. Vegetal residues from food industry were used as substrates for fermentation: apple pomace (Malus domestica), wheat (Triticum aestivum), peel and pomace of pineapple (Ananas comosus), malt (Hordeum vulgare) and grape pomace (Vitis vinifera). Dry and ground samples of biomass were directly put into the PA cell...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208223/neuronal-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-sleep-homeostasis
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea
Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205864/a-bifunctional-cellulase-xylanase-of-a-new-chryseobacterium-strain-isolated-from-the-dung-of-a-straw-fed-cattle
#17
Hao Tan, Renyun Miao, Tianhai Liu, Lufang Yang, Yumin Yang, Chunxiu Chen, Jianrong Lei, Yuhui Li, Jiabei He, Qun Sun, Weihong Peng, Bingcheng Gan, Zhongqian Huang
A new cellulolytic strain of Chryseobacterium genus was screened from the dung of a cattle fed with cereal straw. A putative cellulase gene (cbGH5) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 46 (GH5_46) was identified and cloned by degenerate PCR plus genome walking. The CbGH5 protein was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. It is the first bifunctional cellulase-xylanase reported in GH5_46 as well as in Chryseobacterium genus. The enzyme showed an endoglucanase activity on carboxymethylcellulose of 3237 μmol min-1  mg-1 at pH 9, 90 °C and a xylanase activity on birchwood xylan of 1793 μmol min-1  mg-1 at pH 8, 90 °C...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204733/comparative-nutritional-and-mycochemical-contents-biological-activities-and-lc-ms-screening-of-tuber-from-new-recipe-cultivation-technique-with-wild-type-tuber-of-tiger-s-milk-mushroom-of-species-lignosus-rhinocerus
#18
Nor Azreen Mohd Jamil, Noraswati Mohd Nor Rashid, Mohamad Hasril Abd Hamid, Norasfaliza Rahmad, Jameel R Al-Obaidi
Tiger's milk mushroom is known for its valuable medicinal properties, especially the tuber part. However, wild tuber is very hard to obtain as it grows underground. This study first aimed to cultivate tiger's milk mushroom tuber through a cultivation technique, and second to compare nutritional and mycochemical contents, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and compound screening of the cultivated tuber with the wild tuber. Results showed an increase in carbohydrate content by 45.81% and protein content by 123...
December 4, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202191/effect-of-fungal-species-on-the-development-and-reproductive-traits-of-the-fungal-feeding-mite-rhizoglyphus-robini-astigmata-acaridae
#19
Shao-Xuan Qu, Xin Luo, Lin Ma
The bulb mite, Rhizoglyphus robini (Claparède; Astigmata: Acaridae), is a cosmopolitan pest with a broad host range, including commercially grown edible fungi in China. In this study, we recorded the development and reproductive traits of the bulb mite reared on four mushroom species: Agaricus bisporus Lange, Pleurotus ostreatus Kumm, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél., and Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler at six constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 31°C and 80% RH. Developmental time for the immature stages was significantly affected by fungal species, ranging from 9...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199586/health-and-risk-assessment-by-icp-oes-of-heavy-metals-and-trace-minerals-in-commercial-mushrooms-marketed-in-china
#20
Mengyi Huang, Huansong Zeng, Baojun Xu
The objectives of this study were to investigate mineral profiles of 35 species of edible mushrooms collected in China; we compared nutritional values and tolerable values with the official recommended daily intakes (RDIs), maximum intake limits, and provisional tolerable weekly intakes. A total of 19 minerals were detected in edible mushrooms by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed that the mushroom samples had a low percentage of RDI for the minerals calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc, potassium, and sodium and a relatively higher percentage of RDI for copper and molybdenum...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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