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Hong Xiang, Yajuan Zhou, Changlin Zhou, Shiguang Lei, Hong Yu, Yafang Wang, Shu Zhu
INTRODUCTION: Guizhou Province in China has an abundant resource of wild mushrooms, including numerous poisonous species which contain various toxins. The mortality rate from wild mushroom poisoning has been high in this area in recent years. Galerina sulciceps is a dangerously toxic mushroom which can be fatal if ingested. METHODS: we report on an epidemiological investigation of G. sulciceps poisoning which occurred in Duyun City of Guizhou Province. The characteristics of this species, its toxicity, observed clinical features, laboratory data, treatment modality, and prognosis were investigated in order to provide a reference point for the prevention and treatment of this kind of mushroom poisoning...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Jerzy Falandysz, Michał Saniewski, Ji Zhang, Tamara Zalewska, Hong-Gao Liu, Karolina Kluza
A study on (137)Cs pollution and activity concentrations of (40)K in mushrooms of the genera Cortinarius, Leccinum, Russula, Tricholoma, Tylopilus, and Xerocomus from two neighboring regions in southwest China in 2010-2013 revealed different patterns of pollution with (137)Cs, which seemed to be highly dependent on climate conditions. Tricholoma matsutake was collected in Yunnan before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident and showed similar contamination with (137)Cs. Mushrooms from the elevation of 2800-3480 m above sea level on the east slope of Minya Konka and forest topsoil showed higher contamination with (137)Cs than mushrooms from the highlands of Yunnan...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S M P Biscaia, E R Carbonero, D L Bellan, B S Borges, C R Costa, G R Rossi, J P Gonçalves, C M Melo, F A R Lívero, A C Ruthes, R Zotz, E V Silva, C C Oliveira, A Acco, H B Nader, R Chammas, M Iacomini, C R C Franco, E S Trindade
A heteropolysaccharide was isolated by cold aqueous extraction from edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii ("King Oyster") basidiocarps and its biological properties were evaluated. Structural assignments were carried out using mono- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy, monosaccharide composition, and methylation analyses. A mannogalactan having a main chain of (1→6)-linked α-d-galactopyranosyl and 3-O-methyl-α-d-galactopyranosyl residues, both partially substituted at OH-2 by β-d-Manp (MG-Pe) single-unit was found...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mayumi Sato, Atsuko Miyagi, Shozo Yoneyama, Seiki Gisusi, Yoshihiko Tokuji, Maki Kawai-Yamada
Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa [Dicks.] Gray) is generally cultured using the sawdust of broadleaf trees. The maitake strain Gf433 has high production efficiency, with high-quality of fruiting bodies even when 30% of the birch sawdust on the basal substrate is replaced with conifer sawdust. We performed metabolome analysis to investigate the effect of different cultivation components on the metabolism of Gf433 and Mori52 by performing CE-MS on their fruiting bodies in different cultivation conditions to quantify the levels of amino acids, organic acids, and phosphorylated organic acids...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Xiaomin Xu, Jingshun Zhang, Zengxuan Cai, Jing Zhang, Baifen Huang, Jiaojiao Xu, Qing Chen
A fast and wide linear range method was established for the determination of mushroom toxins amanitins (α-amanitin,β-amanitin and γ-amanitin) and phallotoxins (phallacidin and phalloidin) in wild mushrooms by online liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS). The mushroom toxins were extracted with methanol, and diluted with water. The extracts were separated on an XBridge(TM) BEH C18 column (150 mm×3.0 mm, 2.5 μm) under pH 10.7, measured by DAD and then analyzed by MS/MS...
June 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Kang Li, Kun Na, Tingting Sang, Kaikai Wu, Ying Wang, Xingya Wang
The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities including anticancer effects. However, the anti-colorectal cancer effects and the potential molecular mechanisms of the ethanol extracts of sporoderm-broken spores of G. lucidum (BSGLEE), which mainly contains triterpenoids, have not been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects and molecular mechanisms exerted by BSGLEE on colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo...
September 27, 2017: Oncology Reports
Lijuan Hou, Yu Li, Mingjie Chen, Zhengpeng Li
Compared with controls, treatment of the cultivation substrate for Volvariella volvacea with 0.02% NaAc at the "spraying water" stage increased the number of fruiting body primordia by 280, the mushroom yield by 16.25%, the number of fruiting bodies by 35.57%, and the biological efficiency by 16.28%. The average single mushroom weight increased by 19.33%, but there was no significant difference between treatments and controls. A correlation analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between the total yield and the number of fruiting bodies...
October 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Guodong Zhu, Yin Luo, Ming Xue, Haipeng Zhao, Xia Sun, Xinhui Wang, John Trumble
Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang, the Chinese chive root maggot, is a devastating pest of agricultural plants causing significant losses in vegetable crops, edible mushrooms, and humus. To determine the effects of feeding on different host plants and diets on the life parameters of B. odoriphaga and its tolerance to stressful conditions, we analyzed the life-table data of B. odoriphaga reared on Chinese chive (Allium hookeri), Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum), garlic (Allium sativum), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), and humus and assayed its tolerance to heat and insecticides...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Guodong Zhu, Ming Xue, Yin Luo, Guixia Ji, Fang Liu, Haipeng Zhao, Xia Sun
Bradysia odoriphaga and Bradysia difformis are devastating pests of vegetable, ornamental crops and edible mushrooms causing significant losses. Temperature may be an important factor restricting their population abundance in the summer. To determine the effects of short-term heat shock on adults, their survival, longevity and fecundity data were collected, and antioxidant responses and heat shock protein expression levels were examined. Our results indicated that the survival rates of Bradysia adults decreased rapidly after heat shock ≥36 °C, and the longevity and reproductive capacities were significantly inhibited, indicating that short-term heat shock had lethal and sub-lethal effects...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mayumi Ikeda, Yu Ishima, Ryo Kinoshita, Victor T G Chuang, Nanami Tasaka, Nana Matsuo, Hiroshi Watanabe, Taro Shimizu, Tatsuhiro Ishida, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
Products of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) stimulate melanin synthesis. Reactive sulfur species (RSS) have been shown to have strong ROS and NO scavenging effects. However, the instability and low retention of RSS limit their use as inhibitors of melanin synthesis. The free thiol at Cys34 on human serum albumin (HSA) is highly stable, has a long retention and possess a high reactivity for RSS. We report herein on the development of an HSA based RSS delivery system...
October 11, 2017: Redox Biology
Fayaz Ali Larik, Aamer Saeed, Pervaiz Ali Channar, Urooj Muqadar, Qamar Abbas, Mubashir Hassan, Sung-Yum Seo, Michael Bolte
A series of novel 1-pentanoyl-3-arylthioureas was designed as new mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors and free radical scavengers. The title compounds were obtained in excellent yield and characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and X-ray crystallography in case of compound (4a). The inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase and DPPH were evaluated and it was observed that 1-Pentanoyl-3-(4-methoxyphenyl) thiourea (4f) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC50 1.568 ± 0.01 mM) comparable to Kojic acid (IC50 16...
September 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Simone Braeuer, Walter Goessler, Jan Kameník, Tereza Konvalinková, Anna Žigová, Jan Borovička
The edible ink stain bolete (Cyanoboletus pulverulentus) was found to hyperaccumulate arsenic. We analyzed 39 individual collections determined as C. pulverulentus, mostly from the Czech Republic. According to our results, concentrations of arsenic in C. pulverulentus fruit-bodies may reach 1300mgkg(-1) dry weight. In most collections, data for total and bioavailable arsenic in underlying soils were collected but no significant correlation between the soil arsenic content and arsenic concentrations in the associated fruit-bodies was found...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Le-Le Shao, Xiao-Ling Wang, Kai Chen, Xiao-Wu Dong, Li-Min Kong, De-Yin Zhao, Robert C Hider, Tao Zhou
A range of hydroxypyridinone derivatives were synthesized starting from kojic acid. Among them, 10 and 11 were found to possess the strongest inhibitory effect on monophenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase, having IC50 values of 2.04 and 1.60μM, respectively. The IC50 values of 10 and 11 for the inhibition of diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase were determined as 13.89 and 7.99μM, respectively. Investigation of the inhibitory mechanism of these two compounds indicated that the inhibition was reversible and of a competitive-uncompetitive mixed type...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Matthew Ryan Preiss, Eily Cournoyer, Karissa L Paquin, Elizabeth A Vuono, Kayla Belanger, Edward Walsh, Niall George Howlett, Geoffrey D Bothun
We present an approach to tune the multifunctionality of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) using mixed self-assembled monolayers of cationic lipid and anionic polyethylene glycol (PEG) lipid. By forming stable, monodispersed lipid coated IONs (L-IONs) through a solvent exchange technique, we were able to demonstrate the relationship between surface charge, the magnetic transverse relaxivity (r2 from T2 weighted images), and the binding capacity of small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) as a function of the cationic/anionic (PEG) lipid ratio...
October 16, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Sivalee Trakulvichean, Pawinee Chaiprasert, Julia Otmakhova, Warinthorn Songkasiri
Cassava is one of the main processed crops in Thailand, but this generates large amounts (7.3 million tons in 2015) of waste cassava pulp (WCP). The solid WCP is sold directly to farmers or pulp-drying companies at a low cost to reduce the burden of on-site waste storage. Using an integrated direct and environmental cost model, fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media were compared as added-value waste management alternatives for WCP to mitigate environmental problems. Primary and secondary data were collected from the literature, field data, and case studies...
October 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Mark P Heitz, Jason W Rupp
The inhibition effects of imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) on the enzyme kinetics of mushroom tyrosinase is reported. A simple UV-VIS spectrophotometric assay was used to measure the reaction kinetics of the reaction between mushroom tyrosinase and L-dopa. Seven different imidazolium ILs, comprised of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ([Imn1(+)], n=2, 4, 6) cations paired with several anions that included Cl(-), [NO3(-)], methanesulfonate ([MeSO3(-)]), trifluoromethanesulfonate (or triflate, [TFMS(-)]), and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Tf2N(-)])...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Fei Tuo, Jing Zhang, Wenhong Li, Shuaimo Yao, Qiang Zhou, Zeshu Li
Activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K in 64 mushroom samples collected in China from Yunnan, Fujian and Heilongjiang Provinces, were measured. Gamma-ray emissions were determined by using high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry. The range of concentrations (Bq kg(-1) dry weight) for (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K in all investigated mushroom samples were from 0.12 to 12, 0.05 to 7.5, 0.14 to 14, MDC(<0.01) to 339, and 396 to 1880, respectively. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in mushrooms showed some variation between species sampled at the same site...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Takehito Nakazawa, Ayako Izuno, Masato Horii, Rina Kodera, Hiroshi Nishimura, Yuichiro Hirayama, Yuta Tsunematsu, Yasumasa Miyazaki, Tatsuya Awano, Hajime Muraguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Masahiro Sakamoto, Keiji Takabe, Takashi Watanabe, Yuji Isagi, Yoichi Honda
Peroxisomes are well-known organelles that are present in most eukaryotic organisms. Mutant phenotypes caused by the malfunction of peroxisomes have been shown in many fungi. However, these have never been investigated in Agaricomycetes, which include white-rot fungi that degrade wood lignin in nature almost exclusively and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Based on the results of a forward genetics study to identify mutations causing defects in the ligninolytic activity of the white-rot Agaricomycete Pleurotus ostreatus, we report phenotypes of pex1 disruptants in P...
October 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Darcy G Gordon, Alejandra Zelaya, Katherine Ronk, James F A Traniello
Social insects may have morphologically and behaviorally specialized workers that vary in requirements for sensory information processing, making them excellent systems to examine the relationship between brain structure and behavior. The density and size of synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in the mushroom bodies (MB) have served as proxies for processing ability and synaptic plasticity, and have been shown to vary among insect species that differ in behavioral complexity. To understand the relationship between behavioral specialization and synaptic structure, we examined age-related changes in MG density and size between minor worker and soldier subcastes in two species of Pheidole ants, P...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Papawee Saiki, Yasuhiro Kawano, Leo J L D Van Griensven, Koyomi Miyazaki
For hundreds of years mushrooms have been used as functional food for health. The basidiomycete Agaricus brasiliensis (A. brasiliensis) is famous for the medicinal properties of its beta glucans and of its antioxidants. Most researchers have studied polysaccharides from A. brasiliensis for their anti-inflammatory activity. However, active compounds from this mushroom have not yet been studied for the inactivation of NO inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to find the active compounds from A. brasiliensis for their NO inhibitory activity related inflammatory activity...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
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