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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675903/rare-earth-elements-concentration-in-mushroom-cultivation-substrates-affects-the-production-process-and-fruit-bodies-content-of-pleurotus-ostreatus-and-cyclocybe-cylindracea
#1
Georgios Koutrotsios, Georgios P Danezis, Constantinos A Georgiou, Georgios I Zervakis
BACKGROUND: Concentrations of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) and two actinides were determined for the first time both in cultivated mushrooms and in their production substrates by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Moreover, REEs effect on cultivation parameters and composition of the final product was assessed, together with their potential use for authentication purposes. RESULTS: REEs concentrations presented high variability among seven cultivation substrates, and correlated with respective measurements in Cyclocybe cylindracea mushrooms; no such correlation was established in Pleurotus ostreatus...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675285/isolation-and-determination-of-fomentariol-novel-potential-antidiabetic-drug-from-fungal-material
#2
Nevena Maljurić, Jelena Golubović, Matjaž Ravnikar, Dušan Žigon, Borut Štrukelj, Biljana Otašević
Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading world's public health problems. Therefore, it is of a huge interest to develop new antidiabetic drugs. Apart from traditional therapy of diabetes, nowadays, importance is given to natural substances with antidiabetic potential. Fomes fomentarius is a mushroom widely used for different purposes, due to its range of already confirmed activities. Fomentariol is a constituent of Fomes fomentarius , responsible for its antidiabetic potential. In that respect, it is important to develop a method for isolation and quantification of fomentariol from fungal material, which will be simple and efficient...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674537/near-complete-genome-sequence-of-pseudomonas-palleroniana-mab3-a-beneficial-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase-producing-bacterium-able-to-promote-the-growth-of-mushrooms-and-plants
#3
Paola Urón, Admir J Giachini, Bernard R Glick, Márcio J Rossi, Francisco X Nascimento
The near-complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas palleroniana MAB3, a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase-producing bacterium isolated from an environmental soil Amanita mushroom, is presented here. The genome of P. palleroniana MAB3 contains a single circular chromosome of 6.29 Mb and an average GC content of 60.5%.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673482/dunce-phosphodiesterase-acts-as-a-checkpoint-for-drosophila-long-term-memory-in-a-pair-of-serotonergic-neurons
#4
Lisa Scheunemann, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Yann Dromard, Martin Schwärzel, Thomas Preat
A key function of the brain is to filter essential information and store it in the form of stable, long-term memory (LTM). We demonstrate here that the Dunce (Dnc) phosphodiesterase, an important enzyme that degrades cAMP, acts as a molecular switch that controls LTM formation in Drosophila. We show that, during LTM formation, Dnc is inhibited in the SPN, a pair of newly characterized serotonergic neurons, which stimulates the cAMP/PKA pathway. As a consequence, the SPN activates downstream dopaminergic neurons, opening the gate for LTM formation in the olfactory memory center, the mushroom body...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673297/characterization-of-copk02-a-ca-2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-in-mushroom-coprinopsis-cinerea
#5
Masashi Yamashita, Noriyuki Sueyoshi, Hiroki Yamada, Syouichi Katayama, Yukako Senga, Yasuhiro Takenaka, Atsuhiko Ishida, Isamu Kameshita, Yasushi Shigeri
We surveyed genome sequences from the basidiomycetous mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea and isolated a cDNA homologous to CMKA, a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) in Aspergillus nidulans. We designated this sequence, encoding 580 amino acids with a molecular weight of 63,987, as CoPK02. CoPK02 possessed twelve subdomains specific to protein kinases and exhibited 43, 35, 40% identity with rat CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIV, respectively, and 40% identity with CoPK12, one of the CaMK orthologs in C. cinerea. CoPK02 showed significant autophosphorylation activity and phosphorylated exogenous proteins in the presence of Ca2+ /CaM...
April 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672137/dehydrated-foods-are-they-microbiologically-safe
#6
Bimal Chitrakar, Min Zhang, Benu Adhikari
Dried foods are low water activity foods with water activity ranging from 0.03 to 0.7. They are commonly misconstrued to be inherently safe from food borne pathogenic bacteria. However, there are many reported cases where many food borne illnesses were caused by the consumption of dried foods contaminated with Salmonella spp., Cronobacter spp., Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. In this work, we have systematically reviewed the literature dealing with the effect of drying/dehydration on the survival of pathogenic microorganisms with special focus on Salmonella spp...
April 19, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669203/two-types-of-threonine-tagged-lipopeptides-synergize-in-host-colonization-by-pathogenic-burkholderia-species
#7
Tawatchai Thongkongkaew, Wei Ding, Evgeni Bratovanov, Emilia Oueis, Maria Garcia-Altares, Nestor Zaburannyi, Kirsten Harmrolfs, Youming Zhang, Kirstin Scherlach, Rolf Müller, Christian Hertweck
Bacterial infections of agriculturally important plants and mushrooms pose a major threat to human food sources worldwide. However, structures of chemical mediators required by the pathogen for host colonization and infection remain elusive in most cases. Here, we report two types of threonine-tagged lipopeptides conserved among mushroom and rice pathogenic Burkholderia species that facilitate bacterial infection of hosts. Genome mining, metabolic profiling of infected mushrooms and heterologous expression of orphan gene clusters allowed the discovery of these unprecedented metabolites in the mushroom pathogen Burkholderia gladioli (haereogladin, burriogladin), and the plant pathogen Burkholderia glumae (haereoglumin, and burrioglumin)...
April 18, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667505/a-comprehensive-screening-shows-that-ergothioneine-is-the-most-abundant-antioxidant-in-the-wild-macrofungus-phylloporia-ribis-ryvarden
#8
Hengqiang Zhao, Minmin Zhang, Qian Liu, Xiaoli Wang, Ruixuan Zhao, Yanling Geng, Tityee Wong, Shengbo Li, Xiao Wang
The polar and non-polar extracts from the authenticated wild mushroom Phylloporia ribis were separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and by reverse phase (RP)-HPLC, respectively. A split valve separated the eluents into two fractions for free-radical scavenging analysis and for structural identification. Forty-six compounds showed scavenging activity of the stable-free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The structures of 8 antioxidants (inosine, caffeic acid, ergothioneine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, adenosine, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, apigenin, and naringenin) are characterized by Mass Spectrometer...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665957/hydrogen-rich-water-mediates-redox-regulation-of-the-antioxidant-system-mycelial-regeneration-and-fruiting-body-development-in-hypsizygus-marmoreus
#9
Hui Chen, Haibo Hai, Hong Wang, Qian Wang, Mingjie Chen, Zhiyong Feng, Ming Ye, Jinjing Zhang
Hypsizygus marmoreus is an important industrialized mushroom, yet the lack of basic research on this fungus has hindered further development of its economic value. In this study, mycelia injured by scratching were treated with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) to investigate the involvement of the redox system in fruiting body development. Compared to the control group, damaged mycelia treated with HRW regenerated earlier and showed significantly enhanced fruiting body production. Antioxidant capacity increased significantly in damaged mycelia after HRW treatment, as indicated by higher antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant contents; the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also reduced at the mycelial regeneration stage after treatment with HRW...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665955/development-of-antler-type-fruiting-bodies-of-ganoderma-lucidum-and-determination-of-its-biochemical-properties
#10
Surya Sudheer, Zain Taha, Sivakumar Manickam, Asgar Ali, Poh Guat Cheng
Following the importance of antler-type fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, in this study, the impact of main growth parameters such as ventilation and light on the development of antler-type fruiting bodies has been investigated together with the determination of physico-chemical properties of antler fruiting bodies. For this, the primordia bags of G. lucidum were kept under controlled ventilation to adjust the CO2 produced by the mushrooms owing to its respiration under light and dark conditions. The bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, water-soluble polysaccharides and ganoderic acid showed a two-fold increase in the antler-type fruiting bodies as compared to normal kidney-shaped fruiting bodies...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660886/removal-of-emerging-contaminants-using-spent-mushroom-compost
#11
Bea-Ven Chang, Shao-Ning Fan, Yao-Chou Tsai, Yi-Lin Chung, Ping-Xun Tu, Chu-Wen Yang
Acetaminophen and sulfonamides are emerging contaminants. Conventional wastewater treatment systems fail to degrade these compounds properly. Mycoremediation, is a form of novel bioremediation that uses extracellular enzymes of white-rot fungi to degrade pollutants in the environment. In this study, spent mushroom compost (SMC), which contains fungal extracellular enzymes, was tested for acetaminophen and sulfonamides removal. Among the SMCs of nine mushrooms tested in batch experiments, the SMC of Pleurotus eryngii exhibited the highest removal rate for acetaminophen and sulfonamides...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660454/purification-and-structural-elucidation-of-a-water-soluble-polysaccharide-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-the-grifola-frondosa
#12
Anqiang Zhang, Jiaying Deng, Shuying Yu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Peilong Sun
Grifola frondosa is a polypore mushroom, which has been used for many centuries by traditional Chinese and Japanese herbalists as a medicinal mushroom. A water-soluble polysaccharide (code as GFP30-2-a, molecular weight: 2.04 × 106  Da) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. frondosa by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and chromatography. Its structure was elucidated from its monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, together with 1D NMR (1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) and 2D NMR (COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra)...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659025/synaptic-depression-induced-by-postsynaptic-camp-production-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-calyx
#13
Shoma Sato, Kohei Ueno, Minoru Saitoe, Takaomi Sakai
Synaptic plasticity has been studied to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms of associative and nonassociative learning. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify the molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity because vast genetic information or tools are available. Here, by ex vivo Ca2+ imaging of an isolated cultured Drosophila brain, we examined the novel activity-dependent synaptic depression between the projection neurons of the antennal lobe (AL) and mushroom body (MB). Ex vivo Ca2+ imaging analysis revealed that electrical stimulation of AL elicits Ca2+ responses in the dendritic (calyx) and axonal (α lobe) regions of MB neurons, and the responses are reduced after repetitive AL stimulation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658544/aerosol-processing-a-wind-of-innovation-in-the-field-of-advanced-heterogeneous-catalysts
#14
REVIEW
Damien P Debecker, Solène Le Bras, Cédric Boissière, Alexandra Chaumonnot, Clément Sanchez
Aerosol processing is long known and implemented industrially to obtain various types of divided materials and nanomaterials. The atomisation of a liquid solution or suspension produces a mist of aerosol droplets which can then be transformed via a diversity of processes including spray-drying, spray pyrolysis, flame spray pyrolysis, thermal decomposition, micronisation, gas atomisation, etc. The attractive technical features of these aerosol processes make them highly interesting for the continuous, large scale, and tailored production of heterogeneous catalysts...
April 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656164/lignolytic-mushroom-lenzites-elegans-wdp2-laccase-production-characterization-and-bioremediation-of-synthetic-dyes
#15
Raj Kumar Pandey, Salil Tewari, Lakshmi Tewari
A mycoremedial study was undertaken for decolourization of synthetic dyes using wood rot fungal culture Lenzites elegans WDP2. The culture was isolated from decaying wood as fruiting body, and identified on the basis of 5.8S ITS rRNA gene sequence analysis. Qualitative plate screening of culture showed extracellular laccase and lignin peroxidase production, while only laccase enzyme was produced in higher amount (156.793 Uml-1 ) in minimal salt broth medium containing glucose and veratryl alcohol. Laccase activity was increased up to 189...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655732/characterization-and-comparison-of-key-aroma-compounds-in-raw-and-dry-porcini-mushroom-boletus-edulis-by-aroma-extract-dilution-analysis-quantitation-and-aroma-recombination-experiments
#16
Huiying Zhang, Dandan Pu, Baoguo Sun, Fazheng Ren, Yuyu Zhang, Haitao Chen
A study was carried out to determine and compare the key aroma compounds in raw and dry porcini mushroom (Boletus edulis). The volatile fractions were prepared by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to identify the odorants. Selected aroma compounds were quantitated and odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥ 1 for 12 compounds in raw porcini, among which 1-octen-3-one showed the highest OAV...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655683/bronchodilator-effects-of-lignosus-rhinocerotis-extract-on-rat-isolated-airways-is-linked-to-the-blockage-of-calcium-entry
#17
Mei-Kee Lee, Kuan-Hon Lim, Paul Millns, Suresh Kumar Mohankumar, Szu-Ting Ng, Chon-Seng Tan, Sue-Mian Then, Yvonne Mbaki, Kang-Nee Ting
BACKGROUND: Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden is a popular medicinal mushroom used for centuries in Southeast Asia to treat asthma and chronic cough. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of this mushroom on airways patency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The composition of L. rhinocerotis TM02 cultivar was analyzed. Organ bath experiment was employed to study the bronchodilator effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis cold water extract (CWE) on rat isolated airways...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650497/quality-of-medical-education-is-our-health-in-safe-hands
#18
Tanuj Kanchan, Kewal Krishan, Neelam Dehal
The medical profession, once considered a "noble profession" has been under the scanner for deterioration in services. This decline is generally attributed to commercialisation of services, waning human values, and a lack of empathy and communication skills. At a time when discussions are focused on devising approaches to test medical students for attributes such as empathy, communication skills and concern for the less privileged, developing nations like India are suffering from the "problem of too many"...
March 12, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649729/combined-bioaugmentation-with-anaerobic-ruminal-fungi-and-fermentative-bacteria-to-enhance-biogas-production-from-wheat-straw-and-mushroom-spent-straw
#19
Alberto Ferraro, Giulia Dottorini, Giulia Massini, Valentina Mazzurco Miritana, Antonella Signorini, Giuseppe Lembo, Massimiliano Fabbricino
Bioaugmentation with anaerobic ruminal fungi and a pool of hydrogen-producing fermenting bacteria was tested on wheat straw (WS) and mushroom spent straw (MSS) with the aim of improving anaerobic digestion performance. Batch tests were set up to simulate a Bioaugmentation Anaerobic Digestion (BAD) treatment comparing single- (I-BAD) and two-stage (II-BAD) process configurations, at two reactor scales, 120 and 1200 ml (×10). In both cases, higher CH4 cumulative production was obtained in the II-BAD configuration on WS (65...
April 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645047/boolean-chemotaxis-of-logibots-deciphering-the-motions-of-self-propelling-microorganisms
#20
Tamanna Bhuyan, Mitradip Bhattacharjee, Amit Kumar Singh, Siddhartha Sankar Ghosh, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
We demonstrate the feasibility of a self-propelling mushroom motor, namely a 'logibot', as a functional unit for the construction of a host of optimized binary logic gates. Emulating the chemokinesis of unicellular prokaryotes or eukaryotes, the logibots made stimuli responsive conditional movements at varied speeds towards a pair of acid-alkali triggers. A series of integrative logic operations and cascaded logic circuits, namely, AND, NAND, NOT, OR, NOR, and NIMPLY, have been constructed employing the decisive chemotactic migrations of the logibot in the presence of the pH gradient established by the sole or coupled effects of acid (HCl-catalase) and alkali (NaOH) drips inside a peroxide bath...
April 12, 2018: Soft Matter
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