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Innate lymphoid type 2 cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141759/cell-type-specific-immunomodulation-induced-by-helminthes-effect-on-metainflammation-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#1
Vivekanandhan Aravindhan, Gowrishankar Anand
Recent epidemiological studies have documented an inverse relationship between the decreasing prevalence of helminth infections and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases ("metabolic hygiene hypothesis"). Chronic inflammation leading to insulin resistance (IR) has now been identified as a major etiological factor for a variety of metabolic diseases other than obesity and Type-2 diabetes (metainflammation). One way by which helminth infections such as filariasis can modulate IR is by inducing a chronic, nonspecific, low-grade, immune suppression mediated by modified T-helper 2 (Th2) response (induction of both Th2 and regulatory T cells) which can in turn suppress the proinflammatory responses and promote insulin sensitivity (IS)...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140397/progress-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathology-of-allergic-asthma-and-the-potential-of-fruit-proanthocyanidins-as-modulators-of-airway-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Sara L Coleman, Odette M Shaw
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by sensitization of the airways, and the development of immunoglobulin E antibodies, to benign antigens. The established pathophysiology of asthma includes recurrent lung epithelial inflammation, excessive mucus production, bronchial smooth muscle hyperreactivity, and chronic lung tissue remodeling, resulting in reversible airflow restriction. Immune cells, including eosinophils and the recently characterized type 2 innate lymphoid cells, infiltrate into the lung tissue as part of the inflammatory response in allergic asthma...
November 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138853/role-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease-review
#3
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
The immune system has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiological development of metabolic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to metabolic disease remain to be fully elucidated. It has previously been suggested that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) may be involved in the progression of numerous types of metabolic diseases as these cells act as suppressors and promoters for obesity and associated conditions, and are particularly involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is a major feature of metabolic imbalance...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138530/group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-involved-in-skewed-type-2-immunity-of-gastric-diseases-induced-by-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#4
Rong Li, Xiao-Xia Jiang, Lin-Fang Zhang, Xiao-Ming Liu, Ting-Zi Hu, Xiu-Juan Xia, Ming Li, Can-Xia Xu
H. pylori induces a complicated local and systematic immune response and contributes to the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. A primary type 1 immune response is evoked by H. pylori since its occurrence. However, it is not unusual that an inhibitory immunity is dominant in H. pylori-associated diseases, which are promoted by the formation of immunosuppressive microenvironment. But whether group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) plays a critical role in H. pylori-induced skewed type 2 immunity is still unclear...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133293/il-33-responsive-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-regulated-by-female-sex-hormones-in-the-uterus
#5
Kathleen Bartemes, Chien-Chang Chen, Koji Iijima, Li Drake, Hirohito Kita
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) reside in multiple organs in the body, where they play roles in immunity, tissue homeostasis, and metabolic regulation. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of ILC2s in different organs. Here, we identified ILC2s in the mouse uterus and found that they express cell surface molecules, including the IL-33 receptor, ST2, that are roughly comparable to those expressed by lung ILC2s. Both in vivo and in vitro treatment with IL-33 induced type 2 cytokine production in uterine ILC2s, suggesting that they respond to IL-33 in a manner similar to ILC2s in other organs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122948/microrna-regulation-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-homeostasis-and-function-in-allergic-inflammation
#6
Priti B Singh, Heather H Pua, Hannah C Happ, Christoph Schneider, Jakob von Moltke, Richard M Locksley, Dirk Baumjohann, K Mark Ansel
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert powerful effects on immunity through coordinate regulation of multiple target genes in a wide variety of cells. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are tissue sentinel mediators of allergic inflammation. We established the physiological requirements for miRNAs in ILC2 homeostasis and immune function and compared the global miRNA repertoire of resting and activated ILC2s and T helper type 2 (TH2) cells. After exposure to the natural allergen papain, mice selectively lacking the miR-17∼92 cluster in ILC2s displayed reduced lung inflammation...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108648/cyclosporin-a-indirectly-attenuates-activation-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-papain-induced-lung-inflammation
#7
Fujimi Kudo, Masashi Ikutani, Masanori Iseki, Satoshi Takaki
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a well-known immunosuppressant that is used against steroid-resistant asthma. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 2 helper T (Th2) cells produce Th2 cytokines including IL-5 and play important roles in asthma pathogenesis. Here, we studied the effects of CsA in allergen-induced lung inflammation in mice and found that CsA decreased the number of lung ILC2s and attenuated papain-induced activation of ILC2s accompanied with IL-5 expression. The ILC2 suppression mediated by CsA was not observed in culture or in lymphocyte-deficient Rag2(-/-) mice...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101106/interleukin-il-33-and-the-il-1-family-of-cytokines-regulators-of-inflammation-and-tissue-homeostasis
#8
Ajithkumar Vasanthakumar, Axel Kallies
Cytokines play an integral role in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. Members of the interleukin (IL)-1 family regulate a plethora of immune-cell-mediated processes, which include pathogen defense and tissue homeostasis. Notably, the IL-1 family cytokine IL-33 promotes adaptive and innate type 2 immune responses, confers viral protection and facilitates glucose metabolism and tissue repair. At the cellular level, IL-33 stimulates differentiation, maintenance, and function of various immune cell types, including regulatory T cells, effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, macrophages, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s)...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093264/secreted-pla2-group-x-orchestrates-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses-to-inhaled-allergen
#9
James D Nolin, Ying Lai, Herbert Luke Ogden, Anne M Manicone, Ryan C Murphy, Dowon An, Charles W Frevert, Farideh Ghomashchi, Gajendra S Naika, Michael H Gelb, Gail M Gauvreau, Adrian M Piliponsky, William A Altemeier, Teal S Hallstrand
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes regulate the formation of eicosanoids and lysophospholipids that contribute to allergic airway inflammation. Secreted PLA2 group X (sPLA2-X) was recently found to be increased in the airways of asthmatics and is highly expressed in airway epithelial cells and macrophages. In the current study, we show that allergen exposure increases sPLA2-X in humans and in mice, and that global deletion of Pla2g10 results in a marked reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophil and T cell trafficking to the airways, airway occlusion, generation of type-2 cytokines by antigen-stimulated leukocytes, and antigen-specific immunoglobulins...
November 2, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091759/cd5-nk1-1-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-that-develop-in-a-bcl11b-independent-manner-participate-in-early-protection-against-infection
#10
Shinya Hatano, Tesshin Murakami, Naoto Noguchi, Hisakata Yamada, Yasunobu Yoshikai
We recently found that a unique subset of innate-like γδ T cells develops from the DN2a stage of the fetal thymus independently of the zinc-finger transcription factor B cell leukemia/lymphoma 11b (Bcl11b). Herein, we characterize these Bcl11b-independent γδ T cells in the periphery as CD5(-)NK1.1(+) and Granzyme B(+), and we show that they are capable of producing interferon (IFN)-γ upon T cell receptor stimulation without Ca(2+) influx. In wild-type mice, these cells were sparse in lymphoid tissues but abundant in non-lymphoid tissues, such as the liver...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084017/antialarmins-for-treatment-of-asthma-future-perspectives
#11
Dhuha Al-Sajee, John-Paul Oliveria, Roma Sehmi, Gail M Gauvreau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have highlighted the role of alarmins in asthma pathophysiology and tested the roles of these cytokines in asthmatic patients. This review will discuss the recent advances in the role of alarmins in asthma and the potential of future targeted therapies in asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Epithelial-derived cytokines can be released upon exposure to external stimuli, causing damage to the epithelial barrier and resulting in tissue inflammation...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082915/th2-cell-development-and-function
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer A Walker, Andrew N J McKenzie
T helper 2 (TH2) cells orchestrate protective type 2 immune responses, such as those that target helminths and facilitate tissue repair, but also contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and allergy. Here, we review recent insights into how diverse molecular signals from cellular sources, including dendritic cells, innate lymphoid cells and the epithelium, are integrated by T cells to guide the transcriptional and epigenetic changes necessary for TH2 cell differentiation. Our improved understanding of these pathways has opened new avenues for therapeutically targeting TH2 cells in asthma and allergy...
October 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074458/il-10-tgf-%C3%AE-and-glucocorticoid-prevent-the-production-of-type-2-cytokines-in-human-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#13
Noriko Ogasawara, Julie A Poposki, Aiko I Klingler, Bruce K Tan, Ava R Weibman, Kathryn E Hulse, Whitney W Stevens, Anju T Peters, Leslie C Grammer, Robert P Schleimer, Kevin C Welch, Stephanie S Smith, David B Conley, Joseph R Raviv, Pejman Soroosh, Omid Akbari, Tetsuo Himi, Robert C Kern, Atsushi Kato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045903/hpari-protein-secreted-by-a-helminth-parasite-suppresses-interleukin-33
#14
Megan Osbourn, Dinesh C Soares, Francesco Vacca, E Suzanne Cohen, Ian C Scott, William F Gregory, Danielle J Smyth, Matilda Toivakka, Andrea M Kemter, Thierry le Bihan, Martin Wear, Dennis Hoving, Kara J Filbey, James P Hewitson, Holly Henderson, Andrea Gonzàlez-Cìscar, Claire Errington, Sonja Vermeren, Anne L Astier, William A Wallace, Jürgen Schwarze, Alasdair C Ivens, Rick M Maizels, Henry J McSorley
Infection by helminth parasites is associated with amelioration of allergic reactivity, but mechanistic insights into this association are lacking. Products secreted by the mouse parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppress type 2 (allergic) immune responses through interference in the interleukin-33 (IL-33) pathway. Here, we identified H. polygyrus Alarmin Release Inhibitor (HpARI), an IL-33-suppressive 26-kDa protein, containing three predicted complement control protein (CCP) modules. In vivo, recombinant HpARI abrogated IL-33, group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and eosinophilic responses to Alternaria allergen administration, and diminished eosinophilic responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, increasing parasite burden...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038009/advances-in-mechanisms-of-allergic-disease-in-2016
#15
Marc E Rothenberg, Hirohisa Saito, R Stokes Peebles
This review highlights advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly type 2 innate lymphoid cells; TH2 lymphocytes; eicosanoid regulation of inflammation; extracellular vesicles in allergic responses; IL-33; microbiome properties, especially as they relate to mucosal barrier function; and a series of findings concerning the allergic inflammatory cells eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. During the last year, mechanistic advances occurred in understanding type 2 innate lymphoid cells, particularly related to their response to ozone, involvement with experimental food allergy responses, and regulation by IL-33...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038008/fibrinogen-cleavage-products-and-toll-like-receptor-4-promote-the-generation-of-programmed-cell-death-1-ligand-2-positive-dendritic-cells-in-allergic-asthma
#16
Minkyoung Cho, Jeong-Eun Lee, Hoyong Lim, Hyun-Woo Shin, Roza Khalmuratova, Garam Choi, Hyuk Soon Kim, Wahn Soo Choi, Young-Jun Park, Inbo Shim, Byung-Seok Kim, Chang-Yuil Kang, Jae-Ouk Kim, Shinya Tanaka, Masato Kubo, Yeonseok Chung
BACKGROUND: Inhaled protease allergens preferentially trigger TH2-mediated inflammation in allergic asthma. The role of dendritic cells (DCs) on induction of TH2 cell responses in allergic asthma has been well documented; however, the mechanism by which protease allergens induce TH2-favorable DCs in the airway remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine a subset of DCs responsible for TH2 cell responses in allergic asthma and the mechanism by which protease allergens induce the DC subset in the airway...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030488/long-lived-innate-il-17-producing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-modulate-antimicrobial-epithelial-host-defense-in-the-colon
#17
Abdul Rashid Bin Mohammad Muzaki, Irene Soncin, Yolanda Aphrilia Setiagani, Jianpeng Sheng, Piotr Tetlak, Klaus Karjalainen, Christiane Ruedl
Intestinal IL-17-producing cells, including Th17, γ/δ T, and innate lymphoid cells, are differentially distributed along the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we show that the gut IL-17-producing γ/δ T (γ/δ T17) cells develop before birth and persist in the tissue as long-lived cells with minimal turnover. Most colon γ/δ T17 cells express, together with Vγ4 and CCR6, the scavenger receptor 2 and are mainly restricted to innate lymphoid follicles in the colon. Colon γ/δ T cells in mice that lack conventional dendritic cells 2 produced increased amounts of IL-17 with concomitant heightened epithelial antimicrobial response, such as the C-type lectins Reg3γ and Reg3β...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982732/adenosine-receptors-differentially-regulate-type-2-cytokine-production-by-il-33-activated-bone-marrow-cells-ilc2s-and-macrophages
#18
Balázs Csóka, Zoltán H Németh, Claudia U Duerr, Jörg H Fritz, Pál Pacher, György Haskó
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) represent a rapid source of type 2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, and play an important role in orchestrating type 2 immune response. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside, a catabolite of ATP that binds and activates ≥1 of 4 transmembrane G protein-coupled cell-surface adenosine receptors (ARs)-A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 Here, we studied the role of ARs in the regulation of cytokine production by ILC2s. We found that A2BARs suppress the production of both IL-5 and IL-13 by ILC2s, whereas A2AARs augment IL-5 production and fail to affect IL-13 release...
October 5, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960101/relb-deficient-dendritic-cells-promote-the-development-of-spontaneous-allergic-airway-inflammation
#19
Prema M Nair, Malcolm R Starkey, Tatt Jhong Haw, Roland Ruscher, Gang Liu, Muralidhara R Maradana, Ranjeny Thomas, Brendan J O'Sullivan, Philip M Hansbro
RATIONALE: RelB is a member of the NF-κB family that is essential for dendritic cell (DC) function and maturation. However, the contribution of RelB to the development of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) is unknown. Here, we identify a pivotal role for RelB in the development of spontaneous AAI, independent of exogenous allergen exposure. METHODS: We assessed AAI in two strains of RelB-deficient ((-/-)) mice, one with a targeted deletion and another mutant expressing an major histocompatibility complex (MHC) transgene...
September 29, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959799/cytokine-and-lipid-mediator-regulation-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-ilc2s-in-human-allergic-airway-disease
#20
Kellen Cavagnero, Taylor A Doherty
The recent discovery of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) has caused a paradigm shift in the understanding of allergic airway disease pathogenesis. Prior to the discovery of ILC2s, Th2 cells were largely thought to be the primary source of type 2 cytokines; however, activated ILC2s have since been shown to contribute significantly, and in some cases, dominantly to type 2 cytokine production. Since the discovery of ILC2s in 2010, many mediators have been shown to regulate their effector functions. Initial studies identified the epithelial derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP as activators of ILC2s, and recent studies have identified many additional cytokine and lipid mediators that are involved in ILC2 regulation...
August 2017: J Cytokine Biol
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