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Saba Aghapour, Bijan Bina, Mohammad Javad Tarrahi, Fahimeh Amiri, Afshin Ebrahimi
Fluoride (F) contamination in groundwater can be problematic to human health. This study evaluated the concentration of fluoride in groundwater resources of Isfahan Province, the central plateau of Iran, and its related health issues to the inhabitant populations. For this purpose, 573 drinking groundwater samples were analyzed in 2016 by using the spectrophotometric method. Non-carcinogenic health risks due to F exposure through consumption of drinking water were assessed using the US EPA method. In addition, the associated zoning maps of the obtained results were presented using geographic information system (GIS)...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Bo Gao, Li Gao, Dongyu Xu, Yang Zhou, Jin Lu
The mobility and transfer of trace metals in sediments are vital to understanding trace metals environmental behavior in water environment. However, as a predominant aquatic carcinogen, an effective method for assessing the release and deposition for Cr at the sediment-water interface (SWI) is still not clearly understood. Here we established a comprehensive methodology to evaluate the release risk of Cr at the SWI combining regional geochemical baseline (RGB) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). Sediment cores and water samples were collected in the two tributaries and mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir, which is the world's largest man-made hydroelectric station...
February 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
James C Wallace, Jessica E Youngblood, Jesse A Port, Alison C Cullen, Marissa N Smith, Tomomi Workman, Elaine M Faustman
Whole-metagenome sequencing (WMS) has emerged as a powerful tool to assess potential public health risks in marine environments by measuring changes in microbial community structure and function in uncultured bacteria. In addition to monitoring public health risks such as antibiotic resistance determinants, it is essential to measure predictors of microbial variation in order to identify natural versus anthropogenic factors as well as to evaluate reproducibility of metagenomic measurements.This study expands our previous metagenomic characterization of Puget Sound by sampling new nearshore environments including the Duwamish River, an EPA superfund site, and the Hood Canal, an area characterized by highly variable oxygen levels...
2018: PloS One
Dudsadee Muenhor, Stuart Harrad
This study examines concentrations of tri- to hexa-bromodiphenylethers (BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153 and 154; Σ10PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers)) in car (n = 30) and house dust samples (n = 53) collected from different provinces in Thailand. The specific objectives of this study were: (i) to monitor levels of tri- to hexa-bromodiphenylethers (BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153 and 154; Σ10PBDEs) in vehicle and residential dust sampled from various provinces in Thailand; (ii) to compare PBDE concentrations with those detected for domestic and automobile dust in studies from other countries and (iii) to estimate exposure of the Thai population to the target PBDEs via dust ingestion...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Paulo R Dores-Silva, Jussara A O Cotta, Maria D Landgraf, Maria O O Rezende
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of stabilized organic matter (vermicompost) and tropical soils in the sorption of naphthalene, anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene. The results obtained for the three compounds were extrapolated for the priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollutants according to Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). To evaluate the sorption process, high performance liquid chromatography was employed and the data was fitted by Freundlich isotherms. The results suggest that the sorption effect generally increases with the number of benzene rings of the PAHs, and that the persistence of PAHs in the environment is possibly related to the number of benzene rings in the PAH molecule...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Keren Dolan, Heather Finley, Margo Gasta, Sasha Houseman
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) affects more than 14 million individuals in the United States, most of them women. Thyroid replacement therapy has long been the foundation of medical treatment for HT; however, recent research supports a role for nutritional approaches. This case report describes the management of a 34-y-old female with HT who declined thyroid replacement therapy and was successfully managed for a period of 5 mo. The patient was advised to follow a phytonutrient rich diet (eg, berries); avoid sensitive foods (gluten and soy); and consume quality fats, fermented foods, and filtered water...
February 10, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Tuyet Nam Thi Nguyen, Kuen-Sik Jung, Ji Min Son, Hye-Ok Kwon, Sung-Deuk Choi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gaseous and particulate phases (n = 188) were collected in Ulsan, South Korea, over a period of one year (June 2013‒May 2014) to understand the seasonal variation and phase distribution of PAHs as well as to identify the seasonal PAH emission sources. The target compounds were the 16 US-EPA priority PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene, acenaphthylene, and acenaphthene. Winter and spring had the highest and lowest PAH concentrations, respectively. The mean of the Σ13 PAHs in the gaseous phase (4...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
J Płotka-Wasylka
A new means for assessing analytical protocols relating to green analytical chemistry attributes has been developed. The new tool, called GAPI (Green Analytical Procedure Index), evaluates the green character of an entire analytical methodology, from sample collection to final determination, and was created using such tools as the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI) or Analytical Eco-Scale to provide not only general but also qualitative information. In GAPI, a specific symbol with five pentagrams can be used to evaluate and quantify the environmental impact involved in each step of an analytical methodology, mainly from green through yellow to red depicting low, medium to high impact, respectively...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jason Hudgins, Nicholas Lambert, Steven Duranceau, J Russell Butler
Iron is one of the most common elements in the Earth's crust, which corresponds to it being a common constituent in drinking water supplies. Residents of Bithlo, an unincorporated community in east-central Florida, have observed that their drinking water tastes like metal and stains clothing and teeth. An evaluation of water samples collected from over 200 private drinking water wells revealed iron concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) secondary standard of 0.3 mg/L. Households with and without point-of-entry treatment were found to have over three times (0...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
L Menchetti, C Canali, C Castellini, C Boiti, G Brecchia
This study investigates the effects of linseed (rich in ɑ-linolenic acid (ALA)) and fish oil (rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) supplementation on the insulin resistance of pregnant rabbits. Two months before insemination, the rabbits (15 animals/group) were fed different diets: commercial standard (group C), supplemented with 10% extruded linseed (group L), and 3% fish oil (group FO). The L group does showed both the highest feed intake before AI (P < 0.01) and the highest body weight (BW) throughout pregnancy (P < 0...
February 2, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
David L Taylor, Nicholas M Calabrese
Total mercury (Hg; ppm dry weight) was measured in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, collected from Narraganset Bay and adjacent coastal lagoons and tidal rivers (Rhode Island/Massachusetts, USA) from May to August 2006-2016. For juvenile crabs (21-79mm carapace width, CW), total Hg was significantly greater in chelae muscle tissue (mean±1 SD=0.32±0.21ppm; n=65) relative to whole bodies (0.21±0.16ppm; n=19), and irrespective of tissue-type, crab Hg was positively related to CW indicating bioaccumulation of the toxicant...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Nobuhiro Hanai, Hoshino Terada, Hitoshi Hirakawa, Hidenori Suzuki, Daisuke Nishikawa, Shintaro Beppu, Yasuhisa Hasegawa
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a nutritional supplement with a high blend ratio of ω-3 fatty acids can minimize weight loss and attenuate increases in inflammatory marker levels during the perioperative period in patients undergoing surgery for head and neck carcinoma. Methods: Patients with ≥5% weight loss within 6 months were considered as targets for aggressive nutritional intervention. Among these patients, those with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, who underwent major invasive surgery with free flap reconstruction were included in the present study...
February 6, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Michael Jayjock, Andrew Anthony Havics
Residential inter-zonal (e.g., between rooms) ventilation is comprised of fresh air infiltration in and exfiltration out of the whole house plus the "fresh" air that is entering (and exiting) the room of interest from other rooms or areas within the house. Clearly, the inter-zone ventilation rate in any room of interest will be greater than the infiltration/exfiltration ventilation rate of outdoor air for the whole house. The purpose of this study is to determine how much greater the inter-zonal ventilation rate is in typical US residences compared to the whole house ventilation rate from outdoor air...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Filio Petsini, Elizabeth Fragopoulou, Smaragdi Antonopoulou
The purpose of this review is to collect and compare fish intervention studies. Prospective studies have outlined the beneficial effect of frequent fish consumption on cardiovascular incidents that is attributed to n-3 fatty acids incorporated in fish, mainly eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. This outcome triggered clinical trials to examine the effect of either fish intake or consumption of n-3 fatty acids via capsules on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The absence of a recent review focusing on clinical trials regarding fish intake and not n-3 fatty acids supplements rendered necessary the composition of this article...
February 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Natsumi Morito, Yasunori Suematsu, Rie Koyoshi, Yuhei Shiga, Takashi Kuwano, Atsushi Iwata, Kanta Fujimi, Akira Kawamura, Shin-Ichiro Miura
Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Japan remains high, and the onset becomes early. Studies on the current conditions and lifestyles of obese university students may support early interventions to achieve lifestyle modification. Methods and Results: The results of periodic health examinations in 32,262 first-year university students revealed that 2,036 (6.3%) were obese. We performed a more detailed examination in 221 of these obese students (165 males and 56 females, age 19 ± 1 years) with study agreement from 2014 to 2016...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Xiaogang Jiang, Hans Chr Bruun Hansen, Bjarne W Strobel, Nina Cedergreen
Saponin-rich extracts from Quillaja saponaria and Chenopodium quinoa have been registered by US EPA as active ingredients in biopesticides, and extract from tea seed powder, Camellia oleifera has been proposed for biocidal use. If saponin-rich biopesticides are efficient against pests, they are most likely also bioactive in the aquatic environment against non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to conduct an effect assessment of saponin-rich plant extracts by using species sensitivity distributions based on acute toxicity tests...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Gabriel Dasilva, Mattew Boller, Isabel Medina, Judith Storch
Previous research showed that increasing the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine lipid supplements significantly reduces associated health benefits compared with balanced eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):DHA supplementation Dasilva et al., 2015 [1]. It was therefore hypothesized that the EPA and DHA molecules might have differential resistance to oxidation during gastric digestion and that the oxidation level achieved could be inversely correlated with intestinal absorption and, hence, with the resultant health benefits...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jiajie Liu, Salma A Abdelmagid, Christopher J Pinelli, Jennifer M Monk, Danyelle M Liddle, Lyn M Hillyer, Barbora Hucik, Anjali Silva, Sanjeena Subedi, Geoffrey A Wood, Lindsay E Robinson, William J Muller, David W L Ma
Marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis. However, evidence regarding plant-based α-linolenic acid (ALA), the major n-3 PUFA in the Western diet, remains equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of lifelong exposure to plant- or marine-derived n-3 PUFAs on pubertal mammary gland and tumor development in MMTV-neu(ndl)-YD5 mice. It is hypothesized that lifelong exposure to n-3 PUFA reduces terminal end buds during puberty leading to delayed tumor onset, volume and multiplicity...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
E Stoutjesdijk, A Schaafsma, D A J Dijck-Brouwer, F A J Muskiet
INTRODUCTION: Erythrocyte (RBC) DHA+EPA is considered optimal at 8g%. Mothers with lifetime high fish intakes exhibiting this status produce milk with about 1g% DHA+EPA. We established DHA+EPA supplemental dosages needed to augment RBC DHA+EPA to 8g% and milk DHA+EPA to 1g%. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant women were randomly allocated to DHA+EPA dosages of: 225+90 (n=9), 450+180 (n=9), 675+270 (n=11) and 900+360 (n=7) mg/day. Samples were collected at 20 and 36 gestational weeks and 4 weeks postpartum...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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