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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905700/use-of-ozone-depleting-substances-direct-final-rule
#1
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is amending its regulation on uses of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), to remove the designation for certain products as "essential uses" under the Clean Air Act. Essential-use products are exempt from the ban by FDA on the use of CFCs and other ODS propellants in FDA-regulated products and from the ban by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the use of ODSs in pressurized dispensers. The products that will no longer constitute an essential use are: Sterile aerosol talc administered intrapleurally by thoracoscopy for human use and metered-dose atropine sulfate aerosol human drugs administered by oral inhalation...
October 26, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902774/intravenous-treatment-with-a-long-chain-omega-3-lipid-emulsion-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemic-stroke-a-pilot-study
#2
Dirk Berressem, Konrad Koch, Nicole Franke, Jochen Klein, Gunter P Eckert
Single long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are known for their neuroprotective properties associated with ischemic stroke. This pilot study aimed to test the effectiveness of an acute treatment with a long-chain omega-3 lipid emulsion (Omegaven 10%®, OGV) that contains fish oil (DHA 18 mg/ml; EPA 21 mg/ml) and α-tocopherol (0.2 mg/ml) in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke in mice. For this purpose, female CD-1 mice were anesthetized and subjected to 90 minutes of MCAO...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902432/self-replicating-shuttle-vectors-based-on-pans-a-small-endogenous-plasmid-of-the-unicellular-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942
#3
You Chen, Arnaud Taton, Michaela Go, Ross E London, Lindsey M Pieper, Susan S Golden, James W Golden
To facilitate development of synthetic biology tools for genetic engineering of cyanobacterial strains, we constructed pANS-derived self-replicating shuttle vectors that are based on the minimal replication element of the Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 plasmid pANS. To remove the possibility of homologous recombination events between the shuttle plasmids and the native pANS plasmid, the endogenous pANS was cured through plasmid incompatibility-mediated spontaneous loss. A heterologous toxin-antitoxin cassette was incorporated into the shuttle vectors for stable plasmid maintenance in the absence of antibiotic selection...
October 14, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895698/combinations-of-bio-active-dietary-constituents-affect-human-white-adipocyte-function-in-vitro
#4
Ines Warnke, Johan W E Jocken, Rotraut Schoop, Christine Toepfer, Regina Goralczyk, Joseph Schwager
BACKGROUND: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass per se, is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895203/a-palmitic-acid-elongase-affects-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-plastidal-monogalactosyldiacylglcerol-levels-in-nannochloropsis
#5
Lina Juana Dolch, Camille Rak, Giorgio Perin, Guillaume Tourcier, Richard Broughton, Marina Leterrier, Tomas Morosinotto, Frédérique Tellier, Jean-Denis Faure, Denis Falconet, Juliette Jouhet, Olga Sayanova, Frederic Beaudoin, Eric Marechal
Nannochloropsis species are oleaginous eukaryotes containing a plastid limited by four membranes, deriving from a secondary endosymbiosis. In Nannochloropsis, thylakoid lipids including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) are enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The need for EPA in MGDG is not understood. Fatty acids are de novo synthesized in the stroma, then converted into very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids at the ER. The production of MGDG relies therefore on an EPA supply from the ER to the plastid, following an unknown process...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887602/combination-of-aspirin-with-essential-fatty-acids-is-superior-to-aspirin-alone-to-prevent-or-ameliorate-sepsis-or-ards
#6
EDITORIAL
Undurti N Das
It has been suggested that aspirin may be of benefit in treating sepsis and ARDS in view of its ability to block cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 activities; inhibit nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB); enhance the production of endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). Our previous studies revealed that plasma phospholipid content of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is low in patients with sepsis. This implies that beneficial actions of aspirin in sepsis and ARDS is unlikely to be obtained in view of deficiency of AA and EPA, the precursors of LXA4 and resolvins respectively that are potent anti-inflammatory compounds and enhancers of eNO generation...
November 25, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886988/lifetime-lung-cancer-risks-associated-with-indoor-radon-exposure-based-on-various-radon-risk-models-for-canadian-population
#7
Jing Chen
This study calculates and compares the lifetime lung cancer risks associated with indoor radon exposure based on well-known risk models in the literature; two risk models are from joint studies among miners and the other three models were developed from pooling studies on residential radon exposure from China, Europe and North America respectively. The aim of this article is to make clear that the various models are mathematical descriptions of epidemiologically observed real risks in different environmental settings...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886528/neighborhood-social-stressors-fine-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-cognitive-function-among-older-u-s-adults
#8
Jennifer Ailshire, Amelia Karraker, Philippa Clarke
A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886439/efficacy-of-accelerated-hydrogen-peroxide-%C3%A2-disinfectant-on-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-swine-vesicular-disease-virus-and-senecavirus-a
#9
Kate Hole, Faraz Ahmadpour, Jay Krishnan, Carol Stansfield, John Copps, Charles Nfon
AIMS: In a laboratory disinfectants used to inactivate pathogens on contaminated surfaces and prevent spread of diseases often have adverse side effects on personnel and the environment. It is therefore essential to find safer, fast-acting and yet effective disinfectants. The objective of this study was to evaluate an accelerated hydrogen peroxide(®) (AHP(®) ) - based disinfectant against high consequence foreign animal disease pathogens such as foot-and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), as well as Senencavirus A (SVA), which causes similar lesions as FMDV and SVDV...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886398/an-in-situ-toxicity-identification-and-evaluation-itie-water-analysis-system-laboratory-validation
#10
August J Steigmeyer, Jiamin Zhang, Jennifer M Daley, Xiaowei Zhang, G Allen Burton
It is difficult to assess the toxicity of a single stressor and establish a strong stressor-causality link when multiple stressors coexist. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methodology uses a series of chemical and physical manipulations to fractionate compounds within a matrix and systematically identify potential toxicants. The current EPA application of TIE can provide valuable information, but often lacks ecological realism and is subject to laboratory-related artifacts. An in situ TIE Device (iTIED) was designed to assess the sources of toxicity in aquatic ecosystems...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884155/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-lcpufas-and-nordihydroguaiaretic-acid-ndga-modulate-metabolic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-a-spontaneous-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-model-stillman-salgado-rats
#11
Alejandro Dain, Gaston Repossi, Gustavo T Diaz-Gerevini, Jairam Vanamala, Undurti N Das, Aldo R Eynard
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory markers. Stillman Salgado rats (eSS) spontaneously develop type 2 DM by middle age showing progressive impairment of glucose tolerance with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia. We analyzed the effects of supplementation of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with or without nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) added, an antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitor, on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in eSS rats to evaluate whether they can delay development and/or prevent progression of DM...
November 25, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881290/mercury-eicosapentanoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-demonstrate-limited-effect-on-plasma-paraoxonase-1-activity-and-blood-pressure-among-avid-seafood-consumers-in-the-long-island-study-of-seafood-consumption-ny-usa
#12
Charles Miller, Roxanne Karimi, Qiao Zhang, Jie Yang, Jaymie Meliker
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Moderate fish consumption is recommended for prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have known beneficial effects on risk factors such as reducing blood pressure (BP) and increasing paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity. However concomitant methylmercury (MeHg) exposure from fish consumption may mitigate these benefits and the net effect on BP and PON-1 activity has not been extensively studied in western populations consuming diverse seafood types...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880795/the-association-of-fatty-acid-levels-and-gleason-grade-among-men-undergoing-radical-prostatectomy
#13
Zhiguo Zhao, Lael Reinstatler, Zachary Klaassen, Yi Xu, Xiaoyu Yang, Rabii Madi, Martha K Terris, Steven Y Qian, Uddhav Kelavkar, Kelvin A Moses
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data suggest that omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) may be associated with cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality, whereas ω-3 FAs are potentially protective. We examined the association of the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3 FA (ω-6:ω-3) and individual FA components with pathological results among men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing radical prostatectomy. METHODS: Sixty-nine men were included in the study. Components of ω-6 (linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)) and ω-3 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass selective detector separation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876761/early-infant-adipose-deposition-is-positively-associated-with-the-n-6-to-n-3-fatty-acid-ratio-in-human-milk-independent-of-maternal-bmi
#14
M C Rudolph, B E Young, D J Lemas, C E Palmer, T L Hernandez, L A Barbour, J E Friedman, N F Krebs, P S MacLean
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive infant weight gain in the first 6-months of life is a powerful predictor of childhood obesity and related health risks. In mice, omega-6 fatty acids (FA) serve as potent ligands driving adipogenesis during early development. The ratio of omega-6 relative to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) FA in human milk (HM) has increased 3-fold over the last 30 years, but the impact of this shift on infant adipose development remains undetermined. This study investigated how maternal obesity and maternal dietary FA (as reflected in maternal red blood cells (RBC) composition) influenced HM n-6 and n-3 FAs, and whether the HM n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with changes in infant adipose deposition between 2-weeks and 4-months postpartum...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876051/dietary-marine-derived-long-chain-monounsaturated-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-mini-review
#15
REVIEW
Zhi-Hong Yang, Beatrice Emma-Okon, Alan T Remaley
Regular fish/fish oil consumption is widely recommended for protection against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Fish and other marine life are rich sources of the cardioprotective long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3; DHA). The lipid content and fatty acid profile of fish, however, vary greatly among different fish species. In addition to n-3 PUFA, certain fish, such as saury, pollock, and herring, also contain high levels of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFA), with aliphatic tails longer than 18 C atoms (i...
November 22, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875996/differences-in-the-skeletal-muscle-transcriptome-profile-associated-with-extreme-values-of-fatty-acids-content
#16
Aline S M Cesar, Luciana C A Regitano, Mirele D Poleti, Sónia C S Andrade, Polyana C Tizioto, Priscila S N Oliveira, Andrezza M Felício, Michele L do Nascimento, Amália S Chaves, Dante P D Lanna, Rymer R Tullio, Renata T Nassu, James E Koltes, Eric Fritz-Waters, Gerson B Mourão, Adhemar Zerlotini-Neto, James M Reecy, Luiz L Coutinho
BACKGROUND: Lipids are a class of molecules that play an important role in cellular structure and metabolism in all cell types. In the last few decades, it has been reported that long-chain fatty acids (FAs) are involved in several biological functions from transcriptional regulation to physiological processes. Several fatty acids have been both positively and negatively implicated in different biological processes in skeletal muscle and other tissues. To gain insight into biological processes associated with fatty acid content in skeletal muscle, the aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and functional pathways related to gene expression regulation associated with FA content in cattle...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873461/human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-in-vitro-system-to-test-the-efficacy-of-food-bioactive-compounds-effects-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-relation-with-bmi
#17
Margalida Cifre, Rubén Díaz-Rúa, Rubén Varela-Calviño, Bàrbara Reynés, Jordi Pericás-Beltrán, Andreu Palou, Paula Oliver
SCOPE: To analyse usefulness of isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to rapidly/easily reflect n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) effects on lipid metabolism/inflammation gene profile, and evaluate if these effects are BMI-dependent. METHODS AND RESULTS: PBMC from normoweight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) subjects were incubated with physiological doses of docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or their combination...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873315/incorporation-of-conjugated-fatty-acids-into-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#18
Elton G Bonafé, Luana C de Figueiredo, Alessandro F Martins, Johny P Monteiro, Oscar O S Junior, Edmilson A Canesin, Swami Arêa Maruyama, Jesuí V Visentainer
The aim of this work was to improve the nutritional quality of Nile tilapia meat through enriched diets with conjugated isomers of linolenic acid from tung oil. The transfer process of conjugated fatty acids (CFA) into fish muscle tissue was evaluated by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (EASI-MS). The results showed that conjugated fatty acids were transferred from enriched diet for muscle tissue of Nile tilapia. Conjugated linoleic acids biosynthesis from conjugated linolenic acids was also observed after ten days...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873157/eicosapentaenoic-acid-triggers-ca-2-release-and-ca-2-influx-in-mouse-cerebral-cortex-endothelial-bend-3-cells
#19
King-Chuen Wu, Kar-Lok Wong, Mei-Ling Wang, Lian-Ru Shiao, Iat-Lon Leong, Chi-Li Gong, Ka-Shun Cheng, Paul Chan, Yuk-Man Leung
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid abundant in fish oil, protects endothelial cells (EC) from lipotoxicity and triggers EC NO release. The latter is related to an elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+). Although EPA has been shown to cause human EC cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation, the mechanism is unclear. Microfluorimetric imaging was used here to measure free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. EPA was shown to cause intracellular Ca(2+) release in mouse cerebral cortex endothelial bEND.3 cells; interestingly, the EPA-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) pool(s) appeared to encompass and was larger than the Ca(2+) pool mobilized by sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibition by cyclopiazonic acid...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871847/fatty-acids-composition-in-erythrocyte-membranes-of-athletes-after-one-and-after-a-series-of-whole-body-cryostimulation-sessions
#20
Magdalena Kepinska, Joanna Gdula-Argasinska, Zbigniew Dabrowski, Marta Szarek, Wanda Pilch, Agnieszka Kreska-Korus, Zbigniew Szygula
Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is a treatment often used by athletes as part of biological renewal. Despite the large interest in this form therapy there is still a lack of information on the effects of WBC on the concentration of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes. Our study aimed at comparing the fatty acids (FA) composition of erythrocyte membranes of athletes after one session and after a series of sessions of whole body cryostimulation. In our study small changes in the level of total cholesterol (decrease) were observed 24 h after a single session...
November 18, 2016: Cryobiology
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