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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232116/two-stage-enzymatic-preparation-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-enriched-fish-oil-triacylglycerols
#1
Zhen Zhang, Fang Liu, Xiang Ma, Huihua Huang, Yong Wang
Fish oil products in the form of triacylglycerols generally have relatively low contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and so it is of potential research and industrial interests to enrich related contents in commercial products. Thereby an economical and efficient two-stage preparation of EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols is proposed in this study. The first stage was the partial hydrolysis of fish oil by only 0.2 wt.‰ AY "Amano" 400SD which led to increases of EPA and DHA contents in acylglycerols from 19...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228274/screening-the-toxcast-phase-1-chemical-library-for-inhibition-of-deiodinase-type-1-activity
#2
Michael W Hornung, Joseph J Korte, Jennifer H Olker, Jeffrey S Denny, Carsten Knutsen, Phillip C Hartig, Mary C Cardon, Sigmund J Degitz
Thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis is dependent upon coordination of multiple key events including iodide uptake, hormone synthesis, metabolism and elimination, to maintain proper TH signaling. Deiodinase enzymes catalyze iodide release from THs to interconvert THs between active and inactive forms, and are integral to hormone metabolism. The activity of deiodinases has been identified as an important endpoint to include in the context of screening chemicals for thyroid hormone disruption. To begin to address the potential for chemicals to inhibit these enzymes an adenovirus expression system was used to produce human deiodinase type 1 (DIO1) enzyme, established robust assay parameters for non-radioactive determination of iodide release by the Sandell-Kolthoff method, and employed a 96-well plate format for screening chemical libraries...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226235/entrustable-professional-activities-in-post-licensure-training-in-primary-care-pediatrics-necessity-development-and-implementation-of-a-competency-based-post-graduate-curriculum
#3
Folkert Fehr, Christoph Weiß-Becker, Hera Becker, Thomas Opladen
There is an absence of broad-based and binding curricular requirements for structured competency-based post-graduate medical training in Germany, and thus no basis for comparing the competencies of physicians undergoing training in a medical specialty (Ärzte im Weiterbildung). In response, the German Society of Primary Care Pediatrics' working group on post-graduate education (DGAAP) has identified realistic entrustable professional activities (EPAs) in primary care, defined their number, scope and content, selected competency domains, specified required knowledge and skills, and described appropriate assessment methods...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226233/medical-students-preparation-for-the-transition-to-postgraduate-training-through-final-year-elective-rotations
#4
W E Sjoukje van den Broek, Marjo Wijnen-Meijer, Olle Ten Cate, Marijke van Dijk
Objectives: This study adds to the ongoing discussion on how to ease the transition from undergraduate medical training to postgraduate training. In the Netherlands there is no central matching system for admission to residency. Medical school graduates just apply for a position in an open job market. Many choose to acquire general or specialty-specific clinical experiences after the medical degree before residency, to further explore career opportunities and to increase their chances to get into their preferred specialty...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226232/connecting-undergraduate-and-postgraduate-medical-education-through-an-elective-epa-based-transitional-year-in-acute-care-an-early-project-report
#5
Gersten Jonker, Reinier G Hoff, Stefan Max, Cor J Kalkman, Olle Ten Cate
Objective: A well-designed final year may ease the transition from medical school to postgraduate training, if it has enough depth to enable the acquisition of early specialty expertise, while keeping enough breadth to support the graduation as all-round physician. Aim of this article is to describe the design of a multidisciplinary dedicated transitional year (DTY) around the theme of recognition and initial treatment of vitally threatened patients. Methods: Undergraduate and postgraduate training directors from the departments of Anaesthesiology, Cardiology, Emergency Medicine, Intensive Care Medicine and Respiratory Medicine at UMC Utrecht and partnering hospitals have collaboratively developed and implemented a curriculum for a final year focusing on three entrustable professional activities (EPAs) in the domain of acute care...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223906/comparison-of-real-world-and-certification-emission-rates-for-light-duty-gasoline-vehicles
#6
Tanzila Khan, H Christopher Frey
U.S. light duty vehicles are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. Emission compliance is determined by certification testing of selected emissions from representative vehicles on standard driving cycles using chassis dynamometers. Test results are also used in many emission inventories. The dynamometer based emission rates are adjusted to provide the certification levels (CL), which must be lower than the standards for compliance. Although standard driving cycles are based on specific observations of real-world driving, they are not necessarily real-world representative...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223736/transepithelial-transfer-of-phenanthrene-but-not-of-benzo-a-pyrene-is-inhibited-by-fatty-acids-in-the-proximal-intestine-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#7
Stefan de Gelder, Henrik Sundh, Thamar N M Pelgrim, Josef D Rasinger, Lotte van Daal, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
The inclusion of vegetable oils in aquafeeds introduces contaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in salmonids. Since lipophilic PAHs solubilize in micelles composed of lipids, bile salts and fatty acids, dietary lipid composition can alter intestinal transepithelial PAH transfer. We studied the uptake of two PAHs, viz. benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine. We also investigated the effects of two fatty acids, viz. fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and vegetable oil-derived oleic acid (18:1n-9) on intestinal uptake...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222893/postprandial-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-response-to-krill-oil-and-fish-oil-consumption-in-healthy-women-a-randomised-controlled-single-dose-crossover-study
#8
Hyunsin H Sung, Andrew J Sinclair, Paul A Lewandowski, Xiao Q Su
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Krill oil (KO) and fish oil (FO) are good sources of health-benefiting long chain n- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), EPA and DHA. There are conflicting outcomes on the bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFA from KO compared with FO. This study investigated the postprandial incorporation of LC n- 3 PUFA into plasma lipids following consumption of 5 capsules of KO or FO in comparison with olive oil (OO) control in healthy women. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: 10 women (aged 18-45 years) consumed a high-fat (15 g) breakfast, supplemented with 5 g of KO, FO, or OO in a random order with a minimum seven-day washout period between the supplementations...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219035/effect-of-repeated-application-of-pendimethalin-on-its-persistence-and-dissipation-kinetics-in-soil-under-field-and-laboratory-conditions
#9
Pervinder Kaur, Makhan S Bhullar
The repeated application of herbicide can alter its persistence in the environment. In India, wheat fields are exposed to herbicide application at least once in the cropping season. The present study investigated the dissipation behavior of pendimethalin applied annually to a wheat field over four cropping seasons from 2012-2016. The dissipation studies were also conducted under laboratory conditions during 2015-16. Pendimethalin from soil and wheat grain samples was extracted using matrix solid phase dispersion and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218228/similar-adverse-events-from-two-disparate-agents-implicate-lipid-inflammatory-mediators-for-a-role-in-anxiety-states
#10
Gordon C McCarter, Lauren B Blanchard
We recently reported a case in which a 54-year-old male experienced maintenance insomnia, generalized anxiety and panic symptoms associated with consumption of a fish oil supplement enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). We report here that the same patient has experienced identical but more severe symptoms in response to the use of the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast, in accordance with other cases reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Since omega-3 fatty acids like EPA are precursors for the biosynthesis of eicosanoids including leukotrienes, a common factor to these psychiatric adverse events may be perturbations in this highly complex system of lipid inflammatory mediators...
November 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218019/dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-late-pregnancy-and-postpartum-depressive-symptom-among-japanese-women
#11
Minatsu Kobayashi, Kohei Ogawa, Naho Morisaki, Yukako Tani, Reiko Horikawa, Takeo Fujiwara
Background: The use of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) in preventive or therapeutic modalities for postpartum depression, especially long-chain types such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is of considerable interest. High n-3PUFA consumption has been reported among pregnant Japanese women. Therefore, analysis of this group could provide important insights into the relationship between postpartum depression and dietary n-3PUFA consumption. To further examine the relationship between the risk of postpartum depression and n-3PUFA consumption, we conducted a prospective hospital-based birth cohort study in Japan...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217392/influence-of-traffic-on-build-up-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-urban-road-surfaces-a-bayesian-network-modelling-approach
#12
Yingxia Li, Ziliang Jia, Buddhi Wijesiri, Ningning Song, Ashantha Goonetilleke
Due to their carcinogenic effects, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) deposited on urban surfaces are a major concern in the context of stormwater pollution. However, the design of effective pollution mitigation strategies is challenging due to the lack of reliability in stormwater quality modelling outcomes. Current modelling approaches do not adequately replicate the interdependencies between pollutant processes and their influential factors. Using Bayesian Network modelling, this research study characterised the influence of vehicular traffic on the build-up of the sixteen US EPA classified priority PAHs...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216716/cyclodipeptide-c-orn-pro-conjugate-with-4-ethylpiperic-acid-epa-abrogates-cancer-cells-metastasis-through-modulating-mdm2
#13
Sudha Shankar, Mir Mohd Faheem, Debasis Nayak, Naiem Ahmad Wani, Saleem Farooq, Surrinder Koul, Anindya Goswami, Rajkishor Rai
The present work describes the synthesis, characterization and anticancer properties of c(Lys-Pro), P1; c(Orn-Pro), P2 and conjugates PA-c(Lys-Pro), C1; PA-c(Orn-Pro), C2; EPA-c(Lys-Pro), C3 and EPA-c(Orn-Pro), C4. Among all, conjugate C4 displays potent anti-cancer activity with IC50 1.3μM in MDA-MB-231, 3.5 µM in PC-3, 8.9μM in MCF-7 and 9.6 μM in Miapaca-2 cancer cells. In addition, C4 down regulates the expression of MDM2 and abrogates the cancer cell invasion/metastasis. Through knock-down MDM2, we demonstrate that this abrogation of metastasis by C4 is primarily MDM2 dependent...
December 7, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214797/high-throughput-in-vitro-data-to-inform-prioritization-of-ambient-water-monitoring-and-testing-for-endocrine-active-chemicals
#14
Wendy J Heiger-Bernays, Susanna Wegner, David Dix
The presence of industrial chemicals, consumer product chemicals, and pharmaceuticals is well documented in waters in the US and globally. Most of these chemicals lack health-protective guidelines and many have been shown to have endocrine bioactivity. There is currently no systematic or national prioritization for monitoring waters for chemicals with endocrine disrupting activity. We propose Ambient Water Bioactivity Concentrations (AWBCs) generated from high throughput data as a health-based screen for endocrine bioactivity of chemicals in water...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210689/an-evaluation-of-hydrologic-modeling-performance-of-epa-swmm-for-bioretention
#15
Sezar Gülbaz, Cevza Melek Kazezyılmaz-Alhan
Recent techniques should be investigated in detail to avoid present and future problems of urbanization like flood, drought and water pollution. Low Impact Development (LID) Best Management Practices (BMPs) such as bioretentions, green roofs, rain barrels, vegetative swales, and permeable pavements have been implemented to diminish the adverse effects of urbanization. In this study, a hydrological model for a Rainfall-Watershed-Bioretention (RWB) system is developed by using the Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM)...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210319/carcinogenicity-of-ethylene-oxide-key-findings-and-scientific-issues
#16
Jennifer Jinot, Jason M Fritz, Suryanarayana V Vulimiri, Nagalakshmi Keshava
In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed an evaluation of the inhalation carcinogenicity of ethylene oxide (EtO) in December 2016. This article reviews key findings and scientific issues regarding the carcinogenicity of EtO in EPA's Carcinogenicity Assessment. EPA's assessment critically reviewed and characterized epidemiologic, laboratory animal, and mechanistic studies pertaining to the human carcinogenicity of EtO, and addressed some key scientific issues such as the analysis of mechanistic data as part of the cancer hazard evaluation and to inform the quantitative risk assessment...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209805/selected-persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-in-water-of-river-niger-occurrence-and-distribution
#17
J P Unyimadu, O Osibanjo, J O Babayemi
This study assessed the levels and distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in water of River Niger. The selected POPs of interest were organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Fifteen representative sites along River Niger: three each from Gurara River (tributary) in Niger State, Lokoja (confluence) in Kogi State, Onitsha in Anambra State, Brass and Nicolas Rivers (tributaries) in Bayelsa State were selected for sampling quarterly over a 24-month period. A total of 240 surface and bottom water samples were collected using Van Dorn water sampler in the eight quarters of 2008-2009...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209497/long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-vegetarian-women-a-metabolic-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Graham C Burdge, Sze-Yen Tan, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Vegetarian diets have been associated with health benefits, but paradoxically are low in EPA and DHA which are important for development, particularly of the central nervous system, and for health. Humans have limited capacity for synthesis of EPA and DHA from α-linolenic acid, although this is greater in women than men. Oily fish and, to a lesser extent, dairy foods and meat are the primary sources of EPA and DHA in the diet. Exclusion of these foods from the diet by vegetarians is associated consistently with lower EPA and DHA status in vegetarian women compared with omnivores...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209405/retroconversion-is-a-minor-contributor-to-increases-in-eicosapentaenoic-acid-following-docosahexaenoic-acid-feeding-as-determined-by-compound-specific-isotope-analysis-in-rat-liver
#19
Adam H Metherel, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Marc-Olivier Trépanier, R J Scott Lacombe, Richard P Bazinet
Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally plausible. In this study, 21-day old Long Evans rats were weaned onto an ALA only or DHA + ALA diet for 12 weeks. Afterwards, livers were collected and the natural abundance 13C-enrichment was determined by compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of liver EPA by isotope ratio mass-spectrometry and compared to dietary ALA and DHA 13C-enrichment...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208059/associations-of-the-serum-long-chain-n-3-pufa-and-hair-mercury-with-resting-heart-rate-peak-heart-rate-during-exercise-and-heart-rate-recovery-after-exercise-in-middle-aged-men
#20
Behnam Tajik, Sudhir Kurl, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Kai Savonen, Jyrki K Virtanen
Long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish have been associated with lower risk of CVD. Fish may also contain methylmercury, which may attenuate the inverse associations of the long-chain n-3 PUFA. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully known. We evaluated the associations of the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) and hair Hg with resting heart rate (HR), peak HR during cycle ergometer exercise and HR recovery after exercise. A total of 1008 men from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD, were studied...
December 6, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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