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M Al-Hinai, A Baylin, M M Tellez-Rojo, A Cantoral, A Ettinger, M Solano-González, K E Peterson, W Perng
This study investigates relations of maternal N-3 and N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake during pregnancy with offspring body mass index (BMI), height z-score and metabolic risk (fasting glucose, C-peptide, leptin, lipid profile) during peripuberty (8-14 years) among 236 mother-child pairs in Mexico. We used food frequency questionnaire data to quantify trimester-specific intake of N-3 alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); N-6 linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (AA); and N-6:N-3 (AA:EPA+DHA), which accounts for the fact that the two PUFA families have opposing effects on physiology...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
A B Vicente, P Juan, S Meseguer, C Díaz-Avalos, L Serra
One of the main problems that arise in the assessment of air quality in an area is to estimate the number of representative sampling points of each microenvironment within it. We present a new model that reduces the variability and increases the quality of the comparison of the sampling points. The study is based on the comparison between a city in eastern Spain, Vila-real, a macro city in México, Monterrey and the Piemonte region regarding the assessment of PM10 in microenvironments. Vila-real is located in the province of Castellón...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
Suja Ann Mathew, Ramesh Bhonde
Enhancement of angiogenesis is solicited in wound repair and regeneration. Mesenchymal stromal cells derived from the placenta (P-MSCs) have an inherent angiogenic potential. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in turn, specifically the omega-3 (N-3) are essential for growth and development. They are also recommended as dietary supplements during pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that addition of N-3 PUFAs in P-MSC culture media may enhance their angiogenic potential. Hence we treated P-MSCs with omega-3 (N-3) fatty acids -Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at different concentrations and tested their angiogenic potential...
April 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
R J Scott Lacombe, Richard J Kratz, Bruce J Holub
To date, few studies have evaluated the intake of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in young North American children and current estimates are based on indirect approaches which have concerning limitations. Furthermore, there is a lack of available knowledge regarding the proportion of children meeting current dietary recommendations for the consumption of long-chain n-3 PUFA as α-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The objective of the present study was to directly quantify the intake of n-3 PUFA in toddlers aged 2 to 3 years and determine if intakes met international recommendations...
March 2, 2018: Nutrition Research
Smitha Padmanabha, Vallikannan Baskaran
BACKGROUND: Effects of lutein (L) and fatty acids [linoleic acid (LA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and oleic acid (OA)] on oxidative stress and inflammation in cataract were assessed. METHODS: Cataract was induced in male Wistar rat pups (11 days old) by giving a single dose of sodium selenite (25 μM/kg body weight) by IP. Lutein (1.3 μmol/kg body weight) was given one day before and five days after selenite injection as a micelle with 7...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Trevor A Mori
Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA)...
April 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
Shiyu Wang, Fei Liu, Wenyong Wu, Yaqi Hu, Renkuan Liao, Gaoting Chen, Jiulong Wang, Jialin Li
Reclaimed water reuse has become an important means of alleviating agricultural water shortage worldwide. However, the presence of endocrine disrupters has roused up considerable attention. Barrel test in farmland was conducted to investigate the migration of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in soil-winter wheat system simulating reclaimed water irrigation. Additionally, the health risks on humans were assessed based on US EPA risk assessment model. The migration of NP and BPA decreased from the soil to the winter wheat; the biological concentration factors (BCFs) of NP and BPA in roots, stems, leaves, and grains all decreased with their added concentrations in soils...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Anya Kalsbeek, Jenna Veenstra, Jason Westra, Craig Disselkoen, Kristin Koch, Katelyn A McKenzie, Jacob O'Bott, Jason Vander Woude, Karen Fischer, Greg C Shearer, William S Harris, Nathan L Tintle
Recent analyses have suggested a strong heritable component to circulating fatty acid (FA) levels; however, only a limited number of genes have been identified which associate with FA levels. In order to expand upon a previous genome wide association study done on participants in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort and FA levels, we used data from 2,400 of these individuals for whom red blood cell FA profiles, dietary information and genotypes are available, and then conducted a genome-wide evaluation of potential genetic variants associated with 22 FAs and 15 FA ratios, after adjusting for relevant dietary covariates...
2018: PloS One
Yanzi Liu, Peixu Cong, Beijia Li, Yu Song, Yanjun Liu, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue
BACKGROUND: Antarctic krill is a huge source of biomass and prospective high-quality lipid source. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), nutritionally important lipid components with poor oxidative stability, were used as markers of oxidation during thermal processing of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) meal by evaluating the lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and non-enzymatic browning reactions. RESULT: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the phospholipids (PLs) and the main oxidation products of free fatty acids (FFAs) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was effective for evaluating the oxidation of EPA and DHA...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Naxieli Santiago-De La Rosa, Griselda González-Cardoso, José de Jesús Figueroa-Lara, Mirella Gutiérrez-Arzaluz, Claudia Octaviano-Villasana, Irma Fabiola Ramírez-Hernández, Violeta Mugica-Álvarez
Biomass burning is a common agricultural practice, because it allows elimination of post harvesting residues; nevertheless, it involves an inefficient combustion process that generates atmospheric pollutants emission, which has implications on health and climate change. This work focuses on the estimation of emission factors (EFs) of PM2.5 , PM10 , organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) of residues burning from alfalfa, barley, beans, cotton, maize, rice, sorghum and wheat, in México...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Aline Ferain, Chloé Bonnineau, Ineke Neefs, Krishna Das, Yvan Larondelle, Jean-François Rees, Cathy Debier, Benjamin Lemaire
Lipids, and their constitutive fatty acids, are key nutrients for fish health as they provide energy, maintain cell structure, are precursors of signalling molecules and act as nuclear receptor ligands. These specific roles may be of crucial importance in a context of exposure to pollutants. We recently showed that the fatty acid profile of rainbow trout liver cell phospholipids modulates sensitivity to an acute methylmercury challenge. In order to investigate mechanisms of effects, we herein tested whether specific polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may protect cells from methylmercury through decreasing intracellular mercury accumulation and/or enhancing cellular defences (e...
March 22, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Mingxing Su, Rubao Sun, Xun Zhang, Shen Wang, Ping Zhang, Zhengquan Yuan, Chao Liu, Qiang Wang
The concentration of pollution directly determines the occupational health risk, and the exposure time is an important influencing factor. We evaluated the inhalation risks of working in a printing room. Eight units with centralized printing rooms were randomly selected. Formaldehyde, ozone, benzene, toluene, xylene, and fine particulate matter were detected by spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and direct reading instruments, respectively. The U.S. EPA inhalation risk assessment model was used to assess cancer and non-cancer risks...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mark Xavier Bailon, Anneschel Sheehan David, Yeongeon Park, Eunhee Kim, Yongseok Hong
Heavy metal contamination in aquatic systems is a big problem in many areas around the world. In 2016, high mercury concentrations were reported in bivalves (Corbicula leana) and sediments near the confluence of the Hyeongsan River and Chilseong Creek located in Pohang, a steel industrial city in the south-east coast of the Korean peninsula. Given that both the Chilseong and Gumu creeks run through the Pohang industrial complex and ultimately flow to the Hyeongsan River, it is imperative to determine if the industrial effluents have any impact on the mercury contamination in these two streams and the Hyeongsan River...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jingwei Shang, Toru Yamashita, Yusuke Fukui, Dongjing Song, Xianghong Li, Yun Zhai, Yumiko Nakano, Ryuta Morihara, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Koji Abe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cognitive and cerebrovascular diseases are common in the elderly, but differences in the plasma levels and associations of plasma biomarkers in these diseases remain elusive. METHODS: The present study investigated differences in plasma fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], adiponectin, reptin, plasma markers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and serum amyloid A (serum AA)], and plasma lipids [high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=266), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=44), vascular dementia (VaD) (n=33), and ischemic stroke (IS) (n=200) in comparison to normal controls (n=130)...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Darren J Thornbrugh, Scott G Leibowitz, Ryan A Hill, Marc H Weber, Zachary C Johnson, Anthony R Olsen, Joseph E Flotemersch, John L Stoddard, David V Peck
Watershed integrity is the capacity of a watershed to support and maintain the full range of ecological processes and functions essential to sustainability. Using information from EPA's StreamCat dataset, we calculated and mapped an Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI) for 2.6 million watersheds in the conterminous US with first-order approximations of relationships between stressors and six watershed functions: hydrologic regulation, regulation of water chemistry, sediment regulation, hydrologic connectivity, temperature regulation, and habitat provision...
February 1, 2018: Ecological Indicators
Yanting Wang, Jinying He, Jing Yang
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). MATERIAL AND METHODS Rats with PCOS were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of EPA. Levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) were measured using corresponding kits. HE staining was used to observe lesions in ovarian tissue. Levels of inflammatory factors in ovarian tissue of rats were detected by ELISA...
April 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Louis Anthony Tony Cox
Associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure concentrations and a wide variety of undesirable outcomes, from autism and auto theft to elderly mortality, suicide, and violent crime, have been widely reported. Influential articles have argued that reducing National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 is desirable to reduce these outcomes. Yet, other studies have found that reducing black smoke and other particulate matter by as much as 70% and dozens of micrograms per cubic meter has not detectably affected all-cause mortality rates even after decades, despite strong, statistically significant positive exposure concentration-response (C-R) associations between them...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Harikishan Perugu, Leonardo Ramirez, John DaMassa
On-road mobile sources play a significant role in air quality modeling and these models require gridded, hourly emission inputs. Due to its geographical and meteorological diversity and stringent air quality regulations, California state always poses big challenge for air quality modelers and policy makers. At the same time, the impact of ambient temperature on vehicle emissions has been well researched in the past few decades and it is vital to prepare a reliable on-road gridded emission inventory for air quality modeling...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xiaolong Wang, Lu Zhang, Zhonghua Zhao, Yongjiu Cai
Reservoirs play more and more important role in providing potable water in many developing countries, including the China. In the present study, pollution characteristics, source and health risk of dissolved heavy metals in 19 representative reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China were investigated. The results presented great spatial heterogeneity in heavy metal concentrations among the studied reservoirs due to the disturbances by different anthropogenic activities. Several reservoirs had significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals compared with others, FengTan (FT) reservoir (0...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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