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Eva Torbjörnsson, Charlotta Olivecrona, Anders Sonden
Every semester, the operating room (OR) ward receives students from different educational programmes. Although interprofessional knowledge is essential for OR teamwork, students have traditionally been prepared in an uniprofessional manner, with no focus on interprofessional learning outcomes. This report describes the work process of an interprofessional initiative undertaken to create a common learning resource aimed at preparing students for OR practice. With a focus on interprofessional learning, shared and profession-specific learning outcomes, which are needed to prepare for practice, were identified by an interprofessional faculty...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Elke Detroyer, Fabienne Dobbels, Andrew Teodorczuk, Mieke Deschodt, Yves Depaifve, Etienne Joosten, Koen Milisen
BACKGROUND: Education of healthcare workers is a core element of multicomponent delirium strategies to improve delirium care and, consequently, patient outcomes. However, traditional educational strategies are notoriously difficult to implement. E-learning is hypothesised to be easier and more cost effective, but research evaluating effectiveness of delirium education through e-learning is scarce at present. Aim is to determine the effect of a nursing e-learning tool for delirium on: (1) in-hospital prevalence, duration and severity of delirium or mortality in hospitalized geriatric patients, and (2) geriatric nurses' knowledge and recognition regarding delirium...
January 19, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Corina Ciobanasu, Hong Wang, Véronique Henriot, Cécile Mathieu, Annabelle Fente, Sandrine Csillag, Clémence Vigouroux, Bruno Faivre, Christophe Le Clainche
Focal adhesions (FAs) mechanically couple the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the dynamic actin cytoskeleton, via transmembrane integrins and actin-binding proteins. The molecular mechanisms by which protein machineries control force transmission along this molecular axis, i.e. modulating integrin activation and controlling actin polymerization, remain largely unknown. Talin is a major actin-binding protein that controls both the inside-out activation of integrins and actin-filament anchoring and thus plays a major role in the establishment of the actin-ECM mechanical coupling...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hanne Creupelandt, Sibyl Anthierens, Hilde Habraken, Tom Declercq, Coral Sirdifield, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena, Thierry Christiaens
BACKGROUND: Despite guidelines and campaigns to change prescribing behavior, General Practitioners (GPs) continue to overprescribe benzodiazepines (BZDs). New approaches to improve prescribing are needed. Using behavior change techniques and tailoring interventions to user characteristics are vital to promote behavior change. This study evaluated the impact of an e-module on factors known to determine BZD prescribing practice. METHODS: A tailored e-module that focuses on avoiding initial BZD prescriptions (and using psychological interventions as an alternative) was developed and offered to GPs in vocational training...
December 19, 2017: BMC Medical Education
W Rauch, C Urich, P M Bach, B C Rogers, F J de Haan, R R Brown, M Mair, D T McCarthy, M Kleidorfer, R Sitzenfrei, A Deletic
Long term planning of urban water infrastructure requires acknowledgement that transitions in the water system are driven by changes in the urban environment, as well as societal dynamics. Inherent to the complexity of these underlying processes is that the dynamics of a system's evolution cannot be explained by linear cause-effect relationships and cannot be predicted under narrow sets of assumptions. Planning therefore needs to consider the functional behaviour and performance of integrated flexible infrastructure systems under a wide range of future conditions...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Gudrun Ulrich-Merzenich, Frederik Hartbrod, Olaf Kelber, Jürgen Müller, Anna Koptina, Heike Zeitler
BACKGROUND: Cytokines and chemokines (CC) play a central role in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. Neutralising antibodies for single proinflammatory cytokines have developed into a powerful, though expensive and not always curative therapeutic strategy for severe diseases. Considering the redundancy of CC functions, network (N) rather than single target approaches are essential. Phytopharmaceuticals, common adjuvant therapies, are known modulators of a broad spectrum of CCs, but as complex mixtures with multiple targets they have not been systematically investigated...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Jeffry Adiwidjaja, Andrew J McLachlan, Alan V Boddy
Curcumin has been extensively studied for its anti-cancer properties. While a diverse array of in vitro and preclinical research support the prospect of curcumin use as an anti-cancer therapeutic, most human studies have failed to meet the intended clinical expectation. Poor systemic availability of orally-administered curcumin may account for this disparity. Areas covered: This descriptive review aims to concisely summarise available clinical studies investigating curcumin pharmacokinetics when administered in different formulations...
September 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Hwan Sung Choe, Joonki Suh, Changhyun Ko, Kaichen Dong, Sangwook Lee, Joonsuk Park, Yeonbae Lee, Kevin Wang, Junqiao Wu
Efficient thermal management at the nanoscale is important for reducing energy consumption and dissipation in electronic devices, lab-on-a-chip platforms and energy harvest/conversion systems. For many of these applications, it is much desired to have a solid-state structure that reversibly switches thermal conduction with high ON/OFF ratios and at high speed. Here we describe design and implementation of a novel, all-solid-state thermal switching device by nanostructured phase transformation, i.e., modulation of contact pressure and area between two poly-silicon surfaces activated by microstructural change of a vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin film...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xavier M Teitsma, Johannes W G Jacobs, Michal Mokry, Michelle E A Borm, Attila Pethö-Schramm, Jacob M van Laar, Johannes W J Bijlsma, Floris P J Lafeber
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate is endorsed to be used as first-line treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a large proportion of patients need additional treatment with a biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) to adequately suppress their disease activity. A better understanding of genotypes could help to distinguish between patients with different pathogenic mechanisms. The aim of this study was therefore to identify networks of genes within DMARD-naive early RA patients associated with achieving sustained drug-free remission (sDFR) after initiating tocilizumab plus methotrexate, tocilizumab, or methotrexate therapy...
July 20, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Himanshu Negandhi, Preeti Negandhi, Sanjay P Zodpey, Hemali Kulatilaka, Radhika Dayal, Lauren J Hart, Marybeth Grewe
INTRODUCTION: The health systems in developing countries face challenges because of deficient monitoring and evaluation (M&E) capacity with respect to their knowledge, skills, and practices. Strengthening M&E training in public health education can help overcome the gaps in M&E capacity. There is a need to advance the teaching of M&E as a core element of public health education. OBJECTIVES: To review M&E teaching across Masters of Public Health programs and to identify core competencies for M&E teaching in South Asian context...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Breana Cervantes, Lynn M Ulatowski
For the last two decades, it has been hotly debated whether vitamin E-the major lipid-soluble antioxidant, which functions to maintain neurological integrity-is efficacious as a therapy for Alzheimer's disease. Several factors key to the debate, include (1) which of the eight naturally-occurring vitamin E forms should be used; (2) how combination treatments affect vitamin E efficacy; and (3) safety concerns that most-recently resurfaced after the results of the Selenium and vitamin E Cancer prevention trial SELECT prostate cancer trial...
June 24, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Romy Weller, Kathrin Hueging, Richard J P Brown, Daniel Todt, Sebastian Joecks, Florian W R Vondran, Thomas Pietschmann
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is extraordinarily diverse and uses entry factors in a strain-specific manner. Virus particles associate with lipoproteins, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is critical for HCV assembly and infectivity. However, whether ApoE dependency is common to all HCV genotypes remains unknown. Therefore, we compared the roles of ApoE utilizing 10 virus strains from genotypes 1 through 7. ApoA and ApoC also support HCV assembly, so they may contribute to virus production in a strain-dependent fashion...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Christine Böhmer
BACKGROUND: The importance of the cervical vertebrae as part of the skull-neck system in facilitating the success and diversity of tetrapods is clear. The reconstruction of its evolution, however, is problematic because of the variation in the number of vertebrae, making it difficult to identify homologous elements. Quantification of the morphological differentiation in the neck of diverse archosaurs established homologous units of vertebrae (i.e. modules) resulting from Hox gene expression patterns within the cervical vertebral column...
2017: Zoological Letters
Eric Capo, Didier Debroas, Fabien Arnaud, Marie-Elodie Perga, Cécile Chardon, Isabelle Domaizon
High-throughput sequencing of sedimentary DNA (sed-DNA) was utilized to reconstruct the temporal dynamics of microbial eukaryotic communities (MECs) at a centennial scale in two re-oligotrophicated lakes that were exposed to different levels of phosphorus enrichment. The temporal changes within the MECs were expressed in terms of richness, composition and community structure to investigate their relationships with two key forcing factors (i.e., nutrient enrichment and climate warming). Various groups, including Apicomplexa, Cercozoa, Chrysophyceae, Ciliophora, Chlorophyceae and Dinophyceae, responded to phosphorus enrichment levels with either positive or negative impacts on their richness and relative abundance...
July 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Janet Frith, Isobel Hubbard, Carole James, Helen Warren-Forward
Gaps exist in the knowledge of return-to-driving guidelines, and education is needed for Australian health professionals working in the field of stroke. In this paper, authors evaluate the implementation of an e-learning module. A pre- and post-module knowledge test and survey were used to assess the e-module's success in achieving its learning objectives. Initially, 204 learners completed the module, with 68% of learners scoring 100% in the post-module knowledge test. Only 12 learners completed the survey...
April 2017: Occupational Therapy in Health Care
Fa Wang, Robert L Johnson, Marsha L DeSmet, Paul W Snyder, Keke C Fairfax, James C Fleet
Low vitamin D status potentiates experimental colitis, but the vitamin D-responsive cell in colitis has not been defined. We hypothesized that vitamin D has distinct roles in colonic epithelial cells and in nonepithelial cells during colitis. We tested this hypothesis by using mice with vitamin D receptor (VDR) deletion from colon epithelial cells (CEC-VDRKO) or nonintestinal epithelial cells (NEC-VDRKO). Eight-week-old mice were treated with 1.35% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days and then euthanized 2 or 10 days after removal of DSS...
June 1, 2017: Endocrinology
Jan Herding, Simon Ludwig, Felix Blankenburg
Perceptual decisions based on the comparison of two vibrotactile frequencies have been extensively studied in non-human primates. Recently, we obtained corresponding findings from human oscillatory electroencephalography (EEG) activity in the form of choice-selective modulations of upper beta band amplitude in medial premotor areas. However, the research in non-human primates as well as its human counterpart was so far limited to decisions reported by button presses. Thus, here we investigated whether the observed human beta band modulation is specific to the response modality...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kelly McKay, Sherry Nigro
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Ottawa Public Health (OPH) partnered with the City of Ottawa Municipal Child Care (MCC) Services to develop Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) Guidelines. SETTING: The Guidelines aim to promote consistent standards of practice in child care settings related to healthy environments and food, physical activity, physical literacy, decreased sedentary behaviours, and positive role modeling by staff. The Guidelines targeted 498 children aged 18 months to 5 years, attending MCC centres...
March 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Mary E W Dankbaar, Olivier Richters, Cor J Kalkman, Gerrie Prins, Olle T J Ten Cate, Jeroen J G van Merrienboer, Stephanie C E Schuit
BACKGROUND: Serious games have the potential to teach complex cognitive skills in an engaging way, at relatively low costs. Their flexibility in use and scalability makes them an attractive learning tool, but more research is needed on the effectiveness of serious games compared to more traditional formats such e-modules. We investigated whether undergraduate medical students developed better knowledge and awareness and were more motivated after learning about patient-safety through a serious game than peers who studied the same topics using an e-module...
February 2, 2017: BMC Medical Education
Ailsa Power, Helen Allbutt, Lucy Munro, Marion MacLeod, Susan Kennedy, Donald Cameron, Ken Scoular, Graham Orr, John Gillies
AIM: To determine experiences of leadership training of six primary care professions in Scotland and consider future development. METHODS: A questionnaire on previous leadership course attendance and future intentions was distributed to community pharmacists, general dental practitioners, general practitioners, practice nurses, practice managers and optometrists. Analysis comprised descriptive statistics for closed questions and management of textual data. RESULTS: Formal leadership training participation was fairly low except for practice managers...
May 2017: Education for Primary Care
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