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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730751/the-sensory-origin-of-the-sense-of-effort-is-context-dependent
#1
Florian Monjo, Jonathan Shemmell, Nicolas Forestier
The origin of the sense of effort has been debated for several decades and there is still no consensus among researchers regarding the underlying neural mechanisms. Some advocate that effort perception mainly arises from an efference copy originating within the brain while others believe that it is predominantly carried by muscle afferent signals. To move the debate forward, we here tested the hypothesis that there is not one but several senses of effort which depend on the way it is evaluated. For this purpose, we used two different psychophysical tests designed to test effort perception in elbow flexors...
May 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721457/mechanoreceptors-of-the-achilles-tendon-a-histomorphological-study-in-pigs-with-clinical-significance-for-humans
#2
Stylianos Kapetanakis, Grigorios Gkasdaris, Eleni Daneva, Panagiotis Givissis, Jannis Papathanasiou, Theodoros Xanthos
Introduction: Tendons contain neurosensory elements called mechanoreceptors which contribute to the neuromuscular system as sources of reflex signals. The literature is lacking in histological assessment of mechanoreceptors of the Achilles tendon in piglets and our aim was to indicate their types, location and quantity. Methods: The study was performed using histological tissue samples from the Achilles tendon of ten healthy pigs, five left, five right, six males, four females...
October 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670481/exercise-associated-muscle-cramp-doubts-about-the-cause
#3
Dzenan Jahic, Edin Begic
Introduction: Exercise-associated muscle cramp (EAMC) is one of the most common conditions that occur during or immediately after the exercise, with questionable etiology. Aim: Aim of article was to present doubts about the cause of EAMC, whether it is primarily a neurological condition or it is water and salt imbalance. Results: Strongest evidence supports the neuromuscular aetiology with the focus on the muscle fatigue. Muscle overload and fatigue affects the balance between the excitatory drive from muscle spindles and the inhibitory drive from the Golgi tendon organs (GTO)...
March 2018: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563182/convergent-spinal-circuits-facilitating-human-wrist-flexors
#4
Stefane A Aguiar, Stuart N Baker
Non-invasive assessment of spinal circuitry in humans is limited, especially for Ib pathways in the upper limb. We developed a protocol in which we evoke the H-reflex in flexor carpi radialis (FCR) by median nerve stimulation and condition it with electrical stimulation above motor threshold over the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle belly. Eighteen healthy adults (eight male, ten female) took part in the study. There was a clear reflex facilitation at 30 ms inter-stimulus interval (ISI), and suppression at 70 ms ISI, which was highly consistent across subjects...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309405/cardinal-features-of-involuntary-force-variability-can-arise-from-the-closed-loop-control-of-viscoelastic-afferented-muscles
#5
Akira Nagamori, Christopher M Laine, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
Involuntary force variability below 15 Hz arises from, and is influenced by, many factors including descending neural drive, proprioceptive feedback, and mechanical properties of muscles and tendons. However, their potential interactions that give rise to the well-structured spectrum of involuntary force variability are not well understood due to a lack of experimental techniques. Here, we investigated the generation, modulation, and interactions among different sources of force variability using a physiologically-grounded closed-loop simulation of an afferented muscle model...
January 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226492/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-monosynaptic-sensory-motor-circuit-development-in-the-spinal-cord
#6
REVIEW
Fumiyasu Imai, Yutaka Yoshida
Motor behaviors are precisely controlled by the integration of sensory and motor systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Proprioceptive sensory neurons, key components of the sensory system, are located in the dorsal root ganglia and project axons both centrally to the spinal cord and peripherally to muscles and tendons, communicating peripheral information about the body to the CNS. Changes in muscle length detected by muscle spindles, and tension variations in tendons conveyed by Golgi tendon organs, are communicated to the CNS through group Ia /II, and Ib proprioceptive sensory afferents, respectively...
April 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212914/distributed-force-feedback-in-the-spinal-cord-and-the-regulation-of-limb-mechanics
#7
T Richard Nichols
This review is an update on the role of force feedback from Golgi tendon organs in the regulation of limb mechanics during voluntary movement. Current ideas about the role of force feedback are based on modular circuits linking idealized systems of agonists, synergists, and antagonistic muscles. In contrast, force feedback is widely distributed across the muscles of a limb and cannot be understood based on these circuit motifs. Similarly, muscle architecture cannot be understood in terms of idealized systems, since muscles cross multiple joints and axes of rotation and further influence remote joints through inertial coupling...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182648/the-neural-response-properties-and-cortical-organization-of-a-rapidly-adapting-muscle-sensory-group-response-that-overlaps-with-the-frequencies-that-elicit-the-kinesthetic-illusion
#8
Paul D Marasco, Dennis J Bourbeau, Courtney E Shell, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Jason G Ina
Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles have not been ruled out. Electrophysiological recordings in peripheral nerves and brains of male Sprague Dawley rats with a degloved forelimb preparation provide evidence of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with vibratory inputs known to generate illusionary perceptions of limb movement in humans (kinesthetic illusion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142095/patterns-of-intermuscular-inhibitory-force-feedback-across-cat-hindlimbs-suggest-a-flexible-system-for-regulating-whole-limb-mechanics
#9
Mark A Lyle, T Richard Nichols
Prior work has suggested that Golgi tendon organ feedback, via its distributed network linking muscles spanning all joints, could be used by the nervous system to help regulate whole limb mechanics if appropriately organized. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the patterns of intermuscular force-dependent feedback between the primary extensor muscles spanning the knee, ankle, and toes in decerebrate cat hindlimbs. Intermuscular force feedback was evaluated by stretching tendons of selected muscles in isolation and in pairwise combinations and then measuring the resulting force-dependent intermuscular interactions...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834742/the-proprioceptive-system-regulates-morphologic-restoration-of-fractured-bones
#10
Ronen Blecher, Sharon Krief, Tal Galili, Eran Assaraf, Tomer Stern, Yoram Anekstein, Gabriel Agar, Elazar Zelzer
Successful fracture repair requires restoration of bone morphology and mechanical integrity. Recent evidence shows that fractured bones of neonatal mice undergo spontaneous realignment, dubbed "natural reduction." Here, we show that natural reduction is regulated by the proprioceptive system and improves with age. Comparison among mice of different ages revealed, surprisingly, that 3-month-old mice exhibited more rapid and effective natural reduction than newborns. Fractured bones of null mutants for transcription factor Runx3, lacking functional proprioceptors, failed to realign properly...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829946/the-proprioceptive-system-masterminds-spinal-alignment-insight-into-the-mechanism-of-scoliosis
#11
Ronen Blecher, Sharon Krief, Tal Galili, Inbal E Biton, Tomer Stern, Eran Assaraf, Ditsa Levanon, Elena Appel, Yoram Anekstein, Gabriel Agar, Yoram Groner, Elazar Zelzer
Maintaining posture requires tight regulation of the position and orientation of numerous spinal components. Yet, surprisingly little is known about this regulatory mechanism, whose failure may result in spinal deformity as in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Here, we use genetic mouse models to demonstrate the involvement of proprioception in regulating spine alignment. Null mutants for Runx3 transcription factor, which lack TrkC neurons connecting between proprioceptive mechanoreceptors and spinal cord, developed peripubertal scoliosis not preceded by vertebral dysplasia or muscle asymmetry...
August 21, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326567/both-standing-and-postural-threat-decrease-achilles-tendon-reflex-inhibition-from-tendon-electrical-stimulation
#12
Brian C Horslen, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, Mark G Carpenter
KEY POINTS: Golgi tendon organs (GTOs) and associated Ib reflexes contribute to standing balance, but the potential impacts of threats to standing balance on Ib reflexes are unknown. Tendon electrical stimulation to the Achilles' tendon was used to probe changes in Ib inhibition in medial gastrocnemius with postural orientation (lying prone vs. upright standing; experiment 1) and height-induced postural threat (standing at low and high surface heights; experiment 2). Ib inhibition was reduced while participants stood upright, compared to lying prone (42...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122055/analysis-of-proprioceptive-sensory-innervation-of-the-mouse-soleus-a-whole-mount-muscle-approach
#13
Martha J Sonner, Marie C Walters, David R Ladle
Muscle proprioceptive afferents provide feedback critical for successful execution of motor tasks via specialized mechanoreceptors housed within skeletal muscles: muscle spindles, supplied by group Ia and group II afferents, and Golgi tendon organs, supplied by group Ib afferents. The morphology of these proprioceptors and their associated afferents has been studied extensively in the cat soleus, and to a lesser degree, in the rat; however, quantitative analyses of proprioceptive innervation in the mouse soleus are comparatively limited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060839/sensory-feedback-in-interlimb-coordination-contralateral-afferent-contribution-to-the-short-latency-crossed-response-during-human-walking
#14
Sabata Gervasio, Michael Voigt, Uwe G Kersting, Dario Farina, Thomas Sinkjær, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
A constant coordination between the left and right leg is required to maintain stability during human locomotion, especially in a variable environment. The neural mechanisms underlying this interlimb coordination are not yet known. In animals, interneurons located within the spinal cord allow direct communication between the two sides without the need for the involvement of higher centers. These may also exist in humans since sensory feedback elicited by tibial nerve stimulation on one side (ipsilateral) can affect the muscles activation in the opposite side (contralateral), provoking short-latency crossed responses (SLCRs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974811/recessive-piezo2-stop-mutation-causes-distal-arthrogryposis-with-distal-muscle-weakness-scoliosis-and-proprioception-defects
#15
Goknur Haliloglu, Kerstin Becker, Cagri Temucin, Beril Talim, Nalan Küçükşahin, Matthias Pergande, Susanne Motameny, Peter Nürnberg, Ustun Aydingoz, Haluk Topaloglu, Sebahattin Cirak
The genetic work-up of arthrogryposis is challenging due to the diverse clinical and molecular etiologies. We report a-18(3/12)-year-old boy, from a 2nd degree consanguineous family, who presented at 3(6/12) years with hypotonia, distal laxity, contractures, feeding difficulties at birth. He required surgery for progressive scoliosis at 16 years of age, and walked independently since then with an unstable gait and coordination defects. His latest examination at 18 years of age revealed a proprioceptive defect and loss-of-joint position sense in the upper limbs...
April 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553707/monosynaptic-facilitation-of-group-i-afferents-between-brachioradialis-and-extensor-carpi-radialis-in-humans
#16
Katsuhiro Shinozaki, Mitsuhiro Nito, Shinji Kobayashi, Masahiro Hayashi, Takuji Miyasaka, Wataru Hashizume, Masaomi Shindo, Akira Naito
Spinal reflex arcs mediated by low-threshold (group I) afferents from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs modulate motoneuron excitabilities to coordinate smooth movements. In this study, the reflex arcs between the brachioradialis (BR) and extensor carpi radialis muscles (ECR) were examined in nine healthy human subjects using a post-stimulus time-histogram method. Electrical conditioning stimuli (ES) to the radial nerve branches innervating BR (BR nerve) and ECR (ECR nerve) with the intensity just below the motor threshold were delivered and firings of the ECR and BR motor units were recorded in 6 and 7 of the nine subjects, respectively...
January 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376635/mechanoreceptors-of-the-ligaments-and-tendons-around-the-knee
#17
Haluk Çabuk, Fatmagül Kuşku Çabuk
Proprioceptive inputs from the joints and limbs arise from mechanoreceptors in the muscles, ligaments and tendons. The knee joint has a wide range of movements, and proper neuroanatomical organization is critical for knee stability. Four ligaments (the anterior (ACL) and posterior (PCL) cruciate ligaments and the medial (MCL) and lateral (LCL) collateral ligaments) and four tendons (the semitendinosus (STT), gracilis (GT), popliteal (PoT), and patellar (PaT) tendons) from eight fresh frozen cadavers were harvested...
September 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159592/a-narrative-review-of-exercise-associated-muscle-cramps-factors-that-contribute-to-neuromuscular-fatigue-and-management-implications
#18
REVIEW
Nicole L Nelson, James R Churilla
Although exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) are highly prevalent among athletic populations, the etiology and most effective management strategies are still unclear. The aims of this narrative review are 3-fold: (1) briefly summarize the evidence regarding EAMC etiology; (2) describe the risk factors and possible physiological mechanisms associated with neuromuscular fatigue and EAMC; and (3) report the current evidence regarding prevention of, and treatment for, EAMC. Based on the findings of several large prospective and experimental investigations, the available evidence indicates that EAMC is multifactorial in nature and stems from an imbalance between excitatory drive from muscle spindles and inhibitory drive from Golgi tendon organs to the alpha motor neurons rather than dehydration or electrolyte deficits...
August 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065533/correlation-study-of-knee-joint-proprioception-test-results-using-common-test-methods
#19
Lin Li, Zhong-Qiu Ji, Yan-Xia Li, Wei-Tong Liu
[Purpose] To study the correlation of the results obtained from different proprioception test methods, namely, the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method, and the force sense reproduction method, performed on the same subjects' knees. [Subjects and Methods] Different proprioception test methods, the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduction method were used to test the knees of 30 healthy young men. [Results] Correlations were found in the following descending order from strong to weak: the correlation between the joint angle reset method and the force sense reproduction method (correlation coefficient of 0...
January 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907841/differential-effects-of-unilateral-concentric-vs-eccentric-exercise-on-the-dominant-and-nondominant-forearm-flexors
#20
Travis W Beck, Xin Ye, Nathan P Wages
The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) intensity patterns after unilateral concentric vs. eccentric exercise in the dominant (DOM) and nondominant (NONDOM) forearm flexors. Twenty-six men (mean ± SD: age, 24.0 ± 3.7 years) volunteered to perform a maximal isometric muscle action of the DOM and NONDOM forearm flexors before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) a series of maximal concentric isokinetic or maximal eccentric isokinetic muscle actions of the DOM forearm flexors. The concentric isokinetic and eccentric isokinetic muscle actions were performed on separate days that were randomly ordered...
March 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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