Read by QxMD icon Read

Dr. James andrews

Daniel G Stark, Patrick Williamson, Emma R Gayner, Stefania F Musolino, Ryan W F Kerr, James E Taylor, Alexandra M Z Slawin, Timothy J C O'Riordan, Stuart A Macgregor, Andrew D Smith
The catalytic enantioselective synthesis of a range of cis-pyrrolizine carboxylate derivatives with outstanding stereocontrol (14 examples, >95 : 5 dr, >98 : 2 er) through an isothiourea-catalyzed intramolecular Michael addition-lactonisation and ring-opening approach from the corresponding enone acid is reported. An optimised and straightforward three-step synthetic route to the enone acid starting materials from readily available pyrrole-2-carboxaldehydes is delineated, with benzotetramisole (5 mol%) proving the optimal catalyst for the enantioselective process...
October 14, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Morten B Hansen, Michael D Abràmoff, James C Folk, Wanjiku Mathenge, Andrew Bastawrous, Tunde Peto
OBJECTIVE: Digital retinal imaging is an established method of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR). It has been established that currently about 1% of the world's blind or visually impaired is due to DR. However, the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and DR is creating an increased workload on those with expertise in grading retinal images. Safe and reliable automated analysis of retinal images may support screening services worldwide. This study aimed to compare the Iowa Detection Program (IDP) ability to detect diabetic eye diseases (DED) to human grading carried out at Moorfields Reading Centre on the population of Nakuru Study from Kenya...
2015: PloS One
James J Douglas, Gwydion Churchill, Alexandra M Z Slawin, David J Fox, Andrew D Smith
Stereo- and chemodivergent enantioselective reaction pathways are observed upon treatment of alkylarylketenes and trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral) with N-heterocyclic carbenes, giving selectively either β-lactones (up to 88:12 dr, up to 94 % ee) or α-chloroesters (up to 94 % ee). Either 2-arylsubstitution or an α-branched iPr alkyl substituent within the ketene favours the chlorination pathway, allowing chloral to be used as an electrophilic chlorinating reagent in asymmetric catalysis.
November 9, 2015: Chemistry: a European Journal
Nassilia Attaba, James E Taylor, Alexandra M Z Slawin, Andrew D Smith
α,β-Unsaturated trichloromethyl ketones are suitable α,β-unsaturated amide and ester equivalents in N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed redox hetero-Diels-Alder reactions with azolium enolates generated from α-aroyloxyaldehydes. The initially formed syn-dihydropyranone products can be isolated or can undergo ring-opening with benzylamine followed by aminolysis of the resulting CCl3 ketone to form a range of diamides with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity (up to >95:5 dr and >99% ee).
October 2, 2015: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Joshua J Morigi, Phillip D Stricker, Pim J van Leeuwen, Reuben Tang, Bao Ho, Quoc Nguyen, George Hruby, Gerald Fogarty, Raj Jagavkar, Andrew Kneebone, Adam Hickey, Stefano Fanti, Lisa Tarlinton, Louise Emmett
UNLABELLED: In prostate cancer with biochemical failure after therapy, current imaging techniques have a low detection rate at the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at which targeted salvage therapy is effective. (11)C-choline and (18)F-fluoromethylcholine, though widely used, have poor sensitivity at low PSA levels. (68)Ga-PSMA (Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[(68)Ga-N,N'-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid]) has shown promising results in retrospective trials...
August 2015: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Louis C Morrill, Daniel G Stark, James E Taylor, Siobhan R Smith, James A Squires, Agathe C A D'Hollander, Carmen Simal, Peter Shapland, Timothy J C O'Riordan, Andrew D Smith
Isothiourea HBTM-2.1 catalyses the Michael addition-lactonisation of 2-aryl and 2-alkenylacetic acids and α,β-unsaturated trichloromethyl ketones. Ring-opening of the resulting dihydropyranones and subsequent alcoholysis of the CCl3 ketone with an excess of methanol gives a range of diesters in high diastereo- and enantioselectivity (up to 95 : 5 dr and >99% ee). Sequential addition of two different nucleophiles to a dihydropyranone gives the corresponding differentially substituted diacid derivative...
November 28, 2014: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Emilia Prakoso, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker, Andrew D Clouston, Zeid Kayali, Aimei Lee, Eng K Gan, Grant A Ramm, James G Kench, David G Bowen, John K Olynyk, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Nicholas A Shackel
Fibrosis in livers with hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) can be rapidly progressive, and the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. In livers with HCV infections in the non-LT setting, there is a significant relationship between the development of structures known as the ductular reaction (DR), hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), and fibrosis. This study characterizes the DR, HPCs, and fibrosis associated with HCV recurrence after LT. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to characterize the DR, HPC, and fibrosis in liver biopsy specimens...
December 2014: Liver Transplantation
Pan-Chyr Yang, Xiaofeng Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: MicroRNA
Theodore J Sanders, Neil E McCarthy, Edward M Giles, Katherine L M Davidson, Myriam L R Haltalli, Sophie Hazell, James O Lindsay, Andrew J Stagg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Reduced generation of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) by CD103(+) intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) is linked to intestinal inflammation in mice. However, the role of RA in intestinal inflammation in humans is unclear. We investigated which antigen-presenting cells (APCs) produce RA in the human intestine and whether generation of RA is reduced in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Ileal and colonic tissues were collected from patients with CD during endoscopy or surgery, and healthy tissues were collected from subjects who were undergoing follow-up because of rectal bleeding, altered bowel habits, or cancer (controls)...
May 2014: Gastroenterology
Siobhan R Smith, James Douglas, Hugues Prevet, Peter Shapland, Alexandra M Z Slawin, Andrew D Smith
The isothiourea HBTM-2.1 (5 mol %) catalyzes the asymmetric formal [2 + 2] cycloaddition of both arylacetic acids (following activation with tosyl chloride) and preformed 2-arylacetic anhydrides with N-sulfonylaldimines, generating stereodefined 2,3-diaryl-β-amino esters (after ring-opening) and 3,4-diaryl-anti-β-lactams, respectively, with high diastereocontrol (up to >95:5 dr) and good to excellent enantiocontrol. Deprotection of the N-tosyl substituent within the β-lactam framework was possible without racemization by treatment with SmI2...
February 21, 2014: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Andrew O Fagbemi, Franco Torrente, Joanne Puleston, Kokila Lakhoo, Sean James, Simon H Murch
OBJECTIVE: The aetiology of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is unknown, but luminal factors and epithelial leakiness appear critical triggers of an inflammatory cascade. A separate finding has been suggested in mouse models, in which disruption of glial cells in the myenteric plexus induced a severe NEC-like lesion. We have thus looked for evidence of neuroglial abnormality in NEC. METHODS: We studied full-thickness resected specimens from 20 preterm infants with acute NEC and from 13 control infants undergoing resection for other indications...
December 2013: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Christina Yau, John Sninsky, Shirley Kwok, Alice Wang, Amy Degnim, James N Ingle, Cheryl Gillett, Andrew Tutt, Fred Waldman, Dan Moore, Laura Esserman, Christopher C Benz
INTRODUCTION: Outcome predictors in use today are prognostic only for hormone receptor-positive (HRpos) breast cancer. Although microarray-derived multigene predictors of hormone receptor-negative (HRneg) and/or triple negative (Tneg) breast cancer recurrence risk are emerging, to date none have been transferred to clinically suitable assay platforms (for example, RT-PCR) or validated against formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) HRneg/Tneg samples. METHODS: Multiplexed RT-PCR was used to assay two microarray-derived HRneg/Tneg prognostic signatures IR-7 and Buck-4) in a pooled FFPE collection of 139 chemotherapy-naïve HRneg breast cancers...
2013: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Alyn T Davies, James E Taylor, James Douglas, Christopher J Collett, Louis C Morrill, Charlene Fallan, Alexandra M Z Slawin, Gwydion Churchill, Andrew D Smith
N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed redox asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of α-aroyloxyaldehydes with β-trifluoromethyl enones generates synthetically useful dihydropyranones containing a stereogenic trifluoromethyl substituent in good yields (up to 81%) and excellent diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity (up to >95:5 dr and >99% ee). The process is stereospecific, with use of either (E)- or (Z)-β-trifluoromethyl enones forming syn- or anti-dihydropyranone products, respectively. Mechanistic studies through in situ kinetic analysis of the reaction reveal key differences in reactivity between chiral NHC precursor 1 and an achiral NHC precursor...
September 20, 2013: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Neil E McCarthy, Zora Bashir, Anna Vossenkämper, Charlotte R Hedin, Edward M Giles, Shaumick Bhattacharjee, Sabrina G Brown, Theodore J Sanders, Kevin Whelan, Thomas T MacDonald, James O Lindsay, Andrew J Stagg
In nonhuman primates, Vγ9Vδ2(+) (Vδ2)T cells proliferate and accumulate in mucosal tissues following microbial activation. Human Vδ2T cells produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial species that colonize the gut, but the role played by Vδ2T cells in intestinal immunity is unknown. We hypothesized that circulating Vδ2T cells can populate the human intestine and contribute to mucosal inflammation. Cell suspensions prepared from peripheral blood and intestinal biopsies were stimulated with microbial phosphoantigen (1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-4-yl 4-diphosphate [HDMAPP]) and analyzed by flow cytometry to determine Vδ2T cell phenotype, cytokine production, and proliferative potential...
September 1, 2013: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Andrew G Lytle, James E Norton, Corin L Dorfmeier, Shixue Shen, James P McGettigan
Replication-deficient rabies viruses (RABV) are promising rabies postexposure vaccines due to their prompt and potent stimulation of protective virus neutralizing antibody titers, which are produced in mice by both T-dependent and T-independent mechanisms. To promote such early and robust B cell stimulation, we hypothesized that live RABV-based vaccines directly infect B cells, thereby activating a large pool of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) capable of providing early priming and costimulation to CD4(+) T cells...
August 2013: Journal of Virology
James Douglas, James E Taylor, Gwydion Churchill, Alexandra M Z Slawin, Andrew D Smith
A chiral NHC catalyzes the asymmetric formal [2 + 2] cycloaddition of alkylarylketenes with both electron-deficient benzaldehydes and 2- and 4-pyridinecarboxaldehydes to generate stereodefined β-lactones. In the benzaldehyde series, optimal product diastereo- and enantiocontrol is observed using 2-nitrobenzaldehyde (up to 93:7 dr (syn:anti) and 93% ee). Substituted 2- and 4-pyridinecarboxaldehydes are also tolerated in this process, generating the corresponding β-lactones in good yield and enantioselectivity, although the diastereocontrol in these processes is highly dependent upon the aldehyde substitution...
April 19, 2013: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick
Dietary or caloric restriction (DR or CR), typically a 30%-40% reduction in ad libitum or "normal" nutritional energy levels, has been reported to extend life span and health span in diverse organisms, including mammals. Although the life span benefit of DR in primates and humans is unproven, preliminary evidence suggests that DR confers health span benefits. A serious effort is underway to discover or engineer DR mimetics. The most straightforward path to a DR mimetic requires a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie DR and related life span-enhancing protocols...
December 2012: Rejuvenation Research
Brian T Andrews, Gregory E Lakin, James P Bradley, Henry K Kawamoto
This article is dedicated to the senior author Dr. Henry K. Kawamoto, Jr, who pioneered the use of orthognathic surgery to treat severe obstructive sleep apnea in 1981. Since that time, his techniques for maxillomandibular advancement have been revised and expanded for improved surgical success. Obstructive sleep apnea is a growing public health concern because it can cause hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, heart attack, stroke, and, in rare circumstances, sudden death if untreated. When less invasive options fail such as weight loss or dental devices for mandibular repositioning, maxillomandibular advancement is a valuable treatment option for severe obstructive sleep apnea...
November 2012: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick
Dietary restriction (DR), typically a 20%-40% reduction in ad libitum or "normal" nutritional energy intake, has been reported to extend life span in diverse organisms, including yeast, nematodes, spiders, fruit flies, mice, rats, and rhesus monkeys. The magnitude of the life span enhancement appears to diminish with increasing organismal complexity. However, the extent of life span extension has been notoriously inconsistent, especially in mammals. Recently, Mattison et al. reported that DR does not extend life span in rhesus monkeys in contrast to earlier work of Colman et al...
October 2012: Rejuvenation Research
Andrew P Herbert, Michèle Riesen, Leanne Bloxam, Effie Kosmidou, Brian M Wareing, James R Johnson, Marie M Phelan, Stephen R Pennington, Lu-Yun Lian, Alan Morgan
Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in yeast, worms, flies and mammals, suggesting that it may act via conserved processes. However, the downstream mechanisms by which DR increases lifespan remain unclear. We used a gel based proteomic strategy to identify proteins whose expression was induced by DR in yeast and thus may correlate with longevity. One protein up-regulated by DR was Hsp12, a small heat shock protein induced by various manipulations known to retard ageing. Lifespan extension by growth on 0...
2012: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"