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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143879/comparison-of-analytical-tools-appropriate-for-identification-of-proteinaceous-additives-in-historical-mortars
#1
Iva Krizova, Julia Schultz, Ivan Nemec, Radomir Cabala, Radovan Hynek, Stepanka Kuckova
Natural organic additives such as eggs, lard, resins, and oils have been added to mortars since ancient times, because the ancient builders knew of their positive effect on the mortar quality. The tradition of adding organic materials to mortars was commonly handed down only verbally for thousands years. However, this practice disappeared in the nineteenth century, when the usage of modern materials started. Today, one of the most recent topics in the industry of building materials is the reusing of natural organic materials and searching for the forgotten ancient recipes...
November 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124084/second-harmonic-generation-imaging-of-collagen-in-ancient-bone
#2
B Thomas, D McIntosh, T Fildes, L Smith, F Hargrave, M Islam, T Thompson, R Layfield, D Scott, B Shaw, C L Burrell, S Gonzalez, S Taylor
Second-harmonic generation imaging (SHG) captures triple helical collagen molecules near tissue surfaces. Biomedical research routinely utilizes various imaging software packages to quantify SHG signals for collagen content and distribution estimates in modern tissue samples including bone. For the first time using SHG, samples of modern, medieval, and ice age bones were imaged to test the applicability of SHG to ancient bone from a variety of ages, settings, and taxa. Four independent techniques including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, radiocarbon dating protocols, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing, confirm the presence of protein, consistent with the hypothesis that SHG imaging detects ancient bone collagen...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117125/the-small-and-the-dead-a-review-of-ancient-dna-studies-analysing-micromammal-species
#3
REVIEW
Roseina Woods, Melissa M Marr, Selina Brace, Ian Barnes
The field of ancient DNA (aDNA) has recently been in a state of exponential growth, largely driven by the uptake of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques. Much of this work has focused on the mammalian megafauna and ancient humans, with comparatively less studies looking at micromammal fauna, despite the potential of these species in testing evolutionary, environmental and taxonomic theories. Several factors make micromammal fauna ideally suited for aDNA extraction and sequencing. Micromammal subfossil assemblages often include the large number of individuals appropriate for population level analyses, and, furthermore, the assemblages are frequently found in cave sites where the constant temperature and sheltered environment provide favourable conditions for DNA preservation...
November 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109824/%C3%A2%C2%B5-xrf-studies-on-the-colour-brilliance-in-ancient-wool-carpets
#4
Markus Meyer, Camelia N Borca, Thomas Huthwelker, Manfred Bieber, Karl Meßlinger, Rainer H Fink, Andreas Späth
Many handmade ancient and recent oriental wool carpets show outstanding brilliance and persistence of colour that is not achieved by common industrial dyeing procedures. Anthropologists have suggested the influence of wool fermentation prior to dyeing as key technique to achieve the high dyeing quality. By means of μ-XRF elemental mapping of mordant metals we corroborate this view and show a deep and homogenous penetration of colourants into fermented wool fibres. Furthermore we are able to apply this technique and prove that the fermentation process for ancient specimens cannot be investigated by standard methods due to the lack of intact cuticle layers...
2017: Scanning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101892/performance-evaluation-of-a-mitogenome-capture-and-illumina-sequencing-protocol-using-non-probative-case-type-skeletal-samples-implications-for-the-use-of-a-positive-control-in-a-next-generation-sequencing-procedure
#5
Charla Marshall, Kimberly Sturk-Andreaggi, Jennifer Daniels-Higginbotham, Robert Sean Oliver, Suzanne Barritt-Ross, Timothy P McMahon
Next-generation ancient DNA technologies have the potential to assist in the analysis of degraded DNA extracted from forensic specimens. Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing, specifically, may be of benefit to samples that fail to yield forensically relevant genetic information using conventional PCR-based techniques. This report summarizes the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System's Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory's (AFMES-AFDIL) performance evaluation of a Next-Generation Sequencing protocol for degraded and chemically treated past accounting samples...
September 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101879/the-potential-for-portable-x-ray-fluorescence-determination-of-soil-copper-at-ancient-metallurgy-sites-and-considerations-beyond-measurements-of-total-concentrations
#6
REVIEW
M Tighe, G Rogan, S C Wilson, P Grave, L Kealhofer, P Yukongdi
Copper (Cu) at ancient metallurgy sites represents the earliest instance of anthropogenically generated metal pollution. Such sites are spread across a wide range of environments from Eurasia to South America, and provide a unique opportunity to investigate the past and present extent and impact of metalworking contamination. Establishing the concentration and extent of soil Cu at archaeometallurgy sites can enhance archaeological interpretations of site use but can also, more fundamentally, provide an initial indication of contamination risk from such sites...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076527/a-comparative-analysis-of-microscopic-alterations-in-modern-and-ancient-undecalcified-and-decalcified-dry-bones
#7
Valentina Caruso, Marco Cummaudo, Emanuela Maderna, Annalisa Cappella, Giorgio Caudullo, Valentina Scarpulla, Cristina Cattaneo
OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to evaluate the preservation of the microstructure of skeletal remains collected from four different known burial sites (archaeological and contemporary). Histological analysis on undecalcified and decalcified thin sections was performed in order to assess which of the two techniques is more affected by taphonomic insults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A histological analysis was performed on both undecalcified and decalcified thin sections of 40 long bones and the degree of diagenetic change was evaluated using transmitted and polarized light microscopy according to the Oxford Histological Index (OHI)...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072003/-qi-runs-through-acupuncture-needle-stimulation-and-pulse-diagnosis-our-considerations-about-connotations-of-qi-in-acupuncture-diagnosis-treatment-scriptures-in-yellow-emperor-s-inner-canon
#8
Shan Jiang, Jing-Sheng Zhao
The ancient classic work Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon has abundant expositions about the relationship between the acupuncture needle manipulation and pulse diagnosis. However, the relevant imparting and inheritance situations are relatively weaker nowadays probably due to the rapid development of modern diagnosis-therapeutic techniques and some faults or careless omission in understanding classical medical works. Qi, a core concept of the abundant expositions in Inner Canon, has seldom been thoroughly interpreted about its connotations...
February 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055403/ancient-roots-modern-applications-mindfulness-as-a-novel-intervention-for-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Gabriel Zieff
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been associated with chronic psychological stress. Unremittent psychological stress causes dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis, which collectively promotes inflammation, atherosclerosis, and subsequent CVD risk. Stress reduction techniques, such as mindfulness meditation, have been shown to improve some markers of HPA and SNS function at rest and in response to acute stressors, suggesting that such techniques, over time, may be cardioprotective...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037736/dna-barcoding-based-identification-of-hippophae-species-and-authentication-of-commercial-products-by-high-resolution-melting-analysis
#10
Yue Liu, Li Xiang, Yi Zhang, Xianrong Lai, Chao Xiong, Jingjian Li, Yanyan Su, Wei Sun, Shilin Chen
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae), an ancient crop with modern virtues, is increasingly consumed in source of foods and nutraceuticals. The growing demand leads to the adulteration of commercial sea buckthorn products, which is a common form of food fraud. Herein, a high resolution melting assay, targeting a DNA barcoding region of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) (Bar-HRM) was developed to identify the seven native Chinese Hippophae species, and to authenticate commercial sea buckthorn products. Melting data from the HRM assay demonstrated that all Hippophae species could be clearly distinguished...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992462/a-non-destructive-spectroscopic-study-of-the-decoration-of-archaeological-pottery-from-matt-painted-bichrome-ceramic-sherds-southern-italy-viii-vii-b-c-to-an-intact-etruscan-cinerary-urn
#11
Silvia Bruni, Vittoria Guglielmi, Elena Della Foglia, Marina Castoldi, Giovanna Bagnasco Gianni
A study is presented based on the use of entirely non-destructive spectroscopic techniques to analyze the chemical composition of the painted surface layer of archaeological pottery. This study aims to define both the raw materials and the working technology of ancient potters. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy, visible and near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflection spectroscopy and external reflection Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were applied to matt-painted bichrome pottery sherds (VIII-VII century B...
October 4, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975399/palatal-ancient-schwannoma-optical-immunohistochemical-and-ultrastructural-study-with-literature-review
#12
Beatriz Vera-Sirera, Lorena Fernades-Ciacha, Luis M Floria, Francisco Vera-Sempere
Schwannoma or neurilemmoma is a benign encapsulated slow-growing tumor that originates from a Schwann cell of a nerve, and is rare at intraoral locations. Different histological variants of schwannomas have been described, of these degenerative or ancient schwannoma is probably one of the least common in the oral cavity with only 16 previously reported cases, of which only one has been described in palatal location. Although ancient schwannoma shows particular characteristics, it is difficult to diagnose based on clinical and imaging appearance alone; as a result, morphological examination assisted by ancillary techniques is necessary to establish a definite diagnosis...
October 3, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971277/dissipation-and-residues-of-the-diamide-insecticide-chlorantraniliprole-in-ginseng-ecosystems-under-different-cultivation-environments
#13
Zhou Lu, Nan Fang, Yajuan Liu, Zhongbei Zhang, Hongyu Pan, Zhiguang Hou, Yueru Li, Zhongbin Lu
Ginseng is a valuable herb, the roots of which have been consumed for medicinal use since ancient times in Asian countries. Currently, its cultivation in China is conducted in either forests or non-forest areas. In this study, we investigated the dissipation and residues of the diamide insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) in ginseng ecosystems in these two cultivation environments. The half-life of CAP in ginseng leaves was calculated to be 16.5 days in non-forest areas and 23.9 days in forests, while the half-life of CAP in the soil under non-forest and forest cultivation was 33...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969119/antimicrobial-activity-of-honey-with-special-reference-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-mssa
#14
Guruvu Neeraja Rani, Radhika Budumuru, Narasinga Rao Bandaru
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial agents are essentially important in reducing the global burden of infectious diseases. With the irrational and excessive use of antibiotics in underdeveloped and developing countries, there may be chances to develop and spread resistant pathogens in the community. As a result, the effectiveness of the antibiotics is diminishing. Therefore, the need for novel alternative antimicrobial strategies has renewed interest in natural products like turmeric, honey, ginger and others exhibiting antibacterial properties...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960019/yoga-as-part-of-a-package-of-care-versus-standard-care-for-schizophrenia
#15
REVIEW
Julie Broderick, Davy Vancampfort
BACKGROUND: Yoga is an ancient spiritual practice that originated in India and is currently accepted in the Western world as a form of relaxation and exercise. It has been of interest for people with schizophrenia to determine the efficacy of yoga delivered as a package of care versus standard care. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of yoga as a package of care versus standard care. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (latest 30 March 2017) which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BIOSS, AMED, PsychINFO, and registries of clinical trials...
September 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956893/yoga-versus-non-standard-care-for-schizophrenia
#16
REVIEW
Julie Broderick, Niall Crumlish, Alice Waugh, Davy Vancampfort
BACKGROUND: Yoga is an ancient spiritual practice that originated in India and is currently accepted in the Western world as a form of relaxation and exercise. It has been of interest for people with schizophrenia as an alternative or adjunctive treatment. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the effects of yoga versus non-standard care for people with schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: The Information Specialist of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group searched their specialised Trials Register (latest 30 March 2017), which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials...
September 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952239/hallmarks-in-history-of-esophageal-carcinoma
#17
Marianna Karamanou, Kostas Markatos, Theodoros G Papaioannou, George Zografos, George Androutsos
Esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers due to its aggressive behavior and poor survival. It was mentioned in the works of ancient Chinese and Arabo-islamic physicians, centuries before the recognition of high incidence in the Asian esophageal cancer belt. Till the 19th century the disease was considered incurable and the main goal of the proposed treatments was to alleviate dysphagia and pain. The introduction of esophagoscope in 1868 by Adolf Kussmaul (1822-1902) contributed to the observation of the living esophagus and to the diagnosis of esophageal pathologies, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches...
July 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934125/optimized-mtdna-control-region-primer-extension-capture-analysis-for-forensically-relevant-samples-and-highly-compromised-mtdna-of-different-age-and-origin
#18
Mayra Eduardoff, Catarina Xavier, Christina Strobl, Andrea Casas-Vargas, Walther Parson
The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR) is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS) protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp). Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) of (multiplex) PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes...
September 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926707/medieval-gilding-technology-of-historical-metal-threads-revealed-by-electron-optical-and-micro-raman-spectroscopic-study-of-focused-ion-beam-milled-cross-sections
#19
Tamás G Weiszburg, Katalin Gherdán, Kitti Ratter, Norbert Zajzon, Zsolt Bendő, György Radnóczi, Ágnes Takács, Tamás Váczi, Gábor Varga, György Szakmány
Although gilt silver threads were widely used for decorating historical textiles, their manufacturing techniques have been elusive for centuries. Contemporary written sources give only limited, sometimes ambiguous information, and detailed cross-sectional study of the microscale soft noble metal objects has been hindered by sample preparation. In this work, to give a thorough characterization of historical gilt silver threads, nano- and microscale textural, chemical, and structural data on cross sections, prepared by focused ion beam milling, were collected, using various electron-optical methods (high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wavelength-dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) combined with energy-dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with EDX, and micro-Raman spectroscopy...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902506/noninvasive-synchrotron-based-x-ray-raman-scattering-discriminates-carbonaceous-compounds-in-ancient-and-historical-materials
#20
Pierre Gueriau, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Sylvain Bernard, Josiane A Kaddissy, Sarah Goler, Christoph J Sahle, Dimosthenis Sokaras, Roy A Wogelius, Phillip L Manning, Uwe Bergmann, Loïc Bertrand
Carbon compounds are ubiquitous and occur in a diversity of chemical forms in many systems including ancient and historic materials ranging from cultural heritage to paleontology. Determining their speciation cannot only provide unique information on their origin but may also elucidate degradation processes. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the carbon K-edge (280-350 eV) is a very powerful method to probe carbon speciation. However, the short penetration depth of soft X-rays imposes stringent constraints on sample type, preparation, and analytical environment...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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