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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907810/prediction-of-autosomal-str-typing-success-in-ancient-and-second-world-war-bone-samples
#1
Irena Zupanič Pajnič, Tomaž Zupanc, Jože Balažic, Živa Miriam Geršak, Oliver Stojković, Ivan Skadrić, Matija Črešnar
Human-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been developed for forensic use in the last 10 years and is the preferred DNA quantification technique since it is very accurate, sensitive, objective, time-effective and automatable. The amount of information that can be gleaned from a single quantification reaction using commercially available quantification kits has increased from the quantity of nuclear DNA to the amount of male DNA, presence of inhibitors and, most recently, to the degree of DNA degradation. In skeletal remains samples from disaster victims, missing persons and war conflict victims, the DNA is usually degraded...
November 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892500/four-translation-initiation-pathways-employed-by-the-leaderless-mrna-in-eukaryotes
#2
Kseniya A Akulich, Dmitry E Andreev, Ilya M Terenin, Victoria V Smirnova, Aleksandra S Anisimova, Desislava S Makeeva, Valentina I Arkhipova, Elena A Stolboushkina, Maria B Garber, Maria M Prokofjeva, Pavel V Spirin, Vladimir S Prassolov, Ivan N Shatsky, Sergey E Dmitriev
mRNAs lacking 5' untranslated regions (leaderless mRNAs) are molecular relics of an ancient translation initiation pathway. Nevertheless, they still represent a significant portion of transcriptome in some taxons, including a number of eukaryotic species. In bacteria and archaea, the leaderless mRNAs can bind non-dissociated 70 S ribosomes and initiate translation without protein initiation factors involved. Here we use the Fleeting mRNA Transfection technique (FLERT) to show that translation of a leaderless reporter mRNA is resistant to conditions when eIF2 and eIF4F, two key eukaryotic translation initiation factors, are inactivated in mammalian cells...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881876/the-efficacy-of-high-throughput-sequencing-and-target-enrichment-on-charred-archaeobotanical-remains
#3
H M Nistelberger, O Smith, N Wales, B Star, S Boessenkool
The majority of archaeological plant material is preserved in a charred state. Obtaining reliable ancient DNA data from these remains has presented challenges due to high rates of nucleotide damage, short DNA fragment lengths, low endogenous DNA content and the potential for modern contamination. It has been suggested that high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies coupled with DNA enrichment techniques may overcome some of these limitations. Here we report the findings of HTS and target enrichment on four important archaeological crops (barley, grape, maize and rice) performed in three different laboratories, presenting the largest HTS assessment of charred archaeobotanical specimens to date...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872219/shortwave-infrared-imaging-spectroscopy-for-analysis-of-ancient-paintings
#4
Taixia Wu, Guanghua Li, Zehua Yang, Hongming Zhang, Yong Lei, Nan Wang, Lifu Zhang
Spectral analysis is one of the main non-destructive techniques used to examine cultural relics. Hyperspectral imaging technology, especially on the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band, can clearly extract information from paintings, such as color, pigment composition, damage characteristics, and painting techniques. All of these characteristics have significant scientific and practical value in the study of ancient paintings and other relics and in their protection and restoration. In this study, an ancient painting, numbered Gu-6541, which had been found in the Forbidden City, served as a sample...
November 21, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867389/modeling-the-morphometric-evolution-of-the-maize-shoot-apical-meristem
#5
Samuel Leiboff, Christopher K DeAllie, Michael J Scanlon
The maize (Zea mays subsp. mays L.) shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a self-replenishing pool of stem cells that produces all above-ground plant tissues. Improvements in image acquisition and processing techniques have allowed high-throughput, quantitative genetic analyses of SAM morphology. As with other large-scale phenotyping efforts, meaningful descriptions of genetic architecture depend on the collection of relevant measures. In this study, we tested two quantitative image processing methods to describe SAM morphology within the genus Zea, represented by 33 wild relatives of maize and 841 lines from a domesticated maize by wild teosinte progenitor (MxT) backcross population, along with previously reported data from several hundred diverse maize inbred lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825178/ruscus-genus-a-rich-source-of-bioactive-steroidal-saponins
#6
Milena Masullo, Cosimo Pizza, Sonia Piacente
The genus Ruscus (Asparagaceae family) is native to the Mediterranean, Southern and Western Europe and is represented by perennial, rhizomatous, and evergreen shrubs. Among the approximately seven species spread throughout Europe up to Iran, Ruscus aculeatus L. (butcher's broom) is the most widely distributed and appreciated. This review provides an overview of the traditional use of Ruscus spp., the current knowledge of the chemistry of this genus, and the pharmacological studies carried out on Ruscus spp...
November 8, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813680/taming-the-past-ancient-dna-and-the-study-of-animal-domestication
#7
David E MacHugh, Greger Larson, Ludovic Orlando
During the last decade, ancient DNA research has been revolutionized by the availability of increasingly powerful DNA sequencing and ancillary genomics technologies, giving rise to the new field of paleogenomics. In this review, we show how our understanding of the genetic basis of animal domestication and the origins and dispersal of livestock and companion animals during the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic periods is being rapidly transformed through new scientific knowledge generated with paleogenomics methods...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806065/lead-pb-isotope-baselines-for-studies-of-ancient-human-migration-and-trade-in-the-maya-region
#8
Ashley E Sharpe, George D Kamenov, Adrian Gilli, David A Hodell, Kitty F Emery, Mark Brenner, John Krigbaum
We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783985/geochemical-and-mineralogical-fingerprints-to-distinguish-the-exploited-ferruginous-mineralisations-of-grotta-della-monaca-calabria-italy
#9
Luca Antonio Dimuccio, Nelson Rodrigues, Felice Larocca, João Pratas, Ana Margarida Amado, Luís A E Batista de Carvalho
This study examines the geochemical and mineralogical variations in the ferruginous mineralisations that crop out within Grotta della Monaca, which is considered to be the most striking and best known example of a prehistoric iron mine-cave from the southern Apennines (Calabria, Italy). Previous archaeological research identified three local and distinct ancient exploitation phases of these ferruginous mineralisations: (1) an Upper Palaeolithic phase; (2) a Late Neolithic phase; and (3) a post-Medieval phase...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783693/detection-of-hcv-persistent-infections-in-the-dental-pulp-a-novel-approach-for-the-detection-of-past-and-ancient-infections
#10
Layla Gomes Siravenha, Leonardo Quintão Siravenha, Lucimar Di Paula Madeira, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak
: The dental pulp is a sterile highly vascularized tissue and has been commonly used as a biological material to detect the genome of infectious agents that reach the dental tissue. Indeed, the pulp is also used to reveal past and ancient infections in the field of paleomicrobiology. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a small community (approximately 400 inhabitants) in the Amazon region of Brazil (Nossa Senhora do Perpetuo Socorro, Vizeu, Para, Brazil) and standardize a technique for the detection of the virus in the dental pulp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769950/trepanation-in-ancient-china
#11
Leah Hobert, Emanuela Binello
Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese only used traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries...
October 18, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762483/range-shifts-or-extinction-ancient-dna-and-distribution-modelling-reveal-past-and-future-responses-to-climate-warming-in-cold-adapted-birds
#12
Vendela K Lagerholm, Edson Sandoval-Castellanos, Amélie Vaniscotte, Olga R Potapova, Teresa Tomek, Zbigniew M Bochenski, Paul Shepherd, Nick Barton, Marie-Claire Van Dyck, Rebecca Miller, Jacob Höglund, Nigel G Yoccoz, Love Dalén, John R Stewart
Global warming is predicted to cause substantial habitat rearrangements, with the most severe effects expected to occur in high-latitude biomes. However, one major uncertainty is whether species will be able to shift their ranges to keep pace with climate-driven environmental changes. Many recent studies on mammals have shown that past range contractions have been associated with local extinctions rather than survival by habitat tracking. Here, we have used an interdisciplinary approach that combines ancient DNA techniques, coalescent simulations and species distribution modelling, to investigate how two common cold-adapted bird species, willow and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus and Lagopus muta), respond to long-term climate warming...
October 20, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748982/mobile-nmr-an-essential-tool-for-protecting-our-cultural-heritage
#13
Maria Baias
What is "cultural heritage"? Is it simply our legacy of physical artifacts - or is it our collective legacy as human societies - how we want to be remembered by future generations? With time, negligence, and even military conflict working to erase the past, we must ask: Can a better understanding of our shared heritage assist us in addressing cultural differences in the present day? And how can science both help us understand the historic record and work to preserve it? In this perspective article we examine an emerging scientific method, mobile nuclear magnetic resonance, that can help us examine in a non-invasive way important objects and sites of our cultural heritage...
October 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726818/paleopathology-of-human-infections-old-bones-antique-books-ancient-and-modern-molecules
#14
Olivier Dutour
Paleopathology studies the traces of disease on human and animal remains from ancient times. Infectious diseases have been, for over a century, one of its main fields of interest. The applications of paleogenetics methods to microbial aDNA, that started in the 90s combined to the recent development of new sequencing techniques allowing 'paleogenomics' approaches, have completely renewed the issue of the infections in the past. These advances open up new challenges in the understanding of the evolution of human-pathogen relationships, integrated in "One Health" concept...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726806/a-personal-view-of-how-paleomicrobiology-aids-our-understanding-of-the-role-of-lice-in-plague-pandemics
#15
Didier Raoult
We have been involved in the field of paleomicrobiology since 1998, when we used dental pulp to identify Yersinia pestis as the causative agent of the great plague of Marseille (1720). We recently designed a specific technique, "suicide PCR," that can prevent contamination. A controversy arose between two teams, with one claiming that DNA must be altered to amplify it and the other group claiming that demographic data did not support the role of Y. pestis in the Black Death (i.e., the great plague of the Middle Ages)...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726790/human-coprolites-as-a-source-for-paleomicrobiology
#16
Sandra Appelt, Michel Drancourt, Matthieu Le Bailly
The paleomicrobiology of coprolites, which are fossilized fecal materials, has already yielded data about various organisms, including micro-eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea, thus expanding our comprehension of ancient human dietary habits, gut microbiota, and intestinal and systemic infections. This mini-review briefly describes previous works and summarizes the main techniques used in handling coprolites and the findings obtained about ancient gut microbiota. Past intestinal and systemic infections are outlined...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726780/the-history-of-epidemic-typhus
#17
Emmanouil Angelakis, Yassina Bechah, Didier Raoult
Epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii is one of the oldest pestilential diseases of humankind. The disease is transmitted to human beings by the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis and is still considered a major threat by public health authorities, despite the efficacy of antibiotics, because poor sanitary conditions are conducive to louse proliferation. Epidemic typhus has accompanied disasters that impact humanity and has arguably determined the outcome of more wars than have soldiers and generals...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726770/paleomicrobiology-a-snapshot-of-ancient-microbes-and-approaches-to-forensic-microbiology
#18
Jessica I Rivera-Perez, Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Gary A Toranzos
Paleomicrobiology, or the study of ancient microorganisms, has raised both fascination and skepticism for many years. While paleomicrobiology is not a recent field, the application of emerging techniques, such as DNA sequencing, is proving essential and has provided novel information regarding the evolution of viruses, antibiotic resistance, saprophytes, and pathogens, as well as ancient health and disease status, cultural customs, ethnic diets, and historical events. In this review, we highlight the importance of studying ancient microbial DNA, its contributions to current knowledge, and the role that forensic paleomicrobiology has played in deciphering historical enigmas...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679821/from-damage-to-discovery-via-virtual-unwrapping-reading-the-scroll-from-en-gedi
#19
William Brent Seales, Clifford Seth Parker, Michael Segal, Emanuel Tov, Pnina Shor, Yosef Porath
Computer imaging techniques are commonly used to preserve and share readable manuscripts, but capturing writing locked away in ancient, deteriorated documents poses an entirely different challenge. This software pipeline-referred to as "virtual unwrapping"-allows textual artifacts to be read completely and noninvasively. The systematic digital analysis of the extremely fragile En-Gedi scroll (the oldest Pentateuchal scroll in Hebrew outside of the Dead Sea Scrolls) reveals the writing hidden on its untouchable, disintegrating sheets...
September 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665577/urinary-catheterization-a-paradigm-shift-in-difficult-urinary-catheterization
#20
REVIEW
Kristofer R Wagner, Erin T Bird, K Scott Coffield
BACKGROUND: The urinary catheter is an ancient device for urinary drainage in patients. Placement of a urethral catheter is a common medical procedure that may have led to morbidity and mortality. Urethral catheterization is commonly performed by a nurse. Difficult catheter placement generates urology consultation. Difficult catheterization with a vision-guided urinary catheter may provide expedited and successful catheter placement by nursing personnel. METHODS: A PubMed...
November 2016: Current Urology Reports
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