Read by QxMD icon Read

Ancient* technique*

Maria Baias
What is "cultural heritage"? Is it simply our legacy of physical artifacts - or is it our collective legacy as human societies - how we want to be remembered by future generations? With time, negligence, and even military conflict working to erase the past, we must ask: Can a better understanding of our shared heritage assist us in addressing cultural differences in the present day? And how can science both help us understand the historic record and work to preserve it? In this perspective article we examine an emerging scientific method, mobile nuclear magnetic resonance, that can help us examine in a non-invasive way important objects and sites of our cultural heritage...
October 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Olivier Dutour
Paleopathology studies the traces of disease on human and animal remains from ancient times. Infectious diseases have been, for over a century, one of its main fields of interest. The applications of paleogenetics methods to microbial aDNA, that started in the 90s combined to the recent development of new sequencing techniques allowing 'paleogenomics' approaches, have completely renewed the issue of the infections in the past. These advances open up new challenges in the understanding of the evolution of human-pathogen relationships, integrated in "One Health" concept...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Didier Raoult
We have been involved in the field of paleomicrobiology since 1998, when we used dental pulp to identify Yersinia pestis as the causative agent of the great plague of Marseille (1720). We recently designed a specific technique, "suicide PCR," that can prevent contamination. A controversy arose between two teams, with one claiming that DNA must be altered to amplify it and the other group claiming that demographic data did not support the role of Y. pestis in the Black Death (i.e., the great plague of the Middle Ages)...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Sandra Appelt, Michel Drancourt, Matthieu Le Bailly
The paleomicrobiology of coprolites, which are fossilized fecal materials, has already yielded data about various organisms, including micro-eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea, thus expanding our comprehension of ancient human dietary habits, gut microbiota, and intestinal and systemic infections. This mini-review briefly describes previous works and summarizes the main techniques used in handling coprolites and the findings obtained about ancient gut microbiota. Past intestinal and systemic infections are outlined...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Emmanouil Angelakis, Yassina Bechah, Didier Raoult
Epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii is one of the oldest pestilential diseases of humankind. The disease is transmitted to human beings by the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis and is still considered a major threat by public health authorities, despite the efficacy of antibiotics, because poor sanitary conditions are conducive to louse proliferation. Epidemic typhus has accompanied disasters that impact humanity and has arguably determined the outcome of more wars than have soldiers and generals...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Jessica I Rivera-Perez, Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Gary A Toranzos
Paleomicrobiology, or the study of ancient microorganisms, has raised both fascination and skepticism for many years. While paleomicrobiology is not a recent field, the application of emerging techniques, such as DNA sequencing, is proving essential and has provided novel information regarding the evolution of viruses, antibiotic resistance, saprophytes, and pathogens, as well as ancient health and disease status, cultural customs, ethnic diets, and historical events. In this review, we highlight the importance of studying ancient microbial DNA, its contributions to current knowledge, and the role that forensic paleomicrobiology has played in deciphering historical enigmas...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
William Brent Seales, Clifford Seth Parker, Michael Segal, Emanuel Tov, Pnina Shor, Yosef Porath
Computer imaging techniques are commonly used to preserve and share readable manuscripts, but capturing writing locked away in ancient, deteriorated documents poses an entirely different challenge. This software pipeline-referred to as "virtual unwrapping"-allows textual artifacts to be read completely and noninvasively. The systematic digital analysis of the extremely fragile En-Gedi scroll (the oldest Pentateuchal scroll in Hebrew outside of the Dead Sea Scrolls) reveals the writing hidden on its untouchable, disintegrating sheets...
September 2016: Science Advances
Kristofer R Wagner, Erin T Bird, K Scott Coffield
BACKGROUND: The urinary catheter is an ancient device for urinary drainage in patients. Placement of a urethral catheter is a common medical procedure that may have led to morbidity and mortality. Urethral catheterization is commonly performed by a nurse. Difficult catheter placement generates urology consultation. Difficult catheterization with a vision-guided urinary catheter may provide expedited and successful catheter placement by nursing personnel. METHODS: A PubMed...
November 2016: Current Urology Reports
F Z Mokrane, R Colleter, S Duchesne, P Gerard, F Savall, E Crubezy, C Guilbeau-Frugier, R Moreno, A Sewonu, H Rousseau, N Telmon, F Dedouit
INTRODUCTION: Among 800 burials dated between the 15th and 18th centuries and found in the center of Rennes (Brittany, France), a collection of five heart-shaped lead urns was discovered. This material was studied using classical methods (external study, autopsy and histology), and also modern imaging like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) before and after coronary opacification. The aim of this manuscript is to describe different steps of ancient soft tissues study, especially using imaging techniques...
September 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
Amna Jabbar Siddiqui, Syed Ghulam Musharraf, M Iqbal Choudhary, Atta-Ur- Rahman
Honey is synthesized from flower nectar and it is famous for its tremendous therapeutic potential since ancient times. Many factors influence the basic properties of honey including the nectar-providing plant species, bee species, geographic area, and harvesting conditions. Quality and composition of honey is also affected by many other factors, such as overfeeding of bees with sucrose, harvesting prior to maturity, and adulteration with sugar syrups. Due to the complex nature of honey, it is often challenging to authenticate the purity and quality by using common methods such as physicochemical parameters and more specialized procedures need to be developed...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Christos Koutserimpas, Kalliopi Alpantaki, George Samonis
Homer's Iliad is one of the highest intellectual products of the early ancient Greek civilisation. A plethora of medical information lies within Iliad's 24 rhapsodies, and a total of 147 injuries are described. The present study records and evaluates all cases of trauma management included in this epic poem. Not only Iliad's original text but also all myths related to Iliad from the five-volume Greek Mythology by Ioannis Kakridis were meticulously studied to locate the injured person, the type of trauma, the care provider and the type of given care as well as the outcome of each case...
September 9, 2016: International Wound Journal
Marcia Spear
Leech therapy is the ancient practice of bloodletting or bloodsucking and is considered one of the oldest medical practices known. Its use has spanned centuries and is still used in plastic surgery practices today when performing free flaps and replants. The purpose of this article is to discuss the history of this ancient therapy and to describe the leech and its present indications, complications, contraindications, and techniques.
July 2016: Plastic Surgical Nursing
Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Da Hye Kim, Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar, Srisesharam Srigopalram, Sang Gun Roh, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Jong Suk Lee, Ki Choon Choi
BACKGROUND: From ancient times, marine algae have emerged as alternative medicine and foods, contains the rich source of natural products like proteins, vitamins, and secondary metabolites, especially Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) contains numerous anti-inflammatory, antioxidants and wound healing substances. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely associated with adipogenesis and their factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and adipogenic modulatory properties of C...
2016: Biological Research
Maurizio Aceto, Elisa Calà, Angelo Agostino, Gaia Fenoglio, Ambra Idone, Cheryl Porter, Monica Gulmini
The identification of the two purple dyes folium and orchil has rarely been reported in the analysis of painted artworks, especially when analysing illuminated manuscripts. This is not consistent with the fact that ancient literary sources suggested their use as substitutes for the more expensive Tyrian purple dye. By employing non-invasive spectroscopic techniques, the present work demonstrates that these dyes were actually widely used in the production of ancient manuscripts. By employing UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optic fibres (FORS) and spectrofluorimetry, the abundant identification of both dyes on medieval manuscripts was performed by comparing the spectra recorded on ancient codices with those obtained on accurate replicas of dyed or painted parchment...
January 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Francesca Sabatini, Anna Lluveras-Tenorio, Ilaria Degano, Stepanka Kuckova, Iva Krizova, Maria Perla Colombini
This study deals with the identification of anthraquinoid molecular markers in standard dyes, reference lakes, and paint model systems using a micro-invasive and nondestructive technique such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS). Red anthraquinoid lakes, such as madder lake, carmine lake, and Indian lac, have been the most widely used for painting purposes since ancient times. From an analytical point of view, identifying lakes in paint samples is challenging and developing methods that maximize the information achievable minimizing the amount of sample needed is of paramount importance...
November 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
June Ross, Kira Westaway, Meg Travers, Michael J Morwood, John Hayward
The recent establishment of a minimum age estimate of 39.9 ka for the origin of rock art in Sulawesi has challenged claims that Western Europe was the locus for the production of the world's earliest art assemblages. Tantalising excavated evidence found across northern Australian suggests that Australia too contains a wealth of ancient art. However, the dating of rock art itself remains the greatest obstacle to be addressed if the significance of Australian assemblages are to be recognised on the world stage...
2016: PloS One
B Brunetti, C Miliani, F Rosi, B Doherty, L Monico, A Romani, A Sgamellotti
The in situ non invasive methods have experienced a significant development in the last decade because they meet specific needs of analytical chemistry in the field of cultural heritage where  artworks are rarely moved from their locations, sampling is rarely permitted, and analytes are a wide range of inorganic, organic and organometallic substances in complex and precious matrices. MOLAB, a unique collection of integrated mobile instruments, has greatly contributed to demonstrate that it is now possible to obtain satisfactory results in the study of a variety of heritage objects without sampling or moving them to a laboratory...
February 2016: Top Curr Chem (J)
Loïc Bertrand, Sylvain Bernard, Federica Marone, Mathieu Thoury, Ina Reiche, Aurélien Gourrier, Philippe Sciau, Uwe Bergmann
Synchrotrons have provided significant methods and instruments to study ancient materials from cultural and natural heritages. New ways to visualise (surfacic or volumic) morphologies are developed on the basis of elemental, density and refraction contrasts. They now apply to a wide range of materials, from historic artefacts to paleontological specimens. The tunability of synchrotron beams owing to the high flux and high spectral resolution of photon sources is at the origin of the main chemical speciation capabilities of synchrotron-based techniques...
February 2016: Top Curr Chem (J)
Michael S Borofsky, Casey A Dauw, Andrew Cohen, James C Williams, Andrew P Evan, James E Lingeman
Nephrolithiasis, or stones, is one of the oldest urological diseases, with descriptions and treatment strategies dating back to ancient times. Despite the enormous number of patients affected by stones, a surprising lack of conceptual understanding of many aspects of this disease still exists. This lack of understanding includes mechanisms of stone formation and retention, the clinical relevance of different stone compositions and that of formation patterns and associated pathological features to the overall course of the condition...
September 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Isak S Pretorius
Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes...
August 18, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"