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Ancient* technique*

Jamie R Wood
Ancient samples present a number of technical challenges for DNA barcoding, including damaged DNA with low endogenous copy number and short fragment lengths. Nevertheless, techniques are available to overcome these issues, and DNA barcoding has now been used to successfully recover parasite DNA from a wide variety of ancient substrates, including coprolites, cesspit sediment, mummified tissues, burial sediments and permafrost soils. The study of parasite DNA from ancient samples can provide a number of unique scientific insights, for example: (1) into the parasite communities and health of prehistoric human populations; (2) the ability to reconstruct the natural parasite faunas of rare or extinct host species, which has implications for conservation management and de-extinction; and (3) the ability to view in 'real-time' processes that may operate over century- or millenial-timescales, such as how parasites responded to past climate change events or how they co-evolved alongside their hosts...
March 20, 2018: Parasitology
Poonam Parashar, Meena Rathor, Monika Dwivedi, Shubhini A Saraf
Lung carcinoma is the most common cancer in men and second in women (preceded by breast cancer) worldwide. Around 1 in 10 of all cancers diagnosed in men, lung cancer contributed to a total fraction of 20% cancer deaths. Naringenin (NAR) is well known for its chemopreventive properties since ancient times but lacks an appropriate delivery carrier. The objective of present study was to expand the functionality of naringenin loaded poly caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles in terms of release, chemoprevention and therapeutics...
March 12, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Silvana Fais, Giuseppe Casula, Francesco Cuccuru, Paola Ligas, Maria Giovanna Bianchi
In the following we present a new non-invasive methodology aimed at the diagnosis of stone building materials used in historical buildings and architectural elements. This methodology consists of the integrated sequential application of in situ proximal sensing methodologies such as the 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3D modelling of investigated objects together with laboratory and in situ non-invasive multi-techniques acoustic data, preceded by an accurate petrographical study of the investigated stone materials by optical and scanning electron microscopy...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guangyuan Ren, Liangliang Gao, Chao Teng, Yunan Li, Hequn Yang, Jianglan Shui, Xianyong Lu, Ying Zhu, Liming Dai
The method of fabricating non-precious-metal electrocatalysts with high activity and durability through a facile and eco-friendly procedure is of great significance to the development of low cost fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, we present that an ancient chemical reaction of "Pharaoh's snakes" can be a fast and convenient technique to prepare Fe/N-doped carbon nanosheets/nanotubes (Fe/N-C) electrocatalysts with sugar, soda, melamine and iron nitrate as precursors. The resultant Fe/N-C catalyst has a hierarchically porous structure, large surface area and uniformly distributed active sites...
March 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bing Zhu
Moxibustion, one of the traditional Chinese medicine therapy, plays an important role in the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions, particularly the chronic and deficiency problems. In the present paper, the author reviewed the history of development of moxibustion therapy, and the related materials and heating temperature in ancient China, and also reviewed the history of heating therapy (similar to moxibustion) appearing in ancient Egypt, Greek, Libya, India, Europe, etc. The author thinks that the efficacy of moxibustion intervention mainly depends on the heating temperature and the heated area of the skin (not the heating materials) according to his own research group's experimental outcomes...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Odile Loreille, Shashikala Ratnayake, Adam L Bazinet, Timothy B Stockwell, Daniel D Sommer, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Philip L F Johnson, Pontus Skoglund, Anthony J Onorato, Nicholas H Bergman, David Reich, Jodi A Irwin
High throughput sequencing (HTS) has been used for a number of years in the field of paleogenomics to facilitate the recovery of small DNA fragments from ancient specimens. Recently, these techniques have also been applied in forensics, where they have been used for the recovery of mitochondrial DNA sequences from samples where traditional PCR-based assays fail because of the very short length of endogenous DNA molecules. Here, we describe the biological sexing of a ~4000-year-old Egyptian mummy using shotgun sequencing and two established methods of biological sex determination (RX and RY ), by way of mitochondrial genome analysis as a means of sequence data authentication...
March 1, 2018: Genes
La Jiang, Huan-Hua Xu, Zhen-Hong Jiang, Shi-Han Yang, Qiao-Li Shi, Zeng-Chun Ma, Yue Gao, Zhi-Wu Chen
The results of a toxicity analysis showed differences from those of the existing experimental data. Therefore, HPLC-ICP-MS was used to analyze the soluble arsenic content at different valences in realgar prepared with water grind processing, which were collected from 3 companies. The results showed that the free arsenic of the 3 companies did not exceed the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However, if the free arsenic was calculated based on the total value of As(Ⅲ) + As(Ⅴ), free arsenic of 1 company exceeded the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Preethitha Babu, Ravi K Chittoria, Hemant K Sudhanva, S Kumaran, Elan S Kumar
The art of body piercing is ancient; however, nowadays it has evolved into a fashion statement. In the Indian subcontinent, ear and nose piercing hold religious and cultural significance in addition to being done for aesthetic reasons. Body piercing is routinely performed by railroading technique or by piercing guns; many modifications of the technique have emerged. Irrespective of the technique used, the main complications associated are intraoperative bleeding and postoperative infection. To overcome these problems, we describe a novel and simple technique of ear and nose piercing using the radio frequency cautery...
October 2017: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Fernando Mota, Miguel Horta, Monica Caetano, Virgilio Costa, Manuela Selores
The nasolabial flap is one of the most ancient techniques used in orofacial surgery. The authors report two cases of patients with skin cancer treated surgically with variations of the classic nasolabial flap by transposition (bilateral and folded) that highlight the broad applicability of this technique.
September 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Roxane Raffin Chan, Jamie Beaulieu, Carolyn E Z Pickering
BACKGROUND: For persons with chronic disease, participation in meditation interventions can reduce anxiety, depression, and chronic disease symptoms in a dose dependent fashion. Unfortunately, information about how to support long-term participation in such an intervention is lacking. Therefore, a recent discovery of persons with chronic lung disease who have maintained a self-led meditation group for more than four years created an opportunity to analyze experiences, meanings and relationship dynamics of this community-based meditation group...
December 21, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Alexander P Boast, Laura S Weyrich, Jamie R Wood, Jessica L Metcalf, Rob Knight, Alan Cooper
Over the past 50,000 y, biotic extinctions and declines have left a legacy of vacant niches and broken ecological interactions across global terrestrial ecosystems. Reconstructing the natural, unmodified ecosystems that preceded these events relies on high-resolution analyses of paleoecological deposits. Coprolites are a source of uniquely detailed information about trophic interactions and the behaviors, gut parasite communities, and microbiotas of prehistoric animal species. Such insights are critical for understanding the legacy effects of extinctions on ecosystems, and can help guide contemporary conservation and ecosystem restoration efforts...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fuming Sang, Zhizhou Zhang, Lin Yuan, Deli Liu
Multi-round PCR is an important technique for obtaining enough target DNA from rare DNA resources, and is commonly used in many fields including forensic science, ancient DNA analysis and cancer research. However, multi-round PCR is often aborted, largely due to the accumulation of non-specific amplification during repeated amplifications. Here, we developed a Pfu polymerase based multi-round PCR technique assisted by quantum dots (QDs). Different PCR assays, DNA polymerases (Pfu and Taq), DNA sizes and GC amounts were compared in this study...
February 13, 2018: Analyst
Timothy P Cleland, Elena R Schroeter
The last two decades have seen a broad diversity of methods used to identify and/or characterize proteins in the archeological and paleontological record. Of these, mass spectrometry has opened an unprecedented window into the proteomes of the past, providing protein sequence data from long extinct animals as well as historical and prehistorical artifacts. Thus, application of mass spectrometry to fossil remains has become an attractive source for ancient molecular sequences with which to conduct evolutionary studies, particularly in specimens older than the proposed limit of amplifiable DNA detection...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Jacopo Boaga, Massimiliano Ghinassi, Andrea D'Alpaos, G P Deidda, G Rodriguez, Giorgio Cassiani
Whether or not one can detect relict signatures of the past imprinted in current landscapes is a question of the utmost theoretical and practical relevance for meandering tidal channels, owing to their influence on the morphodynamic evolution of tidal landscapes, a critically fragile environment, especially in face of expected climatic changes. Unravelling the sedimentary patterns of ancient channels is an expensive process that usually requires high resolution sediment coring. Here we use a novel inversion process of multi-frequency electromagnetic measurements to reveal the signature and characterize the dynamics of a salt-marsh paleo-meander in the Venice Lagoon...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Ruffley, M L Smith, A Espíndola, B C Carstens, J Sullivan, D C Tank
Model selection approaches in phylogeography have allowed researchers to evaluate the support for competing demographic histories, which provides a mode of inference and a measure of uncertainty in understanding climatic and spatial influences on intraspecific diversity. Here, to rank all models in the comparison set, and determine what proportion of the total support the top-ranked model garners, we conduct model selection using two analytical approaches -allele frequency-based, implemented in fastsimcoal2, and gene tree-based, implemented in PHRAPL...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Dong Hoon Shin, Chang Seok Oh, Jong Ha Hong, Hyejin Lee, Soong Deok Lee, Eunju Lee
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that grows in the stomach mucosal epithelium, and can induce gastric diseases. Although many studies on modern H. pylori genomes have been reported from all over the world, a comprehensive picture of H. pylori is still lacking. Therefore, there is a pressing need to obtain archaeological specimens and to subject the ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted therefrom to analysis. Considering the typically excellent state of preservation of Joseon mummies discovered in Korea, we thus tried to isolate ancient H...
January 12, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Jun Wang, Jun Jin, Xiaofeng Xue, Yan Hao, Dongrong Li, Shan Xu, Fang Huang
RATIONALE: Bigu is a Taoist fasting technique interpreted as avoiding grains in the Encyclopedia of China. This technique has been used from ancient times to the present day in China and other parts of the world to achieve good health, weight loss, longevity, and even immortality. A variety of health problems have been identified in relation to the severe diet during Bigu. However, perforation of the alimentary canal has not been reported to be associated with Bigu. In the present study, we illustrated an unusual case of perforation of the alimentary canal in relation to Bigu...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gregorio Dal Sasso, Ivana Angelini, Lara Maritan, Gilberto Artioli
Retrieving the pristine chemical or isotopic composition of archaeological bones is of great interest for many studies aiming to reconstruct the past life of ancient populations (i.e. diet, mobility, palaeoenvironment, age). However, from the death of the individual onwards, bones undergo several taphonomic and diagenetic processes that cause the alteration of their microstructure and composition. A detailed study on bone diagenesis has the double purpose to assess the preservation state of archaeological bones and to understand the alteration pathways, thus providing evidence that may contribute to evaluate the reliability of the retrieved information...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
Yuchen Deng, Jiawei Gu, Zhenpeng Yan, Mengdi Wang, Chaoqun Ma, Jiafeng Zhang, Guixian Jiang, Mengxiao Ge, Shuogui Xu, Zheng Xu, Liang Xiao
Scorpion, as an ancient species, has been widely used on dozens of human diseases in traditional Chinese Medicine. Although the scorpion venom from the Buthidae family with the potent toxicity attracts more interests, toxins from the non-Buthidae family draw great attention as well because of its abundance and complexity even without harm to mammals. Moreover, several toxic components of scorpion venom have been identified as valuable scaffolds for the drug design and development. Using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique, here we reported the transcriptome of the venomous glands of Heterometrus spinifer, a non-Buthidae scorpion that only a few toxic and complete components have been identified known-to-date...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Yeongjun Ryu, Jinho Ahn, Ji-Woong Yang
Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance whose emissions are substantially perturbed by current human activities. Although air trapped in polar ice cores can provide direct information about N2O evolution, analytical precision was not previously sufficient for high temporal resolution studies. In this work, we present a highly improved analytical technique with which to study N2O concentrations in ancient-air-trapped ice cores. We adopt a melt-refreezing method to extract air and use a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to determine N2O concentrations...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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