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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734360/revealing-the-biography-of-a-hidden-medieval-manuscript-using-synchrotron-and-conventional-imaging-techniques
#1
E Pouyet, S Devine, T Grafakos, R Kieckhefer, J Salvant, L Smieska, A Woll, A Katsaggelos, O Cossairt, M Walton
Reading the content of hidden texts from ancient manuscripts has become an increasingly important endeavor thanks to the variety of non-destructive analytical tools and image processing routines available for this task. In this study, portable macro X-Ray Fluorescence (MA-XRF-tube), Visible Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) together with Synchrotron based macro X-Ray Fluorescence (MA-XRF-SR) are combined with signal processing methods to reveal the biography of a degraded manuscript recycled as binding material for a 16th century printed edition of Hesiod's Works and Days...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725632/medicinal-importance-pharmacological-activities-and-analytical-aspects-of-hispidulin-a-concise-report
#2
REVIEW
Kanika Patel, Dinesh Kumar Patel
Herbal medicines have been played an important role in the human civilization since very ancient time as a food, cloth, medicine and other aspects. Some of the important drugs in the modern medicine were derived from the natural sources such as aspirin, digitalis, quinine, vincristine, vinblastine etc. Hispidulin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone) is a flavones derivative found in plant such as Grindelia argentina, Arrabidaea chica, Saussurea involucrate, Crossostephium chinense, Artemisia and Salvia species...
July 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708642/a-novel-rhinoplasty-sculpture-technique-using-ancient-chinese-architectural-technology
#3
Melia Bogari, Andy Tan, Li Lin, Zin Mar Aung, Yu Xin, Haisong Xu, Gang Chai, Yan Zhang
Rhinoplasty is one of the most delicate procedures in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Precision in every millimeter is vital in ensuring a better quality of surgical outcome. Many methods have been developed to fulfill this requirement. One such method is an implant, whether autogenous or artificial. Artificial implants involve several surgical complications, such as recipient rejection of implant material, infections, and rigid feel of the nasal tip. Hence, autogenous implants were eventually more widely applied, with material being obtained from the septum, concha, or rib cartilages...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706348/a-methodological-approach-to-the-study-of-archaeological-cereal-meals-a-case-study-at-%C3%A3-atalh%C3%A3-y%C3%A3-k-east-turkey
#4
Lara González Carretero, Michèle Wollstonecroft, Dorian Q Fuller
This paper presents an integrated methodology for the analysis of archaeological remains of cereal meals, based on scanning electronic microscopic analyses of microstructures of charred food fragments from Neolithic Çatalhöyük (Turkey). The remains of cereal foods as 'bread-like' or 'porridge-like' small charred lumps of various amalgamated plant materials are frequently recovered from Neolithic and later archaeological sites in southwest Asia and Europe. Cereal food remains have recently attracted interest because the identification of their plant contents, the forms of food that they represent and the methods used in their creation can provide unique information about ancient culinary traditions and routine food processing, preparation and cooking techniques...
2017: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700598/tracing-social-interactions-in-pleistocene-north-america-via-3d-model-analysis-of-stone-tool-asymmetry
#5
Sabrina B Sholts, Joseph A M Gingerich, Stefan Schlager, Dennis J Stanford, Sebastian K T S Wärmländer
Stone tools, often the sole remnant of prehistoric hunter-gatherer behavior, are frequently used as evidence of ancient human mobility, resource use, and environmental adaptation. In North America, studies of morphological variation in projectile points have provided important insights into migration and interactions of human groups as early as 12-13 kya. Using new approaches to 3D imaging and morphometric analysis, we here quantify bifacial asymmetry among early North American projectile point styles to better understand changes in knapping technique and cultural transmission...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699572/oriental-metrology-and-the-politics-of-antiquity-in-nineteenth-century-survey-sciences
#6
Simon Schaffer
Argument Metrological techniques to establish shared quantitative measures have often been seen as signs of rational modernization. The cases considered here show instead the close relation of such techniques with antiquarian and revivalist programs under imperial regimes. Enterprises in survey sciences in Egypt in the wake of the French invasion of 1798 and in India during the East India Company's revenue surveys involved the promotion of a new kind of oriental metrology designed to represent colonizers' measures as restorations of ancient values to be applied to current systems of survey and measurement...
June 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698450/analytical-techniques-and-pharmacokinetics-of-gastrodia-elata-blume-and-its-constituents
#7
REVIEW
Jinyi Wu, Bingchu Wu, Chunlan Tang, Jinshun Zhao
Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata), commonly called Tianma in Chinese, is an important and notable traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been used in China as an anticonvulsant, analgesic, sedative, anti-asthma, anti-immune drug since ancient times. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the abundant efforts of scientists in developing analytical techniques and performing pharmacokinetic studies of G. elata and its constituents, including sample pretreatment methods, analytical techniques, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and influence factors to its pharmacokinetics...
July 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683902/a-history-of-thoracic-aortic-surgery
#8
REVIEW
Paul Michael McFadden, Luke M Wiggins, Joshua A Boys
Ancient historical texts describe the presence of aortic pathology conditions, although the surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease remained insurmountable until the 19th century. Surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease then progressed along with advances in surgical technique, conduit production, cardiopulmonary bypass, and endovascular technology. Despite radical advances in aortic surgery, principles established by surgical pioneers of the 19th century hold firm to this day.
August 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675675/flash-vacuum-pyrolysis-techniques-and-reactions
#9
Curt Wentrup
While pyrolysis reactions have been performed since ancient times and been crucial for the invention of several technologies, the methodology now commonly known as flash vacuum pyrolysis, FVP (or flash vacuum thermolysis, FVT) had its early beginnings in the 1940s and1950s, mainly through mass spectrometric detection of pyrolytically formed free radicals. In the 1960s many organic chemists started performing FVP experiments with the purpose of isolating new and interesting compounds and understanding pyrolysis processes...
July 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664160/new-techniques-for-ancient-proteins-direct-coupling-analysis-applied-on-proteins-involved-in-iron-sulfur-cluster-biogenesis
#10
Marco Fantini, Duccio Malinverni, Paolo De Los Rios, Annalisa Pastore
Direct coupling analysis (DCA) is a powerful statistical inference tool used to study protein evolution. It was introduced to predict protein folds and protein-protein interactions, and has also been applied to the prediction of entire interactomes. Here, we have used it to analyze three proteins of the iron-sulfur biogenesis machine, an essential metabolic pathway conserved in all organisms. We show that DCA can correctly reproduce structural features of the CyaY/frataxin family (a protein involved in the human disease Friedreich's ataxia) despite being based on the relatively small number of sequences allowed by its genomic distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661073/squamous-neoplasms-arising-within-tattoos-clinical-presentation-histopathology-and-management
#11
REVIEW
A L Junqueira, K A Wanat, R S Farah
Tattooing, which involves the placement of ink into the skin, is an ancient decorative technique that has remained popular in modern society. Tattoos have long been known to cause cutaneous reactions, which include the emergence of neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in tattooed areas of the skin. We review the clinical presentations, histology and treatment options for squamous neoplasms, primarily KA and SCC, arising in tattoos.
June 29, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641573/ancient-water-bottle-use-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-pah-exposure-among-california-indians-a-prehistoric-health-risk-assessment
#12
Sabrina B Sholts, Kevin Smith, Cecilia Wallin, Trifa M Ahmed, Sebastian K T S Wärmländer
BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main toxic compounds in natural bitumen, a fossil material used by modern and ancient societies around the world. The adverse health effects of PAHs on modern humans are well established, but their health impacts on past populations are unclear. It has previously been suggested that a prehistoric health decline among the native people living on the California Channel Islands may have been related to PAH exposure. Here, we assess the potential health risks of PAH exposure from the use and manufacture of bitumen-coated water bottles by ancient California Indian societies...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641236/analytical-evidences-of-the-use-of-iron-gall-ink-as-a-pigment-on-miniature-paintings
#13
Maurizio Aceto, Elisa Calà
Iron-gall ink (IGI) has been used by scribes for writing since at least the 4th century CE. Another typical use of this ink was for drawing: many Old Masters created beautiful sketches in brown-black hues. Despite its widespread use to draw lines, it seems like IGI was hardly used for painting as well. In fact, the number of identification on manuscripts is very low at present. This could be partially due to a lack of reliable diagnostic information. In this work we tried to better define the possibility of identifying IGI as a pigment on illuminate manuscripts, evaluating the pros and cons of three different techniques: UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optic fibres (FORS), Raman spectroscopy and XRF spectrometry...
June 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636781/discovery-of-two-bombinin-peptides-with-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-activities-from-the-skin-secretion-of-oriental-fire-bellied-toad-bombina-orientalis
#14
Chang Zhou, Zhengming Wang, Xin Peng, Yao Liu, Yangjun Lin, Zhe Zhang, Yuling Qiu, Meihua Jin, Ran Wang, Dexin Kong
Amphibian skin secretions are known to contain numerous peptides with a large array of biological activities. Bombinins are a group of amphibian derived peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial activities that have been only identified from the ancient toad species, Bombina. In this study, we described the identification and characterization of a novel bombinin precursor which encoded a bombinin like peptide (BLP-7) and a novel bombinin H type peptide (named as Bombinin H-BO) from the skin secretion of Oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631322/prolonged-embryogenesis-in-austrobaileya-scandens-austrobaileyaceae-its-ecological-and-evolutionary-significance
#15
Juan M Losada, Julien B Bachelier, William E Friedman
The embryology of basal angiosperm lineages (Amborella, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales) is central to reconstructing the early evolution of flowering plants. Previous studies have shown that mature seeds in Austrobaileyales are albuminous, with a small embryo surrounded by a substantial diploid endosperm. However, little is known of seed ontogeny and seedling germination in Austrobaileya scandens, sister to all other extant Austrobaileyales. Standard histochemical techniques were used to study ovule/seed development and germination of Austrobaileya...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621737/comprehensive-identification-of-guan-xin-shu-tong-capsule-via-a-mass-defect-and-fragment-filtering-approach-by-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#16
Xun Gao, Jingqing Mu, Qing Li, Shaoyi Guan, Ran Liu, Yiyang Du, Huifen Zhang, Kaishun Bi
The Guan-Xin-Shu-Tong capsule (GXSTC) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that is used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Despite its common use in China, basic pharmacological research on its active components is limited. A comprehensive analytical method using quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS), specifically with the Triple TOF 5600 platform, was developed to characterize the compounds in the GXSTC powder itself (in vitro) as well as the active components in healthy and heart disease model rats after its oral administration (in vivo)...
June 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620190/formation-of-biphasic-hydroxylapatite-beta-magnesium-tricalcium-phosphate-in-heat-treated-salmonid-vertebrae
#17
Don H Butler, Ruth Shahack-Gross
Ichthyoarchaeological evidence is uncommon at ancient hunter-gatherer sites from various regions and timeframes. This research contributes to the development of microarchaeological techniques useful for identifying fishing economies in situations where classifiable bones are unavailable. Specifically, traces of heat altered bone mineral in domestic hearths are expected to provide markers for discarded fish remains. We used a series of laboratory incineration experiments to characterize the mineralogy of burned salmonid vertebrae...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614416/multispectral-imaging-reveals-biblical-period-inscription-unnoticed-for-half-a-century
#18
Shira Faigenbaum-Golovin, Anat Mendel-Geberovich, Arie Shaus, Barak Sober, Michael Cordonsky, David Levin, Murray Moinester, Benjamin Sass, Eli Turkel, Eli Piasetzky, Israel Finkelstein
Most surviving biblical period Hebrew inscriptions are ostraca-ink-on-clay texts. They are poorly preserved and once unearthed, fade rapidly. Therefore, proper and timely documentation of ostraca is essential. Here we show a striking example of a hitherto invisible text on the back side of an ostracon revealed via multispectral imaging. This ostracon, found at the desert fortress of Arad and dated to ca. 600 BCE (the eve of Judah's destruction by Nebuchadnezzar), has been on display for half a century. Its front side has been thoroughly studied, while its back side was considered blank...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582945/stress-monitoring-through-non-invasive-instrumental-analysis-of-skin-conductivity
#19
Anurag Joshi, Ravi Kiran, Ash Narayan Sah
BACKGROUND: This paper envelops the notion of yogic breathing and its applications as one of the techniques for stress management through regulation of skin conductivity among Indian engineering students. Stress perturbs the normal physiological or psychological functioning of an individual. Thus, it is extremely vital to manage stress. OBJECTIVE: To explore the consequence of yogic breathing on skin conductivity using galvanic skin response sensor meter (GSRSM) on engineering students, of different universities...
June 1, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578409/synchrotron-phase-contrast-microtomography-of-coprolites-generates-novel-palaeobiological-data
#20
Martin Qvarnström, Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki, Paul Tafforeau, Živil Žigaitė, Per E Ahlberg
Coprolites (fossil faeces) reveal clues to ancient trophic relations, and contain inclusions representing organisms that are rarely preserved elsewhere. However, much information is lost by classical techniques of investigation, which cannot find and image the inclusions in an adequate manner. We demonstrate that propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRμCT) permits high-quality virtual 3D-reconstruction of coprolite inclusions, exemplified by two coprolites from the Upper Triassic locality Krasiejów, Poland; one of the coprolites contains delicate beetle remains, and the other one a partly articulated fish and fragments of bivalves...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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