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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334417/combining-allele-frequency-and-tree-based-approaches-improves-phylogeographic-inference-from-natural-history-collections
#1
M Ruffley, M L Smith, A Espíndola, B C Carstens, J Sullivan, D C Tank
Model selection approaches in phylogeography have allowed researchers to evaluate the support for competing demographic histories, which provides a mode of inference and a measure of uncertainty in understanding climatic and spatial influences on intraspecific diversity. Here, to rank all models in the comparison set, and determine what proportion of the total support the top-ranked model garners, we conduct model selection using two analytical approaches -allele frequency-based, implemented in fastsimcoal2, and gene tree-based, implemented in PHRAPL...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328350/helicobacter-pylori-dna-obtained-from-the-stomach-specimens-of-two-17th-century-korean-mummies
#2
Dong Hoon Shin, Chang Seok Oh, Jong Ha Hong, Hyejin Lee, Soong Deok Lee, Eunju Lee
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that grows in the stomach mucosal epithelium, and can induce gastric diseases. Although many studies on modern H. pylori genomes have been reported from all over the world, a comprehensive picture of H. pylori is still lacking. Therefore, there is a pressing need to obtain archaeological specimens and to subject the ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted therefrom to analysis. Considering the typically excellent state of preservation of Joseon mummies discovered in Korea, we thus tried to isolate ancient H...
January 12, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310339/an-unusual-case-of-perforation-of-the-alimentary-canal-following-bigu-a-taoist-fasting-technique
#3
Jun Wang, Jun Jin, Xiaofeng Xue, Yan Hao, Dongrong Li, Shan Xu, Fang Huang
RATIONALE: Bigu is a Taoist fasting technique interpreted as avoiding grains in the Encyclopedia of China. This technique has been used from ancient times to the present day in China and other parts of the world to achieve good health, weight loss, longevity, and even immortality. A variety of health problems have been identified in relation to the severe diet during Bigu. However, perforation of the alimentary canal has not been reported to be associated with Bigu. In the present study, we illustrated an unusual case of perforation of the alimentary canal in relation to Bigu...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310218/raman-hyperspectral-imaging-as-an-effective-and-highly-informative-tool-to-study-the-diagenetic-alteration-of-fossil-bones
#4
Gregorio Dal Sasso, Ivana Angelini, Lara Maritan, Gilberto Artioli
Retrieving the pristine chemical or isotopic composition of archaeological bones is of great interest for many studies aiming to reconstruct the past life of ancient populations (i.e. diet, mobility, palaeoenvironment, age). However, from the death of the individual onwards, bones undergo several taphonomic and diagenetic processes that cause the alteration of their microstructure and composition. A detailed study on bone diagenesis has the double purpose to assess the preservation state of archaeological bones and to understand the alteration pathways, thus providing evidence that may contribute to evaluate the reliability of the retrieved information...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305080/de-novo-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-venomous-glands-from-the-scorpion-heterometrus-spinifer-revealed-unique-and-extremely-high-diversity-of-the-venom-peptides
#5
Yuchen Deng, Jiawei Gu, Zhenpeng Yan, Mengdi Wang, Chaoqun Ma, Jiafeng Zhang, Guixian Jiang, Mengxiao Ge, Shuogui Xu, Zheng Xu, Liang Xiao
Scorpion, as an ancient species, has been widely used on dozens of human diseases in traditional Chinese Medicine. Although the scorpion venom from the Buthidae family with the potent toxicity attracts more interests, toxins from the non-Buthidae family draw great attention as well because of its abundance and complexity even without harm to mammals. Moreover, several toxic components of scorpion venom have been identified as valuable scaffolds for the drug design and development. Using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique, here we reported the transcriptome of the venomous glands of Heterometrus spinifer, a non-Buthidae scorpion that only a few toxic and complete components have been identified known-to-date...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303256/high-precision-measurement-of-n2o-concentration-in-ice-cores
#6
Yeongjun Ryu, Jinho Ahn, Ji-Woong Yang
Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance whose emissions are substantially perturbed by current human activities. Although air trapped in polar ice cores can provide direct information about N2O evolution, analytical precision was not previously sufficient for high temporal resolution studies. In this work, we present a highly improved analytical technique with which to study N2O concentrations in ancient-air-trapped ice cores. We adopt a melt-refreezing method to extract air and use a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to determine N2O concentrations...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301114/neither-femur-nor-tooth-petrous-bone-for-identifying-archaeological-bone-samples-via-forensic-approach
#7
Elena Pilli, Stefania Vai, Marina Grazia Caruso, Giancarlo D'Errico, Andrea Berti, David Caramelli
One of the major challenges of molecular biology in anthropological analysis is the identification via DNA typing of bone or teeth samples that can be collected from archaeological site in order to investigate kinship relationships. Due to the difficulties of isolating and analysing DNA from such samples, several efforts have been made to solve these problems, but less work has been conducted to identify the proper type of bone samples for the DNA analysis. Therefore, following the promising results obtained from the DNA analysis of petrous bones by different groups of researchers, for the first time, here we investigated the possibility of using petrous bones as skeletal elements useful for short tandem repeat (STR) typing via capillary electrophoresis technique in ancient bone samples...
December 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289770/towards-a-better-understanding-of-long-term-wood-chemistry-variations-in-old-growth-forests-a-case-study-on-ancient-pinus-uncinata-trees-from-the-pyrenees
#8
Andrea Hevia, Raúl Sánchez-Salguero, J Julio Camarero, Allan Buras, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, J Diego Galván, Emilia Gutiérrez
Dendrochemical studies in old forests are still underdeveloped. Old trees growing in remote high-elevation areas far from direct human influence constitute a promising biological proxy for the long-term reconstructions of environmental changes using tree-rings. Furthermore, centennial-long chronologies of multi-elemental chemistry at inter- and intra-annual resolution are scarce. Here, we use a novel non-destructive method by applying Micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) to wood samples of old Pinus uncinata trees from two Pyrenean high-elevation forests growing on acidic and basic soils...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280946/secondary-metabolite-profiling-of-species-of-the-genus-usnea-by-uhplc-esi-ot-ms-ms
#9
Francisco Salgado, Laura Albornoz, Carmen Cortéz, Elena Stashenko, Kelly Urrea-Vallejo, Edgar Nagles, Cesar Galicia-Virviescas, Alberto Cornejo, Alejandro Ardiles, Mario Simirgiotis, Olimpo García-Beltrán, Carlos Areche
Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria, which are considered among the slowest growing organisms, with strong tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. There are about 400 genera and 1600 species of lichens and those belonging to the Usnea genus comprise about 360 of these species. Usnea lichens have been used since ancient times as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, deodorants and folk medicines. The phytochemistry of the Usnea genus includes more than 60 compounds which belong to the following classes: depsides, depsidones, depsones, lactones, quinones, phenolics, polysaccharides, fatty acids and dibenzofurans...
December 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278649/citrate-content-of-bone-as-a-measure-of-postmortem-interval-an-external-validation-study
#10
Michael A Brown, Ann W Bunch, Charles Froome, Rebecca Gerling, Shawn Hennessy, Jeffrey Ellison
The postmortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is a crucial piece of information that can help establish the time dimension in criminal cases. Unfortunately, the accurate and reliable determination of PMI from bone continues to evade forensic investigators despite concerted efforts over the past decades to develop suitable qualitative and quantitative methods. A relatively new PMI method based on the analysis of citrate content of bone was developed by Schwarcz et al. The main objective of our research was to determine whether this work could be externally validated...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278328/unpaired-electron-spin-density-distribution-across-reduced-2fe-2s-cluster-ligands-by-13c%C3%AE-cysteine-labeling
#11
Alexander T Taguchi, Yoshiharu Miyajima-Nakano, Risako Fukazawa, Myat T Lin, Amgalanbaatar Baldansuren, Robert B Gennis, Kazuya Hasegawa, Takashi Kumasaka, Sergei A Dikanov, Toshio Iwasaki
Iron-sulfur clusters are one of the most versatile and ancient classes of redox mediators in biology. The roles that these metal centers take on are predominantly determined by the number and types of coordinating ligands (typically cysteine and histidine) that modify the electronic structure of the cluster. Here we map the spin density distribution onto the cysteine ligands for the three major classes of the protein-bound, reduced [2Fe-2S](His)n(Cys)4-n (n = 0, 1, 2) cluster by selective cysteine-13Cβ isotope labeling...
December 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274420/multi-analysis-of-chemical-transformations-of-lignin-macromolecules-from-waterlogged-archaeological-wood
#12
Yan Xia, Tian-Ying Chen, Jia-Long Wen, Yi-Li Zhao, Jian Qiu, Run-Cang Sun
A large number of archaeological wooden building poles have been excavated from the Hai Menkou site (Yunnan province, China). Lignin can be transformed and altered accompanied with significant loss of carbohydrates during this process. Elucidation of chemical and structural transformations of lignin is of primary importance for understanding both the nature of degradation processes and the structure of waterlogged archaeological wood, and crucial for developing proper consolidation technology and restoring artifacts of historical and cultural value...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273718/successful-reconstruction-of-whole-mitochondrial-genomes-from-ancient-central-america-and-mexico
#13
Ana Y Morales-Arce, Courtney A Hofman, Ana T Duggan, Adam K Benfer, M Anne Katzenberg, Geoffrey McCafferty, Christina Warinner
The northern and southern peripheries of ancient Mesoamerica are poorly understood. There has been speculation over whether borderland cultures such as Greater Nicoya and Casas Grandes represent Mesoamerican outposts in the Isthmo-Colombian area and the Greater Southwest, respectively. Poor ancient DNA preservation in these regions challenged previous attempts to resolve these questions using conventional genetic techniques. We apply advanced in-solution mitogenome capture and high-throughput sequencing to fourteen dental samples obtained from the Greater Nicoya sites of Jícaro and La Cascabel in northwest Costa Rica (n = 9; A...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247413/combination-of-in-situ-spectroscopy-and-chemometric-techniques-to-discriminate-different-types-of-roman-bricks-and-the-influence-of-microclimate-environment
#14
Claudia Scatigno, Nagore Prieto-Taboada, Cristina García-Florentino, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Maite Maguregui, Juan Manuel Madariaga
Red and yellow bricks are the wall-building materials generally used in Roman masonries. The reasons for the different coloration are not always understood, causing loss of crucial information both for the conservation and for the archaeological knowledge of the cultural sites. In this work, a combination of in situ analyses, employing portable Raman spectroscopy and handheld energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (HH-ED-XRF) spectroscopy along with chemometric analysis, was carried out on ancient Roman bricks of the "Casa di Diana" building (Ostia Antica, Italy-130 CE)...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243821/improved-recovery-of-ancient-dna-from-subfossil-wood-application-to-the-world-s-oldest-late-glacial-pine-forest
#15
Bertalan Lendvay, Martin Hartmann, Sabine Brodbeck, Daniel Nievergelt, Frederick Reinig, Stefan Zoller, Laura Parducci, Felix Gugerli, Ulf Büntgen, Christoph Sperisen
Ancient DNA from historical and subfossil wood has a great potential to provide new insights into the history of tree populations. However, its extraction and analysis have not become routine, mainly because contamination of the wood with modern plant material can complicate the verification of genetic information. Here, we used sapwood tissue from 22 subfossil pines that were growing c. 13 000 yr bp in Zurich, Switzerland. We developed and evaluated protocols to eliminate surface contamination, and we tested ancient DNA authenticity based on plastid DNA metabarcoding and the assessment of post-mortem DNA damage...
December 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240674/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-flavonolignans-in-different-cellular-models
#16
Michal Bijak, Ewelina Synowiec, Przemyslaw Sitarek, Tomasz Sliwiński, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5-3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides their hepatoprotective action, silymarin flavonolignans have many other healthy properties, such as anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of flavonolignans on blood platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human lung cancer cell line-A549-using different molecular techniques...
December 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231611/-brief-discussion-on-technique-and-application-experience-of-penetrating-moxibustion
#17
Xiyan Gao, Dongbin Wang, Yajing Guo, Ling Gao, Shang Ma, Mengxia Wei, Shuqi Ge
The penetrating moxibustion technique is proposed based on experience of the ancients and clinical practice for many years. From the aspects of definition, action characteristics and technique at different parts, the advantage and application experience of penetrating moxibustion have been discussed. The adequate dose of moxibustion is necessary in penetrating moxibustion; in addition, moxibustion sensation should be penetrating; therefore, with a temperature of 43℃ for more than 20 min, sweating, flushing, speckle appearing after penetrating moxibustion...
May 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231553/-the-method-and-application-to-construct-experience-recommendation-platform-of-acupuncture-ancient-books-based-on-data-mining-technology
#18
Chuyun Chen, Jiaming Hong, Weilin Zhou, Guohua Lin, Zhengfei Wang, Qufei Zhang, Cuina Lu, Lihong Lu
OBJECTIVE: To construct a knowledge platform of acupuncture ancient books based on data mining technology, and to provide retrieval service for users. METHODS: The Oracle 10 g database was applied and JAVA was selected as development language; based on the standard library and ancient books database established by manual entry, a variety of data mining technologies, including word segmentation, speech tagging, dependency analysis, rule extraction, similarity calculation, ambiguity analysis, supervised classification technology were applied to achieve text automatic extraction of ancient books; in the last, through association mining and decision analysis, the comprehensive and intelligent analysis of disease and symptom, meridians, acupoints, rules of acupuncture and moxibustion in acupuncture ancient books were realized, and retrieval service was provided for users through structure of browser/server (B/S)...
July 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218951/-research-on-compatibility-of-prescriptions-including-ginseng-radix-et-rhizoma-and-trogopterus-dung-based-on-complex-network-analysis
#19
Meng-Wen Li, Xin-Sheng Fan, Ling-Shan Zhang, Cong-Jun Wang
The applications of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung in contemporary literatures from 1949 to 2016 are compiled and the data mining techniques containing scale-free complex network method are utilized to explore its practical characteristics, with comparison between modern and ancient ones. The results indicate that malignant neoplasms, coronary heart disease which present Qi deficiency and blood stasis type are the main diseases treated by prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung according to the reports during 1949 to 2016...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195662/differentiation-of-modern-and-ancient-varieties-of-common-wheat-by-quantitative-capillary-electrophoretic-profile-of-phenolic-acids
#20
Roberto Gotti, Elisa Amadesi, Jessica Fiori, Sara Bosi, Valeria Bregola, Ilaria Marotti, Giovanni Dinelli
Phenolic compounds have received great attention among the health promoting phytochemicals in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), mainly because of their strong antioxidant properties. In the present study a simple Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE) method with UV detection was optimized and validated for the quantitation of six of the most important phenolic acids in whole grain i.e., sinapic, ferulic, syringic, p-coumaric, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The separation was achieved in a running buffer composed of sodium phosphate solution (50 mM) in water/methanol 80:20 (v/v) at pH 6...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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