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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777775/genome-analysis-of-the-ancient-tracheophyte-selaginella-tamariscina-reveals-evolutionary-features-relevant-to-the-acquisition-of-desiccation-tolerance
#1
Zhichao Xu, Tianyi Xin, Dorothea Bartels, Ying Li, Wei Gu, Hui Yao, Sai Liu, Haoying Yu, Xiangdong Pu, Jianguo Zhou, Jiang Xu, Caicai Xi, Hetian Lei, Jingyuan Song, Shilin Chen
Resurrection plants, which are the "gifts" of natural evolution, are ideal models for studying genetic basis of plant desiccation tolerance. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of 301 Mb for the diploid spike moss Selaginella tamariscina, a primitive vascular resurrection plant. We predicated 27,761 protein-coding genes from the assembled S. tamariscina genome, 11.38% (2363) of which showed significant expression changes in response to desiccation. Approximately 60.58% of the S. tamariscina genome was annotated as repetitive DNA, which is almost 2-fold increase of that in the genome of desiccation-sensitive S...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777204/critical-role-of-climate-change-in-plant-selection-and-millet-domestication-in-north-china
#2
Xiaoyan Yang, Wenxiang Wu, Linda Perry, Zhikun Ma, Ofer Bar-Yosef, David J Cohen, Hongbo Zheng, Quansheng Ge
While North China is one of the earliest independent centers for cereal domestication in the world, the earliest stages of the long process of agricultural origins remain unclear. While only millets were eventually domesticated in early sedentary societies there, recent archaeobotanical evidence reported here indicates that grasses from the Paniceae (including millets) and Triticeae tribes were exploited together by foraging groups from the Last Glacial Maximum to the mid-Holocene. Here we explore how and why millets were selected for domestication while Triticeae were abandoned...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777017/old-enzymes-versus-new-herbicides
#3
Tamara L Hendrickson
The introduction of manmade chemicals, including the herbicide atrazine, into the environment has led to the emergence of microorganisms with new biodegradation pathways. Esquirol et al. demonstrate that the AtzE enzyme catalyzes a central step in atrazine degradation and that expression of AtzE requires coexpression of the small protein AtzG. Remarkably, AtzG and AtzE appear to have evolved from GatC and GatA, components of an ancient enzyme involved in indirect tRNA aminoacylation, providing an elegant demonstration of metabolic repurposing...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775296/incorporation-of-a-theranostic-two-tone-luminescent-silver-complex-into-biocompatible-agar-hydrogel-composite-for-the-eradication-of-eskape-pathogens-in-a-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-model
#4
Miguel N Pinto, Jorge Martinez-Gonzalez, Indranil Chakraborty, Pradip K Mascharak
Microbial invasion and colonization of the skin and underlying soft tissues are among the most common types of infections, becoming increasingly prevalent in hospital settings. Systemic antibiotic chemotherapies are now extremely limited due to emergence of drug-resistant Gram-positive and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. Topical administration of antimicrobials provides an effective route for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Therefore, the development of new and effective materials for the delivery of these agents is of paramount importance...
May 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774972/temperature-response-of-permafrost-soil-carbon-is-attenuated-by-mineral-protection
#5
Norman Gentsch, Birgit Wild, Robert Mikutta, Petr Čapek, Katka Diáková, Marion Schrumpf, Stephanie Turner, Cynthia Minnich, Frank Schaarschmidt, Olga Shibistova, Jörg Schnecker, Tim Urich, Antje Gittel, Hana Šantrůčková, Jiři Bárta, Nikolay Lashchinskiy, Roland Fuß, Andreas Richter, Georg Guggenberger
Climate change in Arctic ecosystems fosters permafrost thaw and makes massive amounts of ancient soil organic carbon (OC) available to microbial breakdown. However, fractions of the organic matter (OM) may be protected from rapid decomposition by their association with minerals. Little is known about the effects of mineral-organic associations (MOA) on the microbial accessibility of OM in permafrost soils and it is not clear which factors control its temperature sensitivity. In order to investigate if and how permafrost soil OC turnover is affected by mineral controls, the heavy fraction (HF) representing mostly MOA was obtained by density fractionation from 27 permafrost soil profiles of the Siberian Arctic...
May 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774221/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-for-differential-diagnosis-of-perianal-plexiform-schwannoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Xue-Liang Sun, Ke Wen, Zhi-Zhong Xu, Xiao-Peng Wang
Plexiform schwannoma is an extremely rare variant of schwannoma, accounting for approximately 5% of cases. Due to the rarity and lack of typical symptoms, signs and radiological images, a definite diagnosis of plexiform schwannoma may not be made by clinicians prior to biopsy. In the present study, we report the first case (to our knowledge) of perianal plexiform schwannoma arising from the overlapped skin of the ischioanal fossa, and we propose an intratumorally nonenhanced circumferential capsule dividing the tumour into multiple homogeneously enhanced nodules as a magnetic resonance imaging feature to aid in the differential diagnosis of plexiform schwannoma from ancient schwannoma, cavernous haemangioma, liposarcoma and plexiform neurofibroma...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774020/high-diversity-of-myocyanophage-in-various-aquatic-environments-revealed-by-high-throughput-sequencing-of-major-capsid-protein-gene-with-a-new-set-of-primers
#7
Weiguo Hou, Shang Wang, Brandon R Briggs, Gaoyuan Li, Wei Xie, Hailiang Dong
Myocyanophages, a group of viruses infecting cyanobacteria, are abundant and play important roles in elemental cycling. Here we investigated the particle-associated viral communities retained on 0.2 μm filters and in sediment samples (representing ancient cyanophage communities) from four ocean and three lake locations, using high-throughput sequencing and a newly designed primer pair targeting a gene fragment (∼145-bp in length) encoding the cyanophage gp23 major capsid protein (MCP). Diverse viral communities were detected in all samples...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773722/drilling-threatens-ancient-chaco-landscape
#8
April Reese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773666/ancient-genomes-document-multiple-waves-of-migration-in-southeast-asian-prehistory
#9
Mark Lipson, Olivia Cheronet, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Marc Oxenham, Michael Pietrusewsky, Thomas Oliver Pryce, Anna Willis, Hirofumi Matsumura, Hallie Buckley, Kate Domett, Nguyen Giang Hai, Trinh Hoang Hiep, Aung Aung Kyaw, Tin Tin Win, Baptiste Pradier, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Francesca Candilio, Piya Changmai, Daniel Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Beatriz Gamarra, Eadaoin Harney, Jatupol Kampuansai, Wibhu Kutanan, Megan Michel, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Kendra Sirak, Kristin Stewardson, Zhao Zhang, Pavel Flegontov, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich
Southeast Asia is home to rich human genetic and linguistic diversity, but the details of past population movements in the region are not well known. Here, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from eighteen Southeast Asian individuals spanning from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age (4100-1700 years ago). Early farmers from Man Bac in Vietnam exhibit a mixture of East Asian (southern Chinese agriculturalist) and deeply diverged eastern Eurasian (hunter-gatherer) ancestry characteristic of Austroasiatic speakers, with similar ancestry as far south as Indonesia providing evidence for an expansive initial spread of Austroasiatic languages...
May 17, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773513/insights-in-the-history-of-pancreas-restoring-the-true-meaning-of-kallikreas
#10
REVIEW
Niki Papavramidou
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This paper investigates the history of pancreas in classical and late antiquity with the intent to correlate it to the modern medical knowledge. Furthermore, an attempt is made to understand the true meaning of the term "kallikreas". METHODS: Only primary textual sources are used in the transcription of ancient references of "pancreas" and/or "kallikreas". All of the references are analyzed and interpreted under a modern prism for better understanding the ancient anatomy proposed...
May 4, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773472/-brachytherapy-the-most-ancient-of-modern-radiation-techniques
#11
EDITORIAL
C Chargari, P Maingon, F Mornex, C Haie-Méder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773338/taking-stock-a-systematic-review-of-archaeological-evidence-of-cancers-in-human-and-early-hominin-remains
#12
Kathryn J Hunt, Charlotte Roberts, Casey Kirkpatrick
This study summarizes data from 154 paleopathological studies documenting 272 archaeologically recovered individuals exhibiting skeletal or soft tissue evidence of cancer (malignant neoplastic disease) between 1.8 million years ago and 1900 CE. The paper reviews and summarizes the temporal, spatial and demographic distribution of the evidence and the methods used to provide the cancer diagnoses. Metastasis to bone is the most widely reported evidence (n = 161), followed by multiple myeloma (n = 55)...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773013/critical-review-on-curcumin-as-a-therapeutic-agent-from-traditional-herbal-medicine-to-an-ideal-therapeutic-agent
#13
Muhammad Usman Akbar, Kanwal Rehman, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Muhammad Ibrahim
Traditionally, many natural medicinal plants have been used to treat a variety of diseases since ancient times and are considered a potential source of phytochemicals for the development of new drugs. One of these is curcumin, which is an easily accessible, inexpensive, and nontoxic bioactive compound. Curcumin is a very important, naturally occurring, and highly lipophilic and phenolic substance derived from the rhizomes of plant Curcuma longa, a member of the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family, which is mostly used as a curry spice, flavoring agent, insect repellent, coloring agent in food, traditional drug, and ingredient in cosmetics...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772374/evolution-expression-and-characterisation-of-liver-expressed-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-in-ancient-chondrostean-sturgeons
#14
Shuhuan Zhang, Qiaoqing Xu, Hao Du, Zhitao Qi, Youshen Li, Jun Huang, Jun Di, Qiwei Wei
Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) is an evolutionarily ancient molecule that acts as the key component in vertebrate innate immunity against invading pathogens. Leap-2 has been identified and characterised in several teleosts, but not yet in chondrosteans. Herein, the complete coding sequences of leap-2b and leap-2c were identified from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) and Chinese sturgeon (A. sinensis), designated as adleap-2b, adleap-2c, asleap-2b, and asleap-2c, respectively...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771956/molecular-survey-of-basidiomycetes-and-divergence-time-estimation-an-indian-perspective
#15
Meghna Bhatt, Pankti Mistri, Ishita Joshi, Hemal Ram, Rinni Raval, Sruthi Thoota, Ankur Patel, Dhrupa Raval, Poonam Bhargava, Subhash Soni, Snehal Bagatharia, Madhvi Joshi
This study outlines the biodiversity of mushrooms of India. It reveals the molecular biodiversity and divergence time estimation of basidiomycetes from Gujarat, India. A total of 267 mushrooms were collected from 10 locations across the state. 225 ITS sequences were generated belonging to 105 species, 59 genera and 29 families. Phylogenetic analysis of Agaricaceae reveals monophyletic clade of Podaxis differentiating it from Coprinus. Further, the ancient nature of Podaxis supports the hypothesis that gasteroid forms evolved from secotioid forms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770727/a-survival-analysis-of-the-last-great-european-plagues-the-case-of-nonantola-northern-italy-in-1630
#16
Guido Alfani, Marco Bonetti
This paper develops the first survival analysis of a large-scale mortality crisis caused by plague. For the time-to-event analyses we used the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Our case study is the town of Nonantola during the 1630 plague, which was probably the worst to affect Italy since the Black Death. Individual risk of death did not depend on sex, grew with age (peaking at ages 40-60 and then declining), was not affected by socio-economic status, and was positively associated with household size...
May 17, 2018: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769532/aid-apobec-like-cytidine-deaminases-are-ancient-innate-immune-mediators-in-invertebrates
#17
Mei-Chen Liu, Wen-Yun Liao, Katherine M Buckley, Shu Yuan Yang, Jonathan P Rast, Sebastian D Fugmann
In the course of both innate and adaptive immunity, cytidine deaminases within the activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID)/apolipoprotein B editing complex (APOBEC) family modulate immune responses by mutating specific nucleic acid sequences of hosts and pathogens. The evolutionary emergence of these mediators, however, seems to coincide precisely with the emergence of adaptive immunity in vertebrates. Here, we show a family of genes in species within two divergent invertebrate phyla-the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and the brachiopod Lingula anatina-that encode proteins with similarities in amino acid sequence and enzymatic activities to the vertebrate AID/APOBECs...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769358/resolving-the-phylogenetic-position-of-darwin-s-extinct-ground-sloth-mylodon-darwinii-using-mitogenomic-and-nuclear-exon-data
#18
Frédéric Delsuc, Melanie Kuch, Gillian C Gibb, Jonathan Hughes, Paul Szpak, John Southon, Jacob Enk, Ana T Duggan, Hendrik N Poinar
Mylodon darwinii is the extinct giant ground sloth named after Charles Darwin, who first collected its remains in South America. We have successfully obtained a high-quality mitochondrial genome at 99-fold coverage using an Illumina shotgun sequencing of a 12 880-year-old bone fragment from Mylodon Cave in Chile. Low level of DNA damage showed that this sample was exceptionally well preserved for an ancient subfossil, probably the result of the dry and cold conditions prevailing within the cave. Accordingly, taxonomic assessment of our shotgun metagenomic data showed a very high percentage of endogenous DNA with 22% of the assembled metagenomic contigs assigned to Xenarthra...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769325/the-ancient-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-signaling-system-is-a-master-regulator-of-energy-and-carbon-metabolism-in-algae
#19
Rishiram Ramanan, Quynh-Giao Tran, Dae-Hyun Cho, Jae-Eun Jeong, Byung-Hyuk Kim, Sang-Yoon Shin, Sae-Hae Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Dae-Soo Kim, Seon-Jin Lee, Jose L Crespo, Hee-Gu Lee, Hee-Mock Oh, Hee-Sik Kim
Algae undergo a complete metabolic transformation under stress by arresting cell growth, inducing autophagy, and hyper-accumulating biofuel precursors such as triacylglycerols and starch. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this stress-induced transformation are still unclear. Here, we use biochemical, mutational, and 'omics' approaches to demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling mediates the homeostasis of energy molecules and influences carbon metabolism in algae. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the inhibition and knockdown (KD) of algal class III PI3K led to significantly decreased cell growth, altered cell morphology, and higher lipid and starch contents...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769015/a-comparison-of-methods-for-estimating-substitution-rates-from-ancient-dna-sequence-data
#20
K Jun Tong, David A Duchêne, Sebastián Duchêne, Jemma L Geoghegan, Simon Y W Ho
BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic analysis of DNA from modern and ancient samples allows the reconstruction of important demographic and evolutionary processes. A critical component of these analyses is the estimation of evolutionary rates, which can be calibrated using information about the ages of the samples. However, the reliability of these rate estimates can be negatively affected by among-lineage rate variation and non-random sampling. Using a simulation study, we compared the performance of three phylogenetic methods for inferring evolutionary rates from time-structured data sets: regression of root-to-tip distances, least-squares dating, and Bayesian inference...
May 16, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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