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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938123/reconstructing-prehistoric-african-population-structure
#1
Pontus Skoglund, Jessica C Thompson, Mary E Prendergast, Alissa Mittnik, Kendra Sirak, Mateja Hajdinjak, Tasneem Salie, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Alexander Peltzer, Anja Heinze, Iñigo Olalde, Matthew Ferry, Eadaoin Harney, Megan Michel, Kristin Stewardson, Jessica I Cerezo-Román, Chrissy Chiumia, Alison Crowther, Elizabeth Gomani-Chindebvu, Agness O Gidna, Katherine M Grillo, I Taneli Helenius, Garrett Hellenthal, Richard Helm, Mark Horton, Saioa López, Audax Z P Mabulla, John Parkington, Ceri Shipton, Mark G Thomas, Ruth Tibesasa, Menno Welling, Vanessa M Hayes, Douglas J Kennett, Raj Ramesar, Matthias Meyer, Svante Pääbo, Nick Patterson, Alan G Morris, Nicole Boivin, Ron Pinhasi, Johannes Krause, David Reich
We assembled genome-wide data from 16 prehistoric Africans. We show that the anciently divergent lineage that comprises the primary ancestry of the southern African San had a wider distribution in the past, contributing approximately two-thirds of the ancestry of Malawi hunter-gatherers ∼8,100-2,500 years ago and approximately one-third of the ancestry of Tanzanian hunter-gatherers ∼1,400 years ago. We document how the spread of farmers from western Africa involved complete replacement of local hunter-gatherers in some regions, and we track the spread of herders by showing that the population of a ∼3,100-year-old pastoralist from Tanzania contributed ancestry to people from northeastern to southern Africa, including a ∼1,200-year-old southern African pastoralist...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936853/-classics-textual-research-and-using-situation-investigation-of-tibetan-medicine-zha-xun
#2
Yun Cao, Rui Gu, Ming-Ming Zhao, Yu-Ying Ma, Shi-Hong Zhong, Jian Rang, Peng Mi
In this article the classics textual research to the origin of "Zha-xun" was carried out, the ethnobotanical research methods, the origin of visits, key informant interviews, sample collection and textual research were applied in the research. The results showed that the hypothesis of Zha-xun"s origin mainly included "source of mine", "source of feces", "source of monkey menstrual blood" in China. There were "source of fossil", "source of the plant secretion" abroad. The authors had interviewed the villagers at origin, herbalists, Tibetan doctors, herb dealers, foreign scholars for a total of 18 people, and collecting 45 batches medicinal materials...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936616/effects-of-long-term-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-the-benthic-episammic-diatom-community-of-an-ancient-tropical-lake
#3
Andrew J Bramburger, Paul B Hamilton, G Douglas Haffner
Habitat homogenization, nutrient enrichment and loss of biodiversity are broadly recognized as the consequences of human activity in aquatic systems. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) are frequently used in aquatic environmental assessment and impact monitoring, but in unique habitats dominated by endemic taxa, traditional approaches may not be appropriate. We examined the impacts of long term anthropogenic impacts upon the littoral episammic diatom community around the town of Soroako, located on Lake Matano, an ancient tropical lake...
September 21, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936030/from-royal-wet-nurses-to-facebook-the-evolution-of-breastmilk-sharing
#4
Kelley L Baumgartel, Larissa Sneeringer, Susan M Cohen
Wet-nursing was an essential practice that allowed for infant survival after many mothers died in childbirth. The story of wet-nursing is complicated by both religious pressures and cultural expectations of women. It is likely that these historical practices have shaped our current social, political and legislative environments regarding breastfeeding. The aim of this article is to provide a historical perspective on the practice of wet-nursing, with a focus on: 1) social views of wet nurses, 2) breastmilk evaluation and 3) the ideal wet nurse...
November 2016: Breastfeeding Review: Professional Publication of the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935946/population-resequencing-of-european-mitochondrial-genomes-highlights-sex-bias-in-bronze-age-demographic-expansions
#5
Chiara Batini, Pille Hallast, Åshild J Vågene, Daniel Zadik, Heidi A Eriksen, Horolma Pamjav, Antti Sajantila, Jon H Wetton, Mark A Jobling
Interpretations of genetic data concerning the prehistory of Europe have long been a subject of great debate, but increasing amounts of ancient and modern DNA data are now providing new and more informative evidence. Y-chromosome resequencing studies in Europe have highlighted the prevalence of recent expansions of male lineages, and focused interest on the Bronze Age as a period of cultural and demographic change. These findings contrast with phylogeographic studies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which have been interpreted as supporting expansions from glacial refugia...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935152/i-ching-dyadic-groups-of-binary-numbers-and-the-geno-logic-coding-in-living-bodies
#6
REVIEW
Zhengbing Hu, Sergey V Petoukhov, Elena S Petukhova
The ancient Chinese book I-Ching was written a few thousand years ago. It introduces the system of symbols Yin and Yang (equivalents of 0 and 1). It had a powerful impact on culture, medicine and science of ancient China and several other countries. From the modern standpoint, I-Ching declares the importance of dyadic groups of binary numbers for the Nature. The system of I-Ching is represented by the tables with dyadic groups of 4 bigrams, 8 trigrams and 64 hexagrams, which were declared as fundamental archetypes of the Nature...
September 18, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934627/in-it-for-the-long-haul-evolutionary-consequences-of-persistent-endosymbiosis
#7
REVIEW
Jennifer J Wernegreen
Phylogenetically independent bacterial lineages have undergone a profound lifestyle shift: from a free-living to obligately host-associated existence. Among these lineages, intracellular bacterial mutualists of insects are among the most intimate, constrained symbioses known. These obligate endosymbionts exhibit severe gene loss and apparent genome deterioration. Evolutionary theory provides a basis to link their unusual genomic features with shifts in fundamental mechanisms - selection, genetic drift, mutation, and recombination...
September 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934368/a-single-danio-rerio-hars-gene-encodes-both-cytoplasmic-and-mitochondrial-histidyl-trna-synthetases
#8
Ashley L Waldron, Sara Helms Cahan, Christopher S Franklyn, Alicia M Ebert
Histidyl tRNA Synthetase (HARS) is a member of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (ARS) family of enzymes. This family of 20 enzymes is responsible for attaching specific amino acids to their cognate tRNA molecules, a critical step in protein synthesis. However, recent work highlighting a growing number of associations between ARS genes and diverse human diseases raises the possibility of new and unexpected functions in this ancient enzyme family. For example, mutations in HARS have been linked to two different neurological disorders, Usher Syndrome Type IIIB and Charcot Marie Tooth peripheral neuropathy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934343/disparate-gain-and-loss-of-parasitic-abilities-among-nematode-lineages
#9
Martijn Holterman, Akbar Karegar, Paul Mooijman, Hanny van Megen, Sven van den Elsen, Mariette T W Vervoort, Casper W Quist, Gerrit Karssen, Wilfrida Decraemer, Charles H Opperman, David M Bird, Jan Kammenga, Aska Goverse, Geert Smant, Johannes Helder
Plant parasitism has arisen time and again in multiple phyla, including bacteria, fungi, insects and nematodes. In most of these organismal groups, the overwhelming diversity hampers a robust reconstruction of the origins and diversification patterns of this trophic lifestyle. Being a moderately diversified phylum with ≈ 4,100 plant parasites (15% of total biodiversity) subdivided over four independent lineages, nematodes constitute a major organismal group for which the genesis of plant parasitism could be mapped...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934125/optimized-mtdna-control-region-primer-extension-capture-analysis-for-forensically-relevant-samples-and-highly-compromised-mtdna-of-different-age-and-origin
#10
Mayra Eduardoff, Catarina Xavier, Christina Strobl, Andrea Casas-Vargas, Walther Parson
The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR) is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS) protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp). Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) of (multiplex) PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes...
September 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933442/snow-leopards-ancient-zero-and-cassini-s-big-finish
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933174/-viral-hepatitis-a-possible-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-problems
#12
Petr Husa, Petr Husa
Viral hepatitis A (VHA) is the disease which has an ancient history. Reports of epidemic jaundice were described by Hippocrates in Greece during the 5th century B.C. Incidence of VHA in developed countries is dropping in last decades. What was once common disease is now very rare, usually emerging in local epidemies. With decreasing incidence of hepatitis A clinicians losing practical experiences with disease. Authors present possible diagnostic and therapeutic problems based on their experience with large epidemic of hepatitis A, which occurred in 2016-2017 in Brno area...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933100/-decipherment-of-ancient-literature-about-danshen
#13
Ai-Ping Deng, Lan-Ping Guo, Zhi-Lai Zhan, Lu-Qi Huang
Danshen has a long history in China as a commen traditional Chinese medicine, but many other members of the Salvia family is also used as Danshen in particular regions. The name of Danshen were analyzed according to the color, efficacity and etc. To investigate the real origin of Danshen, the stalk, leaf, flower and radix in chronicle and pictures of ancient literature were deciphered. It showed that in the past dynasties, Salvia miltiorrhiza was the most likely plant used as Danshen. The rigin and quality evaluation of Danshen were also summerized, provided new insight and proof for the development and utilization of Danshen...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933099/-herbal-textual-research-of-common-mongolian-medicine-du-ge-mo-nong
#14
Jie Xi, Hua-Rong Zhong, Wucharila-Tu, Buhe Bater, Hui-Hu Li, Guo-Yue Zhong
This study is aimed to provide the source for clinical medication by clarifing the common base of Mongolia medicinal materials "Du Ge Mo Nong". In this paper literature research and plant taxonomy method were adopted combined with investigation of the markets and clinical use status to clarify the origin of common traditional Mongolian medicine "Du Ge Mo Nong". The results showed that the Mongolian medicine "Du Ge Mo Nong" and Tibetan medicine "Du Mu Niu" were the same crude drug and originated from the seeds of Holarrhena antidysenteriaca of family Apocynaceae in earliest time...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933009/does-iris-in-bring-bad-news-or-good-news
#15
REVIEW
Silvio Buscemi, Davide Corleo, Carola Buscemi, Carla Giordano
Irisin, a novel myokine produced in response to physical activity, promotes white-to-brown fat transdifferentiation. The name irisin referred to the ancient Greek goddess Iris, the messenger who delivered (bad) news from the gods. In mice, it has been demonstrated that irisin plays a key role in metabolic regulation, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. New findings from various studies carried out in both animals and humans suggest that irisin might also have other favorable effects, such as increasing bone cortical mass, preventing hepatic lipid accumulation, and improving cognitive functions, thus mediating many exercise-induced health benefits...
September 20, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932979/tuberculous-meningitis-in-children-and-adults-new-insights-for-an-ancient-foe
#16
REVIEW
Alyssa Mezochow, Kiran Thakur, Christopher Vinnard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis is the most devastating manifestation of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents a medical emergency. Approximately one half of tuberculous meningitis patients die or suffer severe neurologic disability. The goal of this review will be to review the pathogenic, clinical, and radiologic features of tuberculous meningitis and to highlight recent advancements in translational and clinical science. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacologic therapy includes combination anti-tuberculosis drug regimens and adjunctive corticosteroids...
September 20, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932414/hox-gene-cluster-of-the-ascidian-halocynthia-roretzi-reveals-multiple-ancient-steps-of-cluster-disintegration-during-ascidian-evolution
#17
Yuka Sekigami, Takuya Kobayashi, Ai Omi, Koki Nishitsuji, Tetsuro Ikuta, Asao Fujiyama, Noriyuki Satoh, Hidetoshi Saiga
BACKGROUND: Hox gene clusters with at least 13 paralog group (PG) members are common in vertebrate genomes and in that of amphioxus. Ascidians, which belong to the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata), are phylogenetically positioned between vertebrates and amphioxus, and traditionally divided into two groups: the Pleurogona and the Enterogona. An enterogonan ascidian, Ciona intestinalis (Ci), possesses nine Hox genes localized on two chromosomes; thus, the Hox gene cluster is disintegrated...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932197/antiplasmodial-activity-and-toxicological-assessment-of-curcumin-plga-encapsulated-nanoparticles
#18
Zulaikha A Busari, Kabiru A Dauda, Olajumoke A Morenikeji, Funmilayo Afolayan, Oyetunde T Oyeyemi, Jairam Meena, Debasis Sahu, Amulya K Panda
Curcumin is a polyphenolic pigment isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric), a medicinal plant widely used in the ancient Indian and Chinese medicine. The antiplasmodial activity of curcumin is often hampered by its fast metabolism and poor water solubility, thus its incorporation into a delivery system could circumvent this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity and the toxicity assessment of curcumin incorporated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931282/crystallization-and-colloidal-stabilization-of-ca-oh-2-in-the-presence-of-nopal-juice-opuntia-ficus-indica-implications-in-architectural-heritage-conservation
#19
Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro, Encarnacion Ruiz-Agudo, Alejandro Burgos-Cara, Kerstin Elert, Eric F Hansen
Hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) is a vernacular art and building material produced following slaking of CaO in water. If excess water is used, a slurry, called lime putty forms, which has been the preferred craftsman selection for formulating lime mortars since Roman times. A variety of natural additives were traditionally added to the lime putty to improve its quality. The mucilaginous juice extracted from nopal cladodes has been and still is used as additive incorporated in the slaking water for formulation of lime mortars and plasters both in ancient Mesoamerica as well as in the USA Southwest...
September 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930667/phenylpropanoid-profiling-reveals-a-class-of-hydroxycinnamoyl-glucaric-acid-conjugates-in-isatis-tinctoria-leaves
#20
Thi-Kieu-Oanh Nguyen, Arash Jamali, Eric Grand, Kris Morreel, Paulo Marcelo, Eric Gontier, Rebecca Dauwe
The brassicaceous herb, Isatis tinctoria, is an ancient medicinal plant whose rosette leaf extracts have anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activity. Brassicaceae are known to accumulate a variety of phenylpropanoids in their rosette leaves acting as antioxidants and a UV-B shield, and these compounds often have pharmacological potential. Nevertheless, knowledge about the phenylpropanoid content of I. tinctoria leaves remains limited to the characterization of a number of flavonoids. In this research, we profiled the methanol extracts of I...
September 17, 2017: Phytochemistry
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