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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356327/functions-of-autophagy-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-cancer-metastasis
#1
REVIEW
Erin E Mowers, Marina N Sharifi, Kay F MacLeod
Macro-autophagy is an ancient and highly-conserved self-degradative process that plays a homeostatic role in normal cells by eliminating organelles, pathogens and protein aggregates. Autophagy, as it is routinely referred to, also allows cells to maintain metabolic sufficiency and survive under conditions of nutrient stress by recycling the by-products of autophagic degradation, such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides. Tumor cells are more reliant than normal cells on autophagy for survival in part due to their rapid growth rate, altered metabolism and nutrient deprived growth environment...
January 21, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355900/let-s-talk-about-stress-baby-infant-feeding-practices-and-stress-in-the-ancient-atacama-desert-northern-chile
#2
Charlotte L King, Siân E Halcrow, Andrew R Millard, Darren R Gröcke, Vivien G Standen, Marco Portilla, Bernardo T Arriaza
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The transition to an agricultural economy is often presumed to involve an increase in female fertility related to changes in weaning practice. In particular, the availability of staple crops as complementary foods is hypothesized to allow earlier weaning in agricultural populations. In this study, our primary aim is to explore whether this model fits the agricultural transition in the Atacama Desert using incremental isotopic analysis. A secondary aim of this study is to identify isotopic patterns relating to weaning, and assess how these may be differentiated from those relating to early life stress...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355893/cranial-measures-and-ancient-dna-both-show-greater-similarity-of-neandertals-to-recent-modern-eurasians-than-to-recent-modern-sub-saharan-africans
#3
John H Relethford, Fred H Smith
OBJECTIVES: Ancient DNA analysis has shown that present-day humans of Eurasian ancestry are more similar to Neandertals than are present-day humans of sub-Saharan African ancestry, reflecting interbreeding after modern humans first left Africa. We use craniometric data to test the hypothesis that the crania of recent modern humans show the same pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We computed Mahalanobis squared distances between a published Neandertal centroid based on 37 craniometric traits and each of 2,413 recent modern humans from the Howells global data set (N = 373 sub-Saharan Africans, N = 2,040 individuals of Eurasian descent)...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354999/-origin-and-thought-on-the-philosophical-ideas-of-acupuncture-in-chinese-medicine
#4
Xiumei Ren
Acupuncture in Chinese medicine has been a treasure in Chinese traditional medicine for thousands of years. It is opposite to many basic theories in modern medicine in dynasties. Different from the cross compatibility and interactions among medical medicines, acupuncture in Chinese medicine has its own consolidation and inherent philosophical ideas. In view of this, how to discuss the philosophical ideas and its development of acupuncture in Chinese medicine becomes of great importance. It is crucial to clearly answer the three theoretical propositions in the development of acupuncture in Chinese medicine...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354980/-tinnitus-caused-by-heart-disease-and-healed-from-heart
#5
Ting Liu, Yiguo Chen
Tinnitus is recognized as a refractory disease, which is common in clinic, and always treated from the liver and kidney. We treat tinnitus mainly by heart based on syndrome differentiation. It often works well when the left cukou pulse is abnormal. Referring to ancient literature, we find that the heart is related to ears by meridians, and the kidney and heart govern ears. The normal function of heart and kidney means normal hearing. The heart secretes atrial natriuretic polypeptins (ANP), whose receptor is widely distributed in ears and can increase the cochlear blood flow...
October 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354977/-ancient-identification-and-modern-categorization-of-the-governor-vessel-disorders
#6
Zheng Sun, Jianbin Zhang
The ancient and modern literature relevant with the governor vessel disorders is collected systematically and their connotation is reconstructed. After the collection and analysis on the ancient and modern medical books and literature relevant with the governor vessel disorders, it is discovered that the governor vessel disorders in the ancient time are relevant with the running course of the governor vessel, organs and dysfunction. While the governor vessel disorders in modern time are involved with the spine, nerve, respiration, digestion, urinary reproduction, head, face and five sensory organs, etc...
October 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354947/-discussion-on-ideological-concept-implied-in-traditional-reinforcing-and-reducing-method-of-acupuncture
#7
Suyun Li, Jingsheng Zhao
The forming and development of traditional reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture was rooted in traditional culture of China, and was based on the ancients' special understanding of nature, life and diseases, therefore its principle and methods were inevitably influenced by philosophy culture and medicine concept at that time. With deep study on Inner Canon of Huangdi and representative reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture, the implied ideological concept, including contradiction view and profit-loss view in ancient dialectic, yin-yang balance theory, concept of life flow, monophyletic theory of qi , theory of existence of disease-evil, yin-yang astrology theory, theory of inter-promotion of five elements, were summarized and analyzed...
November 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354922/-explanation-on-evidence-based-guidelines-of-clinical-practice-with-acupuncture-and-moxibustion-periarthritis-of-shoulder
#8
Yingru Chen, Jinsheng Yang, Liang Wang, Yuan Wu, Jianfeng Qu
The Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Periarthritis of Shoulder (Guidelines for short) was officially published as a standard of China Association of Acupuncture and Moxibustion in 2015. From the purpose, methodology, scope, indication, recommended protocol, etc., this was explained to provide convenience for clinical use of acupuncturists. This Guidelines was developed based on Guidelines comprehensive search of literature regarding acupuncture for periarthritis of shoulder, the adoption of best evidence, expert experience, patient value across the world, methods of evidence quality and GRADE, references of clinical experience of famous acupuncturists in the ancient and modern time and expert consensus in the national level, which was hoped to provide solid evidence of acupuncture clinical treatment for periarthritis of shoulder to ensure the safety and effectiveness...
September 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354866/congenital-anomalies-of-the-limbs-in-mythology-and-antiquity
#9
REVIEW
Andreas F Mavrogenis, Konstantinos Markatos, Vasilios Nikolaou, Ariadne Gartziou-Tatti, Panayotis N Soucacos
Congenital anomalies of the limbs have been observed since ancient human civilizations, capturing the imagination of ancient physicians and people. The knowledge of the era could not possibly theorize on the biologic aspects of these anomalies; however, from the very beginning of civilization the spiritual status of people attempted to find a logical explanation for the existence of such cases. The next logical step of the spiritual and religious system of the ancients was to correlate these anomalies with the Gods and to attribute them to a different level of existence in order to rationalize their existence...
January 21, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352909/a-review-of-polysaccharides-from-schisandra-chinensis-and-schisandra-sphenanthera-properties-functions-and-applications
#10
REVIEW
Zijian Li, Xin He, Fei Liu, Jue Wang, Juan Feng
Schisandra is an herbal plant resource with dual functions in medicine and food since ancient times. It has a variety of healthcare and therapeutic effects. Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wits are two of the most commonly used Schisandra. Traditional Chinese medicine experience has shown that water-soluble polysaccharide from Schisandra may be one of its main components with pharmacological effects. Progress in the industrial production and extraction process of plant polysaccharides, especially Chinese medicine polysaccharides in the past three decades, have led to many new discoveries about Schisandra polysaccharides in the fields of purification and identification...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352631/we-could-learn-much-more-from-1918-pandemic-the-mis-fortune-of-research-relying-on-original-death-certificates
#11
Wladimir J Alonso, Francielle C Nascimento, Gerardo Chowell, Cynthia Schuck-Paim
PURPOSE: The analysis of historical death certificates has enormous potential for understanding how the health of populations was shaped by diseases and epidemics and by the implementation of specific interventions. In Brazil, the systematic archiving of mortality records was initiated only in 1944-hence the analysis of death registers before this time requires searching for these documents in public archives, notaries, parishes, and especially ancient cemeteries, which are often the only remaining source of information about these deaths...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352088/an-archaeal-fluoride-responsive-riboswitch-provides-an-inducible-expression-system-for-hyperthermophiles
#12
Michael Clayton Speed, Brett W Burkhart, Jonathan W Picking, Thomas J Santangelo
Robust genetic systems for the hyperthermophilic Thermococcales have facilitated overexpression of native genes, allowed for the addition of sequences encoding secretion signals, epitope, and affinity tags to coding regions, and permitted the introduction of sequences encoding new proteins in these fast growing fermentative heterotrophs. Tightly controlled and easily manipulated systems permitting regulated gene expression are however limited for these hosts. Here we describe an alternative method for regulatory control reliant on a cis-encoded functional riboswitch in the model archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis Despite the hyperthermophilic growth temperatures, the proposed structure of the riboswitch conforms to a fluoride-responsive riboswitch encoded in many bacteria, and similarly functions to regulate a component conserved fluoride export pathway...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351742/herv-w-group-evolutionary-history-in-non-human-primates-characterization-of-erv-w-orthologs-in-catarrhini-and-related-erv-groups-in-platyrrhini
#13
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Jonas Blomberg, Jens Mayer, Enzo Tramontano
BACKGROUND: The genomes of all vertebrates harbor remnants of ancient retroviral infections, having affected the germ line cells during the last 100 million years. These sequences, named Endogenous Retroviruses (ERVs), have been transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian way, being relatively stable components of the host genome even long after their exogenous counterparts went extinct. Among human ERVs (HERVs), the HERV-W group is of particular interest for our physiology and pathology...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351740/population-size-may-shape-the-accumulation-of-functional-mutations-following-domestication
#14
Jianhai Chen, Pan Ni, Xinyun Li, Jianlin Han, Ivan Jakovlić, Chengjun Zhang, Shuhong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Population genetics theory predicts an important role of differences in the effective population size (N e ) among species on shaping the accumulation of functional mutations by regulating the selection efficiency. However, this correlation has never been tested in domesticated animals. RESULTS: Here, we synthesized 62 whole genome data in eight domesticated species (cat, dog, pig, goat, sheep, chicken, cattle and horse) and compared domesticates with their wild (or ancient) relatives...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351415/amp-activated-protein-kinase-and-adenosine-are-both-metabolic-modulators-regulating-chloride-secretion-in-the-shark-rectal-gland-squalus-acanthias
#15
Rugina I Neuman, Juliette A M van Kalmthout, Daniel J Pfau, Dhariyat M Menendez, Lawrence H Young, John N Forrest
The production of endogenous adenosine during secretagogue stimulation of CFTR leads to feedback inhibition limiting further chloride secretion in the rectal gland of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). In the present study, we examined the role of AMP-kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor also modulating chloride secretion through CFTR. We found that glands perfused with forskolin and isobutylmethylxanthine (F + I), potent stimulators of chloride secretion in this ancient model, caused significant phosphorylation of the catalytic subunit Thr172 of AMPK...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350780/an-evolutionary-concept-analysis-of-futility-in-healthcare
#16
Lauren Morata
AIM: To report a concept analysis of futility in healthcare. BACKGROUND: Each member of the healthcare team, the physician, the nurse, the patient, the family and all others involved perceive futility differently. The current evidence and knowledge in regard to futility in healthcare manifest a plethora of definitions, meanings and interpretations without consensus. DESIGN: Concept analysis. DATA SOURCES: Databases searched included Medline, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PsycINFO...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350668/concealed-lung-anatomy-in-botticelli-s-masterpieces-the-primavera-and-the-birth-of-venus
#17
Davide Lazzeri
Sandro Botticelli was one of the most esteemed painters and draughtsmen among Renaissance artists. Under the patronage of the De' Medici family, he was active in Florence during the flourishing of the Renaissance trend towards the reclamation of lost medical and anatomical knowledge of ancient times through the dissection of corpses. Combining the typical attributes of the elegant courtly style with hallmarks derived from the investigation and analysis of classical templates, he left us immortal masterpieces, the excellence of which incomprehensibly waned and was rediscovered only in the 1890s...
January 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349942/ancient-soil-transmitted-parasite-eggs-detected-from-the-sixth-century-three-kingdom-period-silla-tomb
#18
Min Seo, Chang Seok Oh, Jong Ha Hong, Jong Yil Chai, Jin Og Ju, Dong Hoon Shin
The parasitic infection patterns of the Joseon period have begun to be revealed in a series of paleoparasitological studies. However, parasitism prevailing during or before the Three Kingdom period is still relatively unexplored. In the present study, we therefore conducted parasitological examinations of soil and organic-material sediments precipitated upon human hipbone and sacrum discovered inside an ancient Mokgwakmyo tomb dating to the Silla Dynasty (57 BCE-660 CE). Within the samples, we discovered ancient Ascaris lumbricoides (eggs per gram [EPG], 46...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349299/limited-contribution-of-ancient-methane-to-surface-waters-of-the-u-s-beaufort-sea-shelf
#19
Katy J Sparrow, John D Kessler, John R Southon, Fenix Garcia-Tigreros, Kathryn M Schreiner, Carolyn D Ruppel, John B Miller, Scott J Lehman, Xiaomei Xu
In response to warming climate, methane can be released to Arctic Ocean sediment and waters from thawing subsea permafrost and decomposing methane hydrates. However, it is unknown whether methane derived from this sediment storehouse of frozen ancient carbon reaches the atmosphere. We quantified the fraction of methane derived from ancient sources in shelf waters of the U.S. Beaufort Sea, a region that has both permafrost and methane hydrates and is experiencing significant warming. Although the radiocarbon-methane analyses indicate that ancient carbon is being mobilized and emitted as methane into shelf bottom waters, surprisingly, we find that methane in surface waters is principally derived from modern-aged carbon...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348728/systems-level-mechanisms-of-action-of-panax-ginseng-a-network-pharmacological-approach
#20
REVIEW
Sa-Yoon Park, Ji-Hun Park, Hyo-Su Kim, Choong-Yeol Lee, Hae-Jeung Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Chang-Eop Kim
Panax ginseng has been used since ancient times based on the traditional Asian medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies concerning P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanisms of action of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng, it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
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