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Crohn* disease*

Shazia Shah, Arshia, Nida Siraj Kazmi, Almas Jabeen, Aisha Faheem, Nida Dastagir, Tariq Ahmed, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Shakil Ahmed, Abeer Raza, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is defined as the response of immune system cells to damaged or injured tissues The major symptoms of inflammation include increased blood flow, cellular influx, edema, elevated cellular metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) nitric oxide (NO) and vasodilation. This normally protective mechanism against harmful agents when this normal mechanism becomes dysregulated that can cause serious illnesses including ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, sepsis, and chronic pulmonary inflammation ...
March 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Swathi Eluri, Raymond K Cross, Christopher Martin, Kevin P Weinfurt, Kathryn E Flynn, Millie D Long, Wenli Chen, Kristen Anton, Robert S Sandler, Michael D Kappelman
BACKGROUND: Aspects of sexual health, which can be adversely affected by chronic disease, have been inadequately explored in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIMS: We evaluated patient-reported interest in sexual activity and satisfaction with sex life in a large cohort of IBD patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study within the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation Partners Internet cohort. Sequential participants completed a 6-question supplemental online survey to examine sexual interest and satisfaction using the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® ) Sexual Function and Satisfaction measures...
March 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Shin Nishiumi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Masaru Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal disorder, involving chronic and relapsing inflammation of the digestive tract. Dysregulation of the immune system based on genetic, environmental, and other factors seems to be involved in the onset of IBD, but its exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, radical treatments for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease remain to be found, and IBD is considered to be a refractory disease. AIMS: The aim of this study is to obtain novel insights into IBD via metabolite profiling of interleukin (IL)-10 knockout mice (an IBD animal model that exhibits a dysregulated immune system)...
March 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Krish Patel, Amee Patel, David Hawes, Janki Shah, Krishna Shah
Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota are known to play paramount role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Innovative sequencing methods have radically expanded our ability to analyze the intestinal microbiome. However, alterations of the GI microbiome in IBD have not yet been fully evaluated. Irregular colonization of the gut has been implicated in chronic intestinal inflammation. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a procedure which aims to restore microbial disturbances to the individual's gut microbiome...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
H Peeters, E Louis, F Baert, O Dewit, J C Coche, M Ferrante, G Lambrecht, A Colard, A Van Gossum, P Bossuyt, T Moreels, B Vander Cruyssen, A Gils, M De Vos
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies are a cornerstone in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Prospective data on switching from the subcutaneous and human adalimumab (ADM) to the intravenous and chimeric infliximab (IFX) are scarce. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, observational, multicentre cohort study we included 21 patients with loss of response to ADM despite at least 4 consecutive weekly injections. Clinical response (CDAI drop≥70 points) and remission (CDAI≤150) were assessed after switching from ADM to IFX after 10 weeks, 6 and 12 months...
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Heitor S P de Souza, Claudio Fiocchi
Despite unquestionable progress in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the much improved clinical results achievable today in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, the overall therapeutic outcome remains far from optimal. The main reason of this partial success is that all current medications only block individual components of a highly complex disease process that results from the integration of multiple and incompletely identified pathogenic components. Thus, if further progress is to be achieved in IBD therapeutics and we want to move from the current success rate to nearly 100%, bold new ideas must be entertained and new approaches put into practice...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Simon R Knowles, Lesley A Graff, Helen Wilding, Catherine Hewitt, Laurie Keefer, Antonina Mikocka-Walus
Background: Quality of life (QoL) is commonly assessed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); the relationship of QoL within IBD states and relative to others has not been comprehensively evaluated. This systematic review, published across 2 papers, evaluates 5 key QoL comparisons. Part I, presented here, examines between-disease comparisons: (1) IBD/healthy(general) population and (2) IBD/other medically ill groups. Part II examines within-disease comparisons: (3) active/inactive disease, (4) ulcerative colitis/Crohn's disease, and (5) change over time...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Xu-Tao Lin, Xiao-Bin Zheng, De-Jun Fan, Qiu-Qiong Yao, Jian-Cong Hu, Lei Lian, Xiao-Jian Wu, Ping Lan, Xiao-Sheng He
Background: Dysfunctional autophagy is recognized as a contributing factor in many chronic inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD). Genetic analyses have found that microRNA (miRNA) levels are altered in the intestinal tissues of CD patients. Methods: The Sequencing Alternative Poly-Adenylation Sites (SAPAS) method was used to compare the 3' end of the total mRNA sequence of 3 surgical specimens of CD patients (including inflamed tissues and corresponding noninflamed tissues in each case)...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Robert Tso, Levinus A Dieleman, Heekuk Park, Karen I Kroeker, Juan Jovel, Patrick M Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Rupasri Mandal, Richard N Fedorak, Karen L Madsen
Background: Crohn's disease (CD) patients who undergo ileocolonic resection frequently have disease recurrence. The aim of this preliminary study was to identify urinary metabolomic profiles associated with disease recurrence in order to identify underlying mechanisms of recurrence and possible disease biomarkers. Methods: Biopsies from the neoterminal ileum were collected from CD patients (n = 38) after ileocolonic resection in order to assess mucosa-associated microbiota using 16S rRNA multitag pyrosequencing...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Britt Christensen, Ruben J Colman, Dejan Micic, Peter R Gibson, Sarah R Goeppinger, Andres Yarur, Christopher R Weber, Russell D Cohen, David T Rubin
Background: Vedolizumab is approved for moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We present prospective, 1-year data of the real-world effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Consecutive patients receiving vedolizumab for treatment of UC or CD with at least 14 weeks of follow-up, regardless of outcome, were included. Patients had clinical activity scores (Harvey-Bradshaw Index [HBI] or Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index [SCCAI]) and inflammatory markers prospectively measured at baseline and weeks 14, 30, and 52...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Hermann Schulze, Philip Esters, Franz Hartmann, Juergen Stein, Christina Christ, Michael Zorn, Axel Dignass
BACKGROUND: Vedolizumab (VDZ) drug monitoring strategies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have not been systematically investigated so far. We evaluated the correlation between VDZ trough levels (VTL) and the treatment response in IBD. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with active IBD on or starting a therapy with VDZ were enrolled in this prospective and observational single centre study. Disease activity indices, blood tests, and anthropometric parameters were assessed over a time period of 6 months...
March 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
A Driessen, E Macken, T Moreels, A Jouret-Mourin
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's diseases are relapsing longstanding inflammatory bowel diseases, associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Continuous surveillance is necessary to detect the preneoplastic lesions in an early stage. New endoscopic techniques have improved the diagnostic accuracy and have resulted in a new and more simplified classification system of the dysplastic lesions in the bowel. Histopathologically these lesions are very heterogenous, consisting of adenomatous, villous and the more recently discovered serrated dysplasia...
April 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
H Ooms, H U De Schepper, T G Moreels
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Small bowel ulceration poses a limited, but difficult differential diagnosis. The most common causes are Crohn's disease (CD), NSAID-associated enteritis, lymphoma, cytomegaly virus infection and tuberculosis. A less known and relatively novel differential diagnosis is cryptogenic multifocal ulcerative stenosing enteritis (CMUSE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: ive patients referred for balloon-assisted enteroscopy for various reasons showed endoscopic features of CMUSE...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Bhumit Patel, Vipul D Yagnik
Background/aims: As increasing numbers of Crohn's disease (CD) cases are being recognized in India, so the differential diagnosis of CD and gastrointestinal tuberculosis (GITB) is becoming increasingly important. If patients are misdiagnosed with GITB, toxicity may result from unnecessary anti-TB therapy and treatment of the primary disease (ie, CD) gets delayed. We therefore aimed to assess the accuracy of various parameters that can be used to predict GITB diagnosis at index evaluation...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Maria Puerto-Parada, Juan Carlos Arango-Sabogal, Julie Paré, Elizabeth Doré, Geneviève Côté, Vincent Wellemans, Sébastien Buczinski, Jean-Philippe Roy, Olivia Labrecque, Gilles Fecteau
Paratuberculosis is a chronic and contagious enteric disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of paratuberculosis is justified given the associated economic losses and the potential role of MAP in Crohn's disease in humans. Management practices that limit exposure of susceptible animals to MAP are more effective at reducing disease prevalence than testing and culling infected cows. The objective of this retrospective case-control study was to study the association between management practices and MAP status in dairy herds in Québec, Canada...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Iwona Krela-Kaźmierczak, Aleksandra Szymczak-Tomczak, Liliana Łykowska-Szuber, Ewa Wysocka, Michał Michalak, Kamila Stawczyk-Eder, Katarzyna Waszak, Krzysztof Linke, Piotr Eder
BACKGROUND: Cytokines are mediators of inflammatory processes in the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and participate in the bone metabolism. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) initiates osteoclastogenesis by modulating the activity of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) by densitometry and the concentration of interleukin 6, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and sRANKL protein (sRANKL) by ELISA in patients with IBD in relation to the control group; to assess the relationship between IL-6, OPG, sRANKL and BMD; and to assess the impact of disease duration and number hospitalization on BMD...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Bram Verstockt, Marc Ferrante, Séverine Vermeire, Gert Van Assche
The advent of anti-TNF agents has dramatically changed the treatment algorithms for IBD in the last 15 years, but primarily and more importantly secondary loss of response is often observed. Fortunately , new treatment options have been actively explored and some have already entered our clinical practice. In the class of anti-cytokine agents, the anti-IL12/IL23 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have entered clinical practice with the anti-p40 mAb ustekinumab in Crohn's disease (CD). Also, more selective anti-IL23 agents (anti-p19) have shown efficacy and are being further developed, in contrast to agents inhibiting IL-17 downstream which have failed in clinical trials despite their clear efficacy in psoriasis (Verstockt et al...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Lei Ye, Wei Cheng, Bi-Qin Chen, Xing Lan, Shao-Dong Wang, Xiao-Chen Wu, Wei Huang, Fang-Yu Wang
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaofei Zhang, Huaibin Mabel Ko, Joana Torres, Hinaben J Panchal, Zhenjian Cai, Mathilde Wagner, Bruce E Sands, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Judy Cho, Bachir Taouli, Noam Harpaz
Intestinal stricture, a major complication of Crohn's disease (CD), results from fibromuscular remodeling and expansion of the intestinal wall. The corresponding microanatomical alterations have not been fully described, hindering progress toward understanding their pathogenesis and devising appropriate treatments. We used tissue-specific staining and quantitative digital histomorphometry for this purpose. Serial histological sections from 37 surgically-resected ileal strictures and adjacent non-strictured controls from patients with CD were evaluated after staining for smooth muscle actin, collagen (Sirius red) and collagen types I, III and V...
March 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Benoit Chassaing, Andrew T Gewirtz
A critically important new study by leading inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) researcher Fabio Cominelli and colleagues reveals that, in mice, the artificial sweetener SPLENDA deleteriously impacts the intestinal microbiota in a manner that promotes Crohn's-type disease in genetically susceptible hosts. These results suggest that consumption of this product may be a risk factor for IBD.
March 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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