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Clostridium difficile infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323808/bezlotoxumab-zinplava-for-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319229/patient-mortality-during-unannounced-accreditation-surveys-at-us-hospitals
#2
Michael L Barnett, Andrew R Olenski, Anupam B Jena
Importance: In the United States, hospitals receive accreditation through unannounced on-site inspections (ie, surveys) by The Joint Commission (TJC), which are high-pressure periods to demonstrate compliance with best practices. No research has addressed whether the potential changes in behavior and heightened vigilance during a TJC survey are associated with changes in patient outcomes. Objective: To assess whether heightened vigilance during survey weeks is associated with improved patient outcomes compared with nonsurvey weeks, particularly in major teaching hospitals...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318779/infection-control-implications-of-the-laundering-of-ambulance-staff-uniforms-and-reusable-mops
#3
W G Mackay, S Whitehead, N Purdue, M Smith, N Redhead, C Williams, S Wilson
There is a lack of published studies on laundering in ambulance services. We performed bacterial culture on soiled and unsoiled uniforms and reusable mop heads artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile spores. Current laundering processes used for routine cleans in the ambulances appears, from our simulations, to be effective at reducing vegetative pathogenic bacteria to undetectable levels, <3.398log10 colony-forming units (S. aureus and E. coli)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318210/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-clostridium-difficile-infection-evidence-and-indications
#4
Aasma Shaukat, Andrew R Reinink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315032/novel-indications-for-fecal-microbial-transplantation-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series, and while many studies and reviews have been published on the use of FMT for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its potential use for other disease conditions has not been thoroughly reviewed...
March 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314653/assessment-of-risk-factors-for-candidemia-in-non-neutropenic-patients-hospitalized-in-internal-medicine-wards-a-multicenter-study
#6
M Falcone, G Tiseo, C Tascini, A Russo, E Sozio, G Raponi, C Rosin, P Pignatelli, P Carfagna, A Farcomeni, R Luzzati, F Violi, F Menichetti, M Venditti
BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of candidemia has been reported in Internal Medicine wards (IMWs). The aim of our study was to identify risk factors for candidemia among non-neutropenic patients hospitalized in IMWs. METHODS: A multicenter case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Italy. Patients developing candidemia (cases) were compared to patients without candidemia (controls) matched by age, time of admission and duration of hospitalization...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314071/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcome-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-heart-and-heart-lung-transplant-recipients
#7
Jackrapong Bruminhent, Kelly A Cawcutt, Charat Thongprayoon, Tanya M Petterson, Walter K Kremers, Raymund R Razonable
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of diarrhea in thoracic organ transplant recipients. We investigated the epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in heart and heart-lung transplant (HT) recipients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study from 2004-2013. CDI was defined by diarrhea and a positive toxigenic Clostridium difficile in stool measured by toxin enzyme immunoassay (2004-2006) or polymerase chain reaction (2007-2013)...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306141/the-attributable-burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-to-long-term-care-facilities-stay-a-clinical-study
#8
Styliani Karanika, Christos Grigoras, Myrto E Flokas, Michail Alevizakos, Tori Kinamon, Erna M Kojic, Eleftherios Mylonakis
BACKGROUND: Advanced age, history of hospitalization, and antibiotic consumption are associated with the pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) represent a setting where CDI has been increasingly reported. We aimed to estimate the actual attributable burden of CDI to LTCF stay and determine the characteristics of the disease epidemiology in this setting. DESIGN: IRB-approved retrospective cohort study. SETTING: LTCF and community...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303388/the-impact-of-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-combating-quinolone-resistance-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations-for-more-efficient-interventions
#9
REVIEW
Vasiliki Pitiriga, Georgia Vrioni, George Saroglou, Athanasios Tsakris
Quinolones are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide. A clear relationship has been demonstrated between excessive quinolone use and the steady increase in the incidence of quinolone-resistant bacterial pathogens, both in hospital and community sites. In addition, exposure to quinolones has been associated with colonization and infection with healthcare-associated pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients. Therefore, the management of quinolone prescribing in hospitals through antibiotic stewardship programs is considered crucial...
March 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302431/a-qualitative-study-to-identify-reasons-for-clostridium-difficile-testing-in-pediatric-inpatients-receiving-laxatives-or-stool-softeners
#10
Joanne Kinlay, Thomas J Sandora
To understand why clinicians send Clostridium difficile tests from hospitalized children receiving laxatives or stool softeners, we performed a mixed-methods study. We prospectively identified tested patients and surveyed their clinicians by e-mail. Reasons for testing included changes in stooling pattern on baseline bowel regimen, other changes in clinical status, and risk factors for C difficile infection. Education targeting discontinuing bowel medications before C difficile testing could improve the specificity of pediatric C difficile infection diagnosis...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301676/deprescribing-versus-continuation-of-chronic-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-adults
#11
REVIEW
Taline A Boghossian, Farah Joy Rashid, Wade Thompson, Vivian Welch, Paul Moayyedi, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Kevin Pottie, Barbara Farrell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that reduce acid secretion and are used for treating many conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), dyspepsia, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and hypersecretory conditions (e.g. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), and as part of the eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori bacteria. However, approximately 25% to 70% of people are prescribed a PPI inappropriately. Chronic PPI use without reassessment contributes to polypharmacy and puts people at risk of experiencing drug interactions and adverse events (e...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300019/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-acute-care-hospitals-systematic-review-and-best-practices-for-prevention
#12
Irene K Louh, William G Greendyke, Emilia A Hermann, Karina W Davidson, Louise Falzon, David K Vawdrey, Jonathan A Shaffer, David P Calfee, E Yoko Furuya, Henry H Ting
OBJECTIVE Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in acute-care hospitals is a priority for hospitals and clinicians. We performed a qualitative systematic review to update the evidence on interventions to prevent CDI published since 2009. DESIGN We searched Ovid, MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, the ISI Web of Knowledge, and grey literature databases from January 1, 2009 to August 1, 2015. SETTING We included studies performed in acute-care hospitals. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS We included studies conducted on hospitalized patients that investigated the impact of specific interventions on CDI rates...
April 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299963/cost-effectiveness-analysis-on-the-use-of-fidaxomicin-and-vancomycin-to-treat-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-france
#13
Maureen Watt, Aurélien Dinh, Alban Le Monnier, Patrick Tilleul
BACKGROUND: Fidaxomicin is a macrocyclic antibiotic with proven efficacy against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. It was licensed in France in 2012, but, due to higher acquisition costs compared with existing treatments, healthcare providers require information on its cost/benefit profile. OBJECTIVE: To compare healthcare costs and health outcomes of fidaxomicin and vancomycin, as reference treatment for CDI. METHODS: A Markov model was used to simulate the treatment pathway, over 1 year, of adult patients with CDI receiving fidaxomicin or vancomycin...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296825/frequency-and-risk-factors-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-patients-with-pouchitis-a-population-based-study
#14
Gaurav Kistangari, Rocio Lopez, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with the ileal pouch after proctocolectomy has been increasingly recognized. We sought to evaluate the frequency and risk factors of CDI in patients with the primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of pouchitis in the United States. METHODS: We reviewed the National Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project and identified patients admitted for pouchitis with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), between 2010 and 2012...
April 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295646/the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-national-kidney-transplant-centre
#15
C Kennedy, C Waldron, M Skally, L Gaughan, C Magee, K Burns, F Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of CDI in a national kidney transplant centre from 2008-2015. METHODS: Adult kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients were included for analysis if they met the surveillance CDI case definition. Rates of new healthcare-associated CDI (HA-CDI) were expressed per 10,000 KTR/KTPR bed days used (BDU) to facilitate comparisons. RESULTS: Fifty-two cases of CDI were identified in 42 KTRs and KPTRs...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293151/conventional-and-alternative-treatment-approaches-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
REVIEW
Khalid M Aljarallah
Clostridium difficile-associated disease continues to be one of the leading health concerns worldwide. C. difficile is considered as a causative agent of nosocomial diarrhea that causes serious infection, which may result in death. The incidences of C. difficile infection (CDI) in developed countries have become increasingly high which may be attributed to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, extensive use of antibiotics, and limited alternative therapies. The available treatment options against CDI are expensive and promote resistance...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289858/donor-considerations-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Danielle Barnes, K T Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tremendous acceleration has been made in understanding the gut microbiota in the past decade and, with it, further understanding of the pathologic role of dysbiosis and the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as therapy. FMT has been studied in many disease states including the most common indication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), though many questions regarding stool donor selection remain. RECENT FINDINGS: Though traditionally, one donor has provided stool for one patient, research is underway to explore many donor selection considerations from the use of pooled donor stool to selection of a high diversity donor...
March 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286992/cadazolid-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile
#18
Bradley T Endres, Eugénie Bassères, M Jahangir Alam, Kevin W Garey
Antibiotic development goals for CDI include potent antimicrobial effect against C. difficile, limited killing of host microbiota, potential effect on spores, and ability to interfere with toxin production. Cadazolid, a novel, non-absorbable hybrid antibiotic has many of these criteria. In phase I and II clinical trials, cadazolid was shown to be safe, well tolerated, and efficacious positioning itself as a potential future viable therapeutic option for CDI. Areas covered: This review provides an in-depth evaluation of the chemistry, microbiology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and clinical trial results for cadazolid...
March 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286152/toxin-production-of-clostridium-difficile-in-sub-mic-of-vancomycin-and-clindamycin-alone-and-in-combination-with-ceftazidime
#19
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Mohammad Moradi
Toxin production in Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a key process for induction of diarrhea. Several factors such as sub-MIC of antibiotics impact on toxin production. The aim of this research is investigation of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of vancomycin (VAN), clindamycin (CLI) separately and in combination with ceftazidime (CAZ) on toxin production in C. difficile. About ∼10(6) colony forming units (CFU) from 18-h culture of C. difficile ATCC 9689 and clinical isolates A(+)/B(+)/CTD(-), were cultured anaerobically in the pre-reduced medium with appropriate concentration of separated and in combination antibiotics...
March 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285605/using-clinical-scenarios-to-understand-preventability-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-by-inpatient-antibiotic-stewardship-programs
#20
Jessica Seidelman, Kristen V Dicks, Michael J Durkin, Arthur W Baker, Rebekah W Moehring, Deverick J Anderson, Daniel J Sexton, Luke F Chen, Sarah S Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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