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Clostridium difficile infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214181/-adult-immunisation-general-points-hot-topics-and-perspectives
#1
P Loubet, O Launay
Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213939/protective-antibodies-against-clostridium-difficile-are-present-in-intravenous-immunoglobulin-and-are-retained-in-humans-following-its-administration
#2
Ola H Negm, Brendon MacKenzie, Mohamed R Hamed, Omar Aj Ahmad, Clifford C Shone, David P Humphreys, K Ravi Acharya, Christine E Loscher, Izabela Marszalowska, Mark Lynch, Mark H Wilcox, Tanya M Monaghan
The prevalence of serum antibodies against C. difficile (CD) toxins A and B in healthy populations have prompted interest in evaluating the therapeutic activity of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in individuals experiencing severe or recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite some promising case reports, a definitive clinical role for IVIg in CDI remains unclear. Contradictory results may be attributed to a lack of consensus regarding optimal dose, timing of administration and patient selection as well as variability in specific antibody content between commercial preparations...
February 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210836/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-challenges-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Ying M Tang, Christian D Stone
The problem of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has reached epidemic proportions, particularly in industrialized nations. The pathophysiology, disease course and the potential complications are well appreciated in the general hospitalized patient. However, when CDI occurs in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a number of distinct differences in the diagnosis and clinical management of the infection in this population should be appreciated by gastroenterologists, hospitalists and other care providers...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210531/the-daniel-k-inouye-college-of-pharmacy-scripts-updates-on-clostridium-difficile-infection-advances-in-laboratory-testing-to-aid-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Louis Lteif
Clostridium difficile remains a major source of nosocomial infections and associated diarrhea. More recently, community-acquired cases are on the rise creating a concern for a serious public health threat. Appropriate infection control precautions as well as prevention and optimal management may help to avoid detrimental outbreaks. A key step is utilizing laboratory testing for quick and accurate diagnosis of potential cases. This overview article describes Clostridium difficile infection control and prevention methods and updates the most recent management strategies including a focus on the utilization and interpretation of laboratory diagnostic testing and appropriate treatment...
February 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209679/community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
George Kim, Nemin Adam Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209199/making-life-difficult-for-clostridium-difficile-augmenting-the-pathogen-s-metabolic-model-with-transcriptomic-and-codon-usage-data-for-better-therapeutic-target-characterization
#6
Sara Saheb Kashaf, Claudio Angione, Pietro Lió
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a bacterium which can infect various animal species, including humans. Infection with this bacterium is a leading healthcare-associated illness. A better understanding of this organism and the relationship between its genotype and phenotype is essential to the search for an effective treatment. Genome-scale metabolic models contain all known biochemical reactions of a microorganism and can be used to investigate this relationship. RESULTS: We present icdf834, an updated metabolic network of C...
February 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206678/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-on-the-short-and-long-term-risks-of-colectomy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
REVIEW
C C Y Law, R Tariq, S Khanna, S Murthy, J D McCurdy
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is associated with increased mortality in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the risk of colectomy is variable and has not been adequately studied. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of CDI on colectomy risk in IBD. METHODS: Multiple databases were searched systematically for observational studies reporting colectomy risk in IBD, stratified by the presence of CDI, and the duration of follow-up (short term 3 months, and long term at least 1 year)...
February 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199401/hospital-discharge-abstracts-have-limited-accuracy-in-identifying-occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-among-hospitalized-individuals-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-population-based-study
#8
Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, B Nancy Yu, Lisa M Lix, Laura Targownik, Charles Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Hospital discharge databases are used to study the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CDI in IBD is increasingly important and accurately estimating its occurrence is critical in understanding its comorbidity. There are limited data on the reliability of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) (now widely used in North America) CDI code in determining occurrence of CDI among hospitalized patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198085/the-alternative-sigma-factor-%C3%AF-b-plays-a-crucial-role-in-adaptive-strategies-of-clostridium-difficile-during-gut-infection
#9
Nicolas Kint, Claire Janoir, Marc Monot, Sandra Hoys, Olga Soutourina, Bruno Dupuy, Isabelle Martin-Verstraete
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of diarrhoea associated with antibiotherapy. Exposed to stresses in the gut, C. difficile can survive by inducing protection, detoxification, and repair systems. In several firmicutes, most of these systems are controlled by the general stress response involving σ(B) . In this work, we studied the role of σ(B) in the physiopathology of C. difficile. We showed that the survival of the sigB mutant during the stationary phase was reduced. Using a transcriptome analysis, we showed that σ(B) controls the expression of ∼25% of genes including genes involved in sporulation, metabolism, cell surface biogenesis, and the management of stresses...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196423/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-is-there-a-role-in-the-eradication-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-intestinal-carriage
#10
Ana Ponte, Rolando Pinho, Margarida Mota
The authors present the case of a 66-year-old woman with four hospitalizations due to recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) non responsive to vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Furthermore, intestinal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) was identified after a positive stool culture in a screening routinely performed in our center in patients recently hospitalized.
February 15, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195180/successful-resolution-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-freeze-dried-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota-pragmatic-cohort-study
#11
Christopher Staley, Matthew J Hamilton, Byron P Vaughn, Carolyn T Graiziger, Krista M Newman, Amanda J Kabage, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts
OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being used for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) that cannot be cured with antibiotics alone. In addition, FMT is being investigated for a variety of indications where restoration or restructuring of the gut microbial community is hypothesized to be beneficial. We sought to develop a stable, freeze-dried encapsulated preparation of standardized fecal microbiota that can be used for FMT with ease and convenience in clinical practice and research...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195066/successful-therapy-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-with-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#12
P C Konturek, J Koziel, W Dieterich, D Haziri, S Wirtz, I Glowczyk, K Konturek, M F Neurath, Y Zopf
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea and represents an important burden for healthcare worldwide. Symptoms of severe CDI include watery, foul-smelling diarrhea, peripheral leucocytosis, increased C-reactive protein (CRP), acute renal failure, hypotension and pseudomembranous colitis. Recent studies indicate that the main cause of CDI is dysbiosis, an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. The restoration of a healthy gut microbiota composition via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) recently became more popular...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192108/timely-use-of-probiotics-in-hospitalized-adults-prevents-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-with-meta-regression-analysis
#13
Nicole T Shen, Anna Maw, Lyubov L Tmanova, Alejandro Pino, Kayley Ancy, Carl V Crawford, Matthew S Simon, Arthur T Evans
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systematic reviews have provided evidence for the efficacy of probiotics in preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but guidelines do not recommend probiotic use for prevention of CDI. We performed an updated systematic review to help guide clinical practice. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, and The Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials evaluating use of probiotics and CDI in hospitalized adults taking antibiotics...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187144/a-mathematical-model-of-clostridium-difficile-transmission-in-medical-wards-and-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-comparing-different-strategies-for-laboratory-diagnosis-and-patient-isolation
#14
Vered Schechner, Yehuda Carmeli, Moshe Leshno
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common and potentially fatal healthcare-associated infection. Improving diagnostic tests and infection control measures may prevent transmission. We aimed to determine, in resource-limited settings, whether it is more effective and cost-effective to allocate resources to isolation or to diagnostics. METHODS: We constructed a mathematical model of CDI transmission based on hospital data (9 medical wards, 350 beds) between March 2010 and February 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185664/review-of-the-role-of-probiotics-in-gastrointestinal-diseases-in-adults
#15
Juan José Sebastián Domingo
BACKGROUND: Probiotics may act as biological agents that modify the intestinal microbiota and certain cytokine profiles, which can lead to an improvement in certain gastrointestinal diseases. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a review of the evidence of the role of probiotics in certain gastrointestinal diseases in adults. SEARCH METHODS: Review conducted using appropriate descriptors, filters and limits in the PubMed database (MEDLINE). SELECTION CRITERIA: The MeSH terms used were Probiotics [in the title] AND Gastrointestinal Diseases, with the following limits or filters: Types of study: Systematic Reviews, Meta-Analysis, Guideline, Practice Guideline, Consensus Development Conference (and Consensus Development Conference NIH), Randomized Controlled Trial, Controlled Clinical Trial and Clinical Trial; age: adults (19 or older); language: English and Spanish; in humans, and with at least one abstract...
February 6, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182338/evaluation-of-nested-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-immunoassay-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-in-children-with-community-acquired-diarrhea
#16
Ahmed Elewa, Maysaa El Sayed-Zaki
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a known pathogen associated with diarrhea especially in hospital acquired diarrhea. Yet, it is being recognized as a probable etiology for community acquired diarrhea. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of C. difficile as a pathogen causing community acquired diarrhea in children and to verify the value of different laboratory methods for diagnosis, namely specific culture, immunoassay for toxin detection, and nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181098/effect-of-aging-on-the-composition-of-fecal-microbiota-in-donors-for-fmt-and-its-impact-on-clinical-outcomes
#17
Rohit Anand, Yang Song, Shashank Garg, Mohit Girotra, Amitasha Sinha, Anita Sivaraman, Laila Phillips, Sudhir K Dutta
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is emerging as an effective therapy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). Selecting an appropriate donor is vital to the success of FMT. However, the relationship between age of donors and the efficacy of FMT has not been examined to date. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of age of healthy donors on their fecal microbiota and assess the impact of these changes on the clinical efficacy of FMT...
February 8, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181032/comprehensive-evaluation-of-chemiluminescent-immunoassays-for-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#18
A Makristathis, I Zeller, D Mitteregger, M Kundi, A M Hirschl
For the microbiological diagnosis of a Clostridium (C.) difficile infection (CDI), a two-test algorithm consisting of a C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-immunoassay followed by a toxin-immunoassay in positive cases is widely used. In this study, two chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs), one for GDH and the other for the toxins A and B, have been evaluated systematically using appropriate reference methods. Three-hundred diarrhoeal stool specimens submitted for CDI diagnosis were analysed by the LIAISON CLIAs (DiaSorin)...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178876/designing-fecal-microbiota-transplant-trials-that-account-for-differences-in-donor-stool-efficacy
#19
Scott W Olesen, Thomas Gurry, Eric J Alm
Fecal microbiota transplantation is a highly effective intervention for patients suffering from recurrent Clostridium difficile, a common hospital-acquired infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation's success as a therapy for C. difficile has inspired interest in performing clinical trials that experiment with fecal microbiota transplantation as a therapy for other conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease. Results from clinical trials that use fecal microbiota transplantation to treat inflammatory bowel disease suggest that, for at least one condition beyond C...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178770/interventions-to-improve-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-for-hospital-inpatients
#20
REVIEW
Peter Davey, Charis A Marwick, Claire L Scott, Esmita Charani, Kirsty McNeil, Erwin Brown, Ian M Gould, Craig R Ramsay, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a major public health problem. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are associated with prolonged hospital stay and death compared with infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Appropriate antibiotic use in hospitals should ensure effective treatment of patients with infection and reduce unnecessary prescriptions. We updated this systematic review to evaluate the impact of interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing to hospital inpatients...
February 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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