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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677680/transcriptomic-identification-of-salt-related-genes-and-de-novo-assembly-in-common-buckwheat-f-esculentum
#1
Qi-Huan Lu, Ya-Qi Wang, Jin-Nan Song, Hong-Bing Yang
Common buckwheat (F. esculentum), annually herbaceous crop, is prevalent in people's daily life with the increasing development of economics. Compared with wheat, it is highly praised with high content of rutin and flavonoid. Common buckwheat is recognized as healthy food with good taste, and the product price of which such as noodles, flour, bread and so on are higher than wheat, and the seeds of which are bigger than that of tartary buckwheat, so if common buckwheat are planted more widely, people will spend less money on this healthy and delicious food...
April 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677196/catechol-o-methyltransferase-moderates-effect-of-stress-mindset-on-affect-and-cognition
#2
Alia J Crum, Modupe Akinola, Bradley P Turnwald, Ted J Kaptchuk, Kathryn T Hall
There is evidence that altering stress mindset-the belief that stress is enhancing vs. debilitating-can change cognitive, affective and physiological responses to stress. However individual differences in responsiveness to stress mindset manipulations have not been explored. Given the previously established role of catecholamines in both placebo effects and stress, we hypothesized that genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, would moderate responses to an intervention intended to alter participants' mindsets about stress...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676995/physical-decline-and-survival-in-the-elderly-are-affected-by-the-genetic-variability-of-amino-acid-transporter-genes
#3
Paolina Crocco, Eneida Hoxha, Serena Dato, Francesco De Rango, Alberto Montesanto, Giuseppina Rose, Giuseppe Passarino
Amino acid (AA) availability is a rate-limiting factor in the regulation of muscle protein metabolism and, consequently, a risk factor for age-related decline in muscle performance. AA transporters are emerging as sensors of AA availability and activators of mTORC1 signalling, acting as transceptors. Here, we evaluated the association of 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 selected AA transporter genes with parameters of physical performance (Hand Grip, Activity of Daily Living, Walking time). By analysing a sample of 475 subjects aged 50-89 years, we found significant associations with SLC7A5 /LAT1, SLC7A8 /LAT2, SLC36A1 /PAT1, SLC38A2 /SNAT2, SLC3A2 /CD98, SLC38A7 /SNAT7 genes...
April 18, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676541/primary-cilia-as-a-signaling-platform-for-control-of-energy-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Do Kyeong Song, Jong Han Choi, Min Seon Kim
Obesity has become a common healthcare problem worldwide. Cilia are tiny hair-like organelles on the cell surface that are generated and anchored by the basal body. Non-motile primary cilia have been considered to be evolutionary rudiments until a few decades, but they are now considered as important signaling organelles because many receptors, channels, and signaling molecules are highly expressed in primary cilia. A potential role of primary cilia in metabolic regulation and body weight maintenance has been suspected based on rare genetic disorders termed as ciliopathy, such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Alström syndrome, which manifest as obesity...
April 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676235/current-and-promising-therapies-in-autosomal-recessive-ataxias
#5
Vincent Picher-Martel, Nicolas Dupre
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Ataxia is clinically characterized by unsteady gait and imbalance. Cerebellar disorders may arise from many causes such as metabolic diseases, stroke or genetic mutations. The genetic causes are classified by mode of inheritance and include autosomal dominant, X-linked and autosomal recessive ataxias. Many years have passed since the description of Friedreich's ataxia, the most common autosomal recessive ataxia, and mutations in many other genes have now been described...
April 18, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675777/inhibition-of-p16-ink4a-to-rejuvenate-aging-human-cardiac-progenitor-cells-via-the-upregulation-of-anti-oxidant-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-pathways
#6
Roshni V Khatiwala, Shuning Zhang, Xiuchun Li, Neil Devejian, Edward Bennett, Chuanxi Cai
Autologous human cardiac stem/progenitor cell (hCPC) therapy is a promising treatment that has come into use in recent years for patients with cardiomyopathy. Though innovative in theory, a major hindrance to the practical application of this treatment is that the hCPCs of elderly patients, who are most susceptible to myocardial disease, are senescent and prone to cell death. Rejuvenating hCPCs from elderly patients may help overcome this obstacle, and can be accomplished by reversing entry into the cellular stage of senescence...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675615/a-modular-approach-for-high-flux-lactic-acid-production-from-methane-in-an-industrial-medium-using-engineered-methylomicrobium-buryatense-5gb1
#7
Shivani Garg, James M Clomburg, Ramon Gonzalez
Convergence of market drivers such as abundant availability of inexpensive natural gas and increasing awareness of its global warming effects have created new opportunities for the development of small-scale gas-to-liquid (GTL) conversion technologies that can efficiently utilize methane, the primary component of natural gas. Leveraging the unique ability of methanotrophs that use methane as carbon and energy source, biological GTL platforms can be envisioned that are readily deployable at remote petroleum drilling sites where large chemical GTL infrastructure is uneconomical to set-up...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675448/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-activation-by-pharmacologic-inhibition-of-the-organic-solute-transporter-%C3%AE-%C3%AE
#8
Sandra M W van de Wiel, D Rudi de Waart, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Stan F J van de Graaf
Background & Aims: The organic solute transporter α-β (OSTα-OSTβ) mainly facilitates transport of bile acids across the basolateral membrane of ileal enterocytes. Therefore, inhibition of OSTα-OSTβ might have similar beneficial metabolic effects as intestine-specific agonists of the major nuclear receptor for bile acids, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). However, no OSTα-OSTβ inhibitors have yet been identified. Methods: Here, we developed a screen to identify specific inhibitors of OSTα-OSTβ using a genetically encoded Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-bile acid sensor that enables rapid visualization of bile acid efflux in living cells...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675043/cardiovascular-risk-factors-after-childhood-cancer-treatment-are-independent-of-the-fto-gene-polymorphism
#9
Małgorzata Sawicka-Żukowska, Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak, Paweł Bernatowicz, Katarzyna Muszyńska-Rosłan, Jerzy Konstantynowicz, Włodzimierz Łuczyński
The study objective was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients treated for childhood cancer ( N = 101) and to determine the involvement of clinical (cancer type and therapy) and/or genetic ( FTO gene rs9939609 polymorphism) factors. Anthropometric features, laboratory findings, and standardized osteodensitometric indices (fat and lean mass) were considered. Overweight/obesity was found in 17.82% of the patients; however, central adiposity was found in as many as 42.5%. At least one abnormality in lipid metabolism was observed in 35...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675042/genetic-variability-in-eif2-%C3%AE-gene-is-associated-with-islet-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-the-development-of-diabetes-in-a-chinese-han-population
#10
Nan Gu, Xiaowei Ma, Jianwei Zhang, Mengmeng Jin, Nan Feng, Ruifen Deng, Ge Bai, Hong Zhang, Xiaohui Guo
Aims: Protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha ( eIF2α ) pathway mutations lead to failure of β -cell function. The aim of this article was to assess the association between eIF2α and the risk of glucose metabolism abnormalities. Methods: Two eIF2α SNPs (rs9840992 T>C and rs13072593 A>G) were selected based on CHB data from HapMap, and 1466 unrelated nondiabetes individuals were genotyped...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675017/-de-novo-fatty-acid-synthesis-during-mycobacterial-infection-is-a-prerequisite-for-the-function-of-highly-proliferative-t-cells-but-not-for-dendritic-cells-or-macrophages
#11
Philipp Stüve, Lucía Minarrieta, Hanna Erdmann, Catharina Arnold-Schrauf, Maxine Swallow, Melanie Guderian, Freyja Krull, Alexandra Hölscher, Peyman Ghorbani, Jochen Behrends, Wolf-Rainer Abraham, Christoph Hölscher, Tim D Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), the causative agent of human tuberculosis, is able to efficiently manipulate the host immune system establishing chronic infection, yet the underlying mechanisms of immune evasion are not fully understood. Evidence suggests that this pathogen interferes with host cell lipid metabolism to ensure its persistence. Fatty acid metabolism is regulated by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 and 2; both isoforms catalyze the conversion of acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA, but have distinct roles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674968/peripherally-administered-y-2-receptor-antagonist-biie0246-prevents-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-with-excess-neuropeptide-y-but-enhances-obesity-in-control-mice
#12
Liisa Ailanen, Laura H Vähätalo, Henriikka Salomäki-Myftari, Satu Mäkelä, Wendy Orpana, Suvi T Ruohonen, Eriika Savontaus
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in the level of central and sympathetic nervous systems (SNSs). Genetic silencing of peripheral Y2 -receptors have anti-obesity effects, but it is not known whether pharmacological blocking of peripheral Y2 -receptors would similarly benefit energy homeostasis. The effects of a peripherally administered Y2 -receptor antagonist were studied in healthy and energy-rich conditions with or without excess NPY. Genetically obese mice overexpressing NPY in brain noradrenergic nerves and SNS (OE-NPYDβH ) represented the situation of elevated NPY levels, while wildtype (WT) mice represented the normal NPY levels...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674966/frequency-of-cyp2d6-alleles-including-structural-variants-in-the-united-states
#13
Andria L Del Tredici, Alka Malhotra, Matthew Dedek, Frank Espin, Dan Roach, Guang-Dan Zhu, Joseph Voland, Tanya A Moreno
The CYP2D6 gene encodes an enzyme important in the metabolism of many commonly used medications. Variation in CYP2D6 is associated with inter-individual differences in medication response, and genetic testing is used to optimize medication therapy. This report describes a retrospective study of CYP2D6 allele frequencies in a large population of 104,509 de-identified patient samples across all regions of the United States (US). Thirty-seven unique CYP2D6 alleles including structural variants were identified...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674613/risk-factors-and-disease-mechanisms-in-myositis
#14
REVIEW
Frederick W Miller, Janine A Lamb, Jens Schmidt, Kanneboyina Nagaraju
Autoimmune diseases develop as a result of chronic inflammation owing to interactions between genes and the environment. However, the mechanisms by which autoimmune diseases evolve remain poorly understood. Newly discovered risk factors and pathogenic processes in the various idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) phenotypes (known collectively as myositis) have illuminated innovative approaches for understanding these diseases. The HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype is a key risk factor for major IIM phenotypes in some populations, and several genetic variants associated with other autoimmune diseases have been identified as IIM risk factors...
April 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674279/association-of-melatonin-mtnr1b-variants-with-type-2-diabetes-in-gujarat-population
#15
Roma Patel, Nirali Rathwa, Sayantani Pramanik Palit, A V Ramachandran, Rasheedunnisa Begum
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Melatonin is a circadian rhythm regulator and any imbalance in its levels can be related to various metabolic disorders. Melatonin and the genetic variants of Melatonin Receptor 1B (MTNR1B) are reported to be associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate i) plasma melatonin levels ii) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of MTNR1B and iii) Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis in T2D patients. METHODS: Plasma and PBMCs were separated from venous blood of 478 diabetes patients and 502 controls...
April 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674003/tanshinone-iia-suppresses-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-mediated-mast-cell-signaling-and-anaphylaxis-by-activation-of-the-sirt1-lkb1-ampk-pathway
#16
Xian Li, Soon Jin Park, Fansi Jin, Yifeng Deng, Ju Hye Yang, Jae-Hoon Chang, Dong-Young Kim, Jung-Ae Kim, Youn Ju Lee, Makoto Murakami, Kun Ho Son, Hyeun Wook Chang
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its upstream mediators liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) are generally known as key regulators of metabolism. We have recently reported that the AMPK pathway negatively regulates mast cell activation and anaphylaxis. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract that is currently used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, shows anti-diabetic activity and improves insulin resistance in db/db mice through activation of AMPK...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673926/the-investigations-of-genetic-determinants-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Behdokht Fathi Dizaji
Metabolic syndrome is the aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Family and twin studies, heritability spectrum for its components and different prevalence among ethnicities, have provided genetic susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome. The investigations of genetic base for the disorder have recognized numerous chromosomes, various DNA polymorphisms in candidate genes and many gene variants, that are associated with metabolic syndrome as an entity or its traits, which mostly are related to lipid metabolism...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673860/the-endogenous-circadian-clock-programs-animals-to-eat-at-certain-times-of-the-24-hour-day-what-if-we-ignore-the-clock
#18
Peng Jiang, Fred W Turek
The discovery of the molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian clock, which functions in virtually every cell throughout the body to coordinate biological processes to anticipate and better adapt to daily rhythmic changes in the environment, is one of the major biomedical breakthroughs in the 20th century. Twenty years after this breakthrough, the biomedical community is now at a new frontier to incorporate the circadian clock mechanisms into many areas of biomedical research, as studies continue to reveal an important role of the circadian clock in a wide range of biological functions and diseases...
April 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673582/in-silico-prediction-of-the-pathogenic-effect-of-a-novel-variant-of-bckdha-leading-to-classical-maple-syrup-urine-disease-identified-using-clinical-exome-sequencing
#19
Cynthia Fernández-Lainez, Carmen Aláez-Verson, Isabel Ibarra-González, Sergio Enríquez-Flores, Karol Carrillo-Sanchez, Leonardo Flores-Lagunes, Sara Guillén-López, Leticia Belmont-Martínez, Marcela Vela-Amieva
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations in three of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) genes. Classical MSUD symptom can be observed immediately after birth and include ketoacidosis, irritability, lethargy, and coma, which can lead to death or irreversible neurodevelopmental delay in survivors. The molecular diagnosis of MSUD can be time-consuming and difficult to establish using conventional Sanger sequencing because it could be due to pathogenic variants of any of the BCKDC genes...
April 16, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673576/the-role-of-genetic-variation-of-human-metabolism-for-bmi-mental-traits-and-mental-disorders
#20
Johannes Hebebrand, Triinu Peters, Dick Schijven, Moritz Hebebrand, Corinna Grasemann, Thomas W Winkler, Iris M Heid, Jochen Antel, Manuel Föcker, Lisa Tegeler, Lena Brauner, Roger A H Adan, Jurjen J Luykx, Christoph U Correll, Inke R König, Anke Hinney, Lars Libuda
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether loci associated with metabolic traits also have a significant role in BMI and mental traits/disorders METHODS: We first assessed the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with genome-wide significance for human metabolism (NHGRI-EBI Catalog). These 516 SNPs (216 independent loci) were looked-up in genome-wide association studies for association with body mass index (BMI) and the mental traits/disorders educational attainment, neuroticism, schizophrenia, well-being, anxiety, depressive symptoms, major depressive disorder, autism-spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, bipolar disorder, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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