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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823102/the-etiology-of-primary-hyperhidrosis-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Moshe Hashmonai, Alan E P Cameron, Cliff P Connery, Noel Perin, Peter B Licht
PURPOSE: Primary hyperhidrosis is a pathological disorder of unknown etiology, affecting 0.6-5% of the population, and causing severe functional and social handicaps. As the etiology is unknown, it is not possible to treat the root cause. Recently some differences between affected and non-affected people have been reported. The aim of this review is to summarize these new etiological data. METHODS: Search of the literature was performed in the PubMed/Medline Database and pertinent articles were retrieved and reviewed...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823016/de-novo-synthesis-of-linoleic-acid-in-multiple-collembola-species
#2
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822941/selenium-status-during-pregnancy-influential-factors-and-effects-on-neuropsychological-development-among-spanish-infants
#3
Rubén Amorós, Mario Murcia, Ferran Ballester, Karin Broberg, Carmen Iñiguez, Marisa Rebagliato, Helena Skröder, Llúcia González, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Sabrina Llop
Selenium (Se) has been positively associated with neurodevelopment in early life. However, its margin of safety is rather narrow, and few prospective studies have evaluated its potential neurotoxic effects at intermediate levels. We aimed to explore the association between maternal Se concentrations and child neuropsychological development, including the genetic effect modification of the Se metabolizing gene INMT. Study subjects were 650 mother-child pairs from the Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2005)...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822770/regulation-of-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-host-responses-to-the-microbiome
#4
Jobert G Barin, Monica V Talor, Nicola L Diny, SuFey Ong, Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth Gebremariam, Djahida Bedja, Guobao Chen, Hee Sun Choi, Xuezhou Hou, Lei Wu, Ashley B Cardamone, Daniel A Peterson, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
The extensive, diverse communities that constitute the microbiome are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of human health and disease through inflammatory, immune, and metabolic pathways. We sought to elucidate pathways by which microbiota contribute to inflammatory, autoimmune cardiac disease. We employed an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), which results in inflammatory and autoimmune pathophysiology and subsequent maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Antibiotic dysbiosis protected mice from EAM and fibrotic cardiac dysfunction...
August 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822752/comprehensive-analysis-of-tissue-wide-gene-expression-and-phenotype-data-reveals-tissues-affected-in-rare-genetic-disorders
#5
Ariel Feiglin, Bryce K Allen, Isaac S Kohane, Sek Won Kong
Linking putatively pathogenic variants to the tissues they affect is necessary for determining the correct diagnostic workup and therapeutic regime in undiagnosed patients. Here, we explored how gene expression across healthy tissues can be used to infer this link. We integrated 6,665 tissue-wide transcriptomes with genetic disorder knowledge bases covering 3,397 diseases. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis using expression levels in each tissue and across tissues indicated significant but modest associations between elevated expression and phenotype for most tissues (maximum area under ROC curve = 0...
August 14, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822130/exploiting-natural-variation-to-discover-candidate-genes-involved-in-photosynthesis-related-traits
#6
Franklin Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Lucas de Ávila Silva, Wagner L Araújo, Agustin Zsögön, Adriano Nunes-Nesi
Naturally occurring genetic variation in plants can be very useful to dissect the complex regulation of primary metabolism as well as of physiological traits such as photosynthesis and photorespiration. The physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying natural variation in closely related species or accessions may provide important information that can be used to improve crop yield. In this chapter we describe in detail the use of a population of introgression lines (ILs), with the Solanum pennellii IL population as a study case, as a tool for the identification of genomic regions involved in the control of photosynthetic efficiency...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822124/measurement-of-enzyme-activities
#7
Hermann Bauwe
The determination of enzyme activities in organ or organellar extracts is an important means of investigating metabolic networks and allows testing the success of enzyme-targeted genetic engineering. It also delivers information on intrinsic enzyme parameters such as kinetic properties or impact of effector molecules. This chapter provides protocols on how to assess activities of the enzymes of the core photorespiratory pathway, from 2-phosphoglycolate phosphatase to glycerate 3-kinase.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821885/the-expression-profiles-of-mirna-mrna-of-early-response-in-genetically-improved-farmed-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-liver-by-acute-heat-stress
#8
Jun Qiang, Wen J Bao, Fan Y Tao, Jie He, Xia H Li, Pao Xu, Lan Y Sun
Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) are commercially important fish that are cultured in China. GIFT are highly susceptible to diseases when exposed to high temperatures in summer. Better understanding the GIFT regulatory response to heat stress will not only help in determining the relationship between heat stress signalling pathways and adaption mechanisms, but will also contribute to breeding new high-temperature tolerant strains of GIFT. In this study, we built control (28 °C) and heat-treated (37...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821829/neuromodulatory-circuit-effects-on-drosophila-feeding-behaviour-and-metabolism
#9
Anders Eriksson, Marlena Raczkowska, Rapeechai Navawongse, Deepak Choudhury, James C Stewart, Yi Ling Tang, Zhiping Wang, Adam Claridge-Chang
Animals have evolved to maintain homeostasis in a changing external environment by adapting their internal metabolism and feeding behaviour. Metabolism and behaviour are coordinated by neuromodulation; a number of the implicated neuromodulatory systems are homologous between mammals and the vinegar fly, an important neurogenetic model. We investigated whether silencing fly neuromodulatory networks would elicit coordinated changes in feeding, behavioural activity and metabolism. We employed transgenic lines that allowed us to inhibit broad cellular sets of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, octopaminergic, tyraminergic and neuropeptide F systems...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820457/role-of-cyp2c9-cyp2c19-and-ephx-polymorphism-in-the-pharmacokinetic-of-phenytoin-a-study-on-uruguayan-caucasian-subjects
#10
Natalia Guevara, Cecilia Maldonado, Manuel Uría, Raquel González, Manuel Ibarra, Silvana Alvariza, Antonella Carozzi, Carlos Azambuja, Pietro Fagiolino, Marta Vázquez
Phenytoin (PHT) oxidative route leads to its main metabolite p-hydroxyphenytoin (p-HPPH), by means of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Formation of p-HPPH proceeds via a reactive arene-oxide intermediate. This intermediate can also be converted into PHT dihydrodiol by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX). The three enzymes are polymorphically expressed and the genetic variants are responsible for changes in the enzyme activity. In order to evaluate the effect that these polymorphisms have on PHT metabolism, PHT and p-HPPH plasma concentrations were measured and the genotype for the three enzymes was assessed in 50 Uruguayan epileptic patients...
August 18, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820331/polo-like-kinase-1-plk1-dependent-phosphorylation-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-mthfr-regulates-replication-via-histone-methylation
#11
Xueyan Li, Shanshan Nai, Yuehe Ding, Qizhi Geng, Bingtao Zhu, Kai Yu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Meng-Qiu Dong, Xiao-Dong Su, Xingzhi Xu, Jing Li
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme regulating the folate cycle and its genetic variations have been associated with various human diseases. Previously we identified that MTHFR is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) at T34 and MTHFR underlies heterochromatin maintenance marked by H3K9me3 levels. Herein we demonstrate that pT34 creates a binding motif that docks MTHFR to the polo-binding domain (PBD) of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a fundamental kinase that orchestrates many cell cycle events...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820269/reaction-phenotyping-to-assess-victim-drug-drug-interaction-risks
#12
Li Di
Reaction phenotyping provides critical information regarding the fraction metabolized (fm) of drug candidates. It has become increasingly important in drug discovery and development as it can be used to assess victim drug-drug interaction potential, guide structural modification to reduce fm, inform clinical study design, predict individual variability in pharmacokinetics, and evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms. Areas covered: The currently available in vitro and in vivo methods for reaction phenotyping are summarized along with their advantages, limitations and timings for application during the different stages of drug discovery and development...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820115/six-key-traits-of-fungi-their-evolutionary-origins-and-genetic-bases
#13
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819410/characterization-of-the-role-of-the-malate-dehydrogenases-to-lung-tumor-cell-survival
#14
Boxi Zhang, Johan Tornmalm, Jerker Widengren, Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Erik Norberg
Cellular compartmentalization of biochemical processes in eukaryotic cells is critical for many functions including shuttling of reducing equivalents across membranes. Although coordination of metabolic flux between different organelles is vital for cell physiology, its impact on tumor cell survival is not well understood. By using an integrative approach, we have dissected the role of the key metabolic enzymes Malate dehydrogenases (MDH1 and MDH2) to the survival of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinomas. Here, we report that while both the MDH1 (cytosolic) and the MDH2 (mitochondrial) enzymes display elevated levels in patients compared to normal counterparts, only high expression of MDH1 is associated with poor prognosis...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819228/convergent-and-divergent-genetic-changes-in-the-genome-of-chinese-and-european-pigs
#15
Jing Wang, Huiying Zou, Lei Chen, Xi Long, Jing Lan, Wenjie Liu, Li Ma, Chao Wang, Xinyu Xu, Liming Ren, Zhenglong Gu, Ning Li, Xiaoxiang Hu, Yaofeng Zhao, Yiqiang Zhao
Since 10,000 BC, continuous human selection has led to intense genetic and phenotypic changes in pig (Sus scrofa) domestication. Through whole genome analysis of 257 individuals, we demonstrated artificial unidirectional and bidirectional selection as the primary force to shape the convergent and divergent changes between Chinese domestic pigs (CHD) and European domestic pigs (EUD). We identified 31 genes in unidirectional selection regions that might be related to fundamental domestication requirements in pigs...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819169/cd206-m2-like-macrophages-regulate-systemic-glucose-metabolism-by-inhibiting-proliferation-of-adipocyte-progenitors
#16
Allah Nawaz, Aminuddin Aminuddin, Tomonobu Kado, Akiko Takikawa, Seiji Yamamoto, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yoshiko Igarashi, Masashi Ikutani, Yasuhiro Nishida, Yoshinori Nagai, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Johji Imura, Masakiyo Sasahara, Yukiko Okazaki, Kohjiro Ueki, Tadashi Okamura, Kumpei Tokuyama, Akira Ando, Michihiro Matsumoto, Hisashi Mori, Takashi Nakagawa, Norihiko Kobayashi, Kumiko Saeki, Isao Usui, Shiho Fujisaka, Kazuyuki Tobe
Adipose tissue resident macrophages have important roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and regulate insulin sensitivity for example by secreting pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that M2-like macrophages in adipose tissue regulate systemic glucose homeostasis by inhibiting adipocyte progenitor proliferation via the CD206/TGFβ signaling pathway. We show that adipose tissue CD206(+) cells are primarily M2-like macrophages, and ablation of CD206(+) M2-like macrophages improves systemic insulin sensitivity, which was associated with an increased number of smaller adipocytes...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819071/genetic-and-non-genetic-factors-associated-with-protein-abundance-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-in-human-liver
#17
Meijuan Xu, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Catherine K Yeung, Katrina G Claw, Amarjit S Chaudhry, Andrea Gaedigk, Robin E Pearce, Ulrich Broeckel, Roger Gaedigk, Debbie Nickerson, Erin Schuetz, Allan E Rettie, Steven Leeder, Kenneth E Thummel, Bhagwat Prasad
Hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) metabolizes a broad array of nucleophilic heteroatom (e.g., N or S)-containing xenobiotics (e.g., amphetamine, sulindac, benzydamine, ranitidine, tamoxifen, nicotine, and ethioniamide), as well as endogenous compounds (e.g., catecholamine and trimethylamine). To predict the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on the hepatic metabolism of FMO3 substrates, we quantified FMO3 protein abundance in human liver microsomes (HLM; n=445) by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Genotyping/gene-resequencing, mRNA expression, and functional activity (with benzydamine as a probe substrate) of FMO3 were also performed...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818857/modeling-inborn-errors-of-hepatic-metabolism-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Behshad Pournasr, Stephen A Duncan
Inborn errors of hepatic metabolism are because of deficiencies commonly within a single enzyme as a consequence of heritable mutations in the genome. Individually such diseases are rare, but collectively they are common. Advances in genome-wide association studies and DNA sequencing have helped researchers identify the underlying genetic basis of such diseases. Unfortunately, cellular and animal models that accurately recapitulate these inborn errors of hepatic metabolism in the laboratory have been lacking...
August 17, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818587/phenanthrene-responsive-micrornas-and-their-targets-in-wheat-roots
#19
Jinfeng Li, Le Yue, Yu Shen, Yu Sheng, Xinhua Zhan, Guohua Xu, Baoshan Xing
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stress. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. However, it is yet unknown how miRNAs work during PAH uptake by plant roots. Thus, in this study we ascertain phenanthrene (a model PAH)-responsive miRNAs using small RNA high-throughput deep sequencing and their target genes in wheat roots. We identified 108 conserved and non-conserved miRNA members belonging to 82 miRNA families and found 11 differentially expressed miRNAs, among which four miRNAs (miR156, miR164, miR171a and miR9678-3p) were up-regulated and the other seven miRNAs (miR398, miR531, miR1121, miR5048-5p, miR9653b, miR9773 and miR9778) were down-regulated...
August 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818373/depressed-expression-of-fae1-and-fad2-genes-modifies-fatty-acid-profiles-and-storage-compounds-accumulation-in-brassica-napus-seeds
#20
Jianghua Shi, Chunxiu Lang, Fulin Wang, Xuelong Wu, Renhu Liu, Tao Zheng, Dongqing Zhang, Jinqing Chen, Guanting Wu
In plants, the enzymes fatty acid dehydrogenase 2 (FAD2) and fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) have been shown in previous studies to play important roles in the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids. However, the effects of depressed expression of FAD2 and FAE1 on seed storage compounds accumulation remains to be elucidated. In this study, we produced RNA interfering transgenic rapeseeds lines, BnFAD2-Ri, BnFAE1-Ri and BnFAD2/BnFAE1-Ri, which exhibited depressed expression of the BnFAD2 and BnFAE1 genes under the control of seed-specific napin A promoter...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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