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Extracellular matric

Wei-Dong Lü, Rui-Fang Sun, Ye-Rong Hu, Jan-Rong Lu, Lu Gu, Zhi-Gang Liu, Guang-Yan Lei, Zhun Qiang, Lin Cai
Acellular tumor extracellular matrices (ECMs) have limitations when employed as three-dimensional scaffolds for tumor engineering. In this work, methylene blue-mediated photooxidation was used to crosslink acellular tumor ECMs. Photooxidative crosslinking greatly increased the stiffness of acellular tumor ECM scaffolds but barely altered the Amide III band of the secondary structure of polypeptides and proteins. MCF-7, HepG2 and A549 cells cultured on photooxidatively crosslinked acellular tumor ECM scaffolds exhibited greater cell number per scaffold, more IL-8 and VEGF secretion, and increase migration and invasion abilities than cells cultured on uncrosslinked acellular tumor ECM scaffolds...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Lisa A Sawicki, Leila H Choe, Katherine L Wiley, Kelvin H Lee, April M Kloxin
Cells interact with and remodel their microenvironment, degrading large extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g., fibronectin, collagens) and secreting new ECM proteins and small soluble factors (e.g., growth factors, cytokines). Synthetic mimics of the ECM have been developed as controlled cell culture platforms for use in both fundamental and applied studies. However, how cells broadly remodel these initially well-defined matrices remains poorly understood and difficult to probe. In this work, we have established methods for widely examining both large and small proteins that are secreted by cells within synthetic matrices...
March 12, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Audrey M Bernstein, Robert Ritch, J Mario Wolosin
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disease involving the deposition of aggregated fibrillar material (XFM) at extracellular matrices in tissues that synthesize elastic fibers. Its main morbidity is in the eye, where XFM accumulations form on the surface of the ciliary body, iris and lens. Exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occurs in a high proportion of persons with XFS and can be a rapidly progressing disease. Worldwide, XFG accounts for about 25% of open-angle glaucoma cases. XFS and XFG show a sharp age-dependence, similarly to the many age-related diseases classified as aggregopathies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Mateusz M Urbanski, Carmen V Melendez-Vasquez
Extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity may direct cellular differentiation and can be modeled in vitro using synthetic ECM-like substrates with defined elastic properties. However, the effectiveness of such approaches depends on the selection of a range of elasticity and ECM ligands that accurately model the relevant tissue. Here, we present a cell culture system than can be used to study Schwann cell differentiation on substrates which model the changes in mechanical ECM properties that occur during sciatic nerve development...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Carla Ribeiro, João Borges, Ana M S Costa, Vítor M Gaspar, Verónica de Zea Bermudez, João F Mano
Hollow multilayered capsules have shown massive potential for being used in the biomedical and biotechnology fields, in applications such as cellular internalization, intracellular trafficking, drug delivery, or tissue engineering. In particular, hollow microcapsules, developed by resorting to porous calcium carbonate sacrificial templates, natural-origin building blocks and the prominent Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology, have attracted increasing attention owing to their key features. However, these microcapsules revealed a great tendency to aggregate, which represents a major hurdle when aiming for cellular internalization and intracellular therapeutics delivery...
March 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hyun Ju Lim, Zara Khan, Xi Lu, T Hiran Perera, Thomas S Wilems, Krishna T Ravivarapu, Laura A Smith Callahan
Balancing enhancement of neurite extension against loss of matrix support in synthetic hydrogels containing proteolytically degradable and bioactive signaling peptides to optimize tissue formation is difficult. Using a systematic approach, polyethylene glycol hydrogels containing concurrent continuous concentration gradients of the laminin derived bioactive signaling peptide, Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val (IKVAV), and collagen derived matrix metalloprotease degradable peptide, GPQGIWGQ, were fabricated and characterized...
March 8, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
VijayKrishna Raghunathan, Julia Benoit, Ramesh Kasetti, Gulab Zode, Michelle Salemi, Brett S Phinney, Kate E Keller, Julia A Staverosky, Christopher J Murphy, Ted Acott, Janice Vranka
Ocular hypertension is a causal risk-factor to developing glaucoma. This is associated with stiffening of the trabecular meshwork (TM), the primary site of resistance to aqueous-humor-outflow. The mechanisms underlying this stiffening or how pathologic extracellular matrix (ECM) affects cell function are poorly understood. It is recognized that mechanotransduction systems allow cells to sense and translate the intrinsic biophysical properties of ECM into intracellular signals to control gene transcription, protein expression, and cell behavior...
March 7, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Naing T Thet, Laura Wallace, Anne Wibaux, Nick Boote, A Toby A Jenkins
It is becoming increasingly accepted that to understand and model the bacterial colonization and infection of abiotic surfaces requires the use of a biofilm model. There are many bacterial colonizations by at least two primary species, however this is difficult to model in vitro. This study reports the development of a simple mixed-species biofilm model using strains of two clinically significant bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown on nanoporous polycarbonate membranes on nutrient agar support...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Tarunkumar Hemraj Madne, Mark Edward Carl Dockrell
The interactions of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with cells strongly regulate cell behaviour. The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a dynamic structure made up of protein secreted by endothelial cells and podocyte. These proteins could regulate the behaviour of these cells in health and diseases. Extra Domain A + Fn (EDA+Fn) is an alternatively spliced form of Fibronectin (Fn) recently identified in GBM and a recognised marker of various pathologies. In this study for the first time, we have investigated the responses of human podocytes cultured on different composition of GBM proteins which are cellular Fn (EDA+), plasma Fn (EDA-) and collagen IV...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Konstantina Karamanou, Gwenn Perrot, Francois-Xavier Maquart, Stéphane Brézillon
Wound healing, a complex physiological process, is responsible for tissue repair after exposure to destructive stimuli, without resulting in complete functional regeneration. Injuries can be stromal or epithelial, and most cases of wound repair have been studied in the skin and cornea. Lumican, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, is expressed in the extracellular matrices of several tissues, such as the cornea, cartilage, and skin. This molecule has been shown to regulate collagen fibrillogenesis, keratinocyte phenotypes, and corneal transparency modulation...
March 1, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Elizabeth S Silagi, Irving M Shapiro, Makarand V Risbud
Few human tissues have functions as closely linked to the composition of their extracellular matrices as the intervertebral disc. In fact, the hallmark of intervertebral disc degeneration, commonly accompanying low back and neck pain, is the progressive loss of extracellular matrix molecules - specifically the GAG-substituted proteoglycans. While this loss is often associated with increased extracellular catabolism via metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory cytokines, there is strong evidence that disc degeneration is related to dysregulation of the enzymes involved in GAG biosynthesis...
March 1, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Udi Sarig, Hadar Sarig, Aleksander Gora, Muthu Kumar Krishnamoorthi, Gigi Chi Ting Au-Yeung, Elio de-Berardinis, Su Yin Chaw, Priyadarshini Mhaisalkar, Hanumakumar Bogireddi, Seeram Ramakrishna, Freddy Yin Chiang Boey, Subbu S Venkatraman, Marcelle Machluf
Tissue development, regeneration, or de-novo tissue engineering in-vitro, are based on reciprocal cell-niche interactions. Early tissue formation mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown given complex in-vivo multifactoriality, and limited tools to effectively characterize and correlate specific micro-scaled bio-mechanical interplay. We developed a unique model system, based on decellularized porcine cardiac extracellular matrices (pcECMs)-as representative natural soft-tissue biomaterial-to study a spectrum of common cell-niche interactions...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura E Niklason
The extracellular matrix is a biologically critical entity that has historically been poorly understood. Here we discuss how new tools for characterizing matrix composition and function enable us to design and deliver advanced matrices in vitro, to optimize regeneration, and in vivo, within a variety of tissues and organs.
March 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Marco Cantini, Karina Gomide, Vladimira Moulisova, Cristina González-García, Manuel Salmerón-Sánchez
Surface functionalization strategies of synthetic materials for regenerative medicine applications comprise the development of microenvironments that recapitulate the physical and biochemical cues of physiological extracellular matrices. In this context, material-driven fibronectin (FN) nanonetworks obtained from the adsorption of the protein on poly(ethyl acrylate) provide a robust system to control cell behavior, particularly to enhance differentiation. This study aims at augmenting the complexity of these fibrillar matrices by introducing vitronectin, a lower-molecular-weight multifunctional glycoprotein and main adhesive component of serum...
September 2017: Advanced Biosystems
Xiangyu Gong, Kristen L Mills
Biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are known to play a significant role in cell behavior. To gain a better understanding of the effects of the biophysical microenvironment on cell behavior, the practical challenge is longitudinally monitoring behavioral variations within a population to make statistically powerful assessments. Population-level measurements mask heterogeneity in cell responses, and large-scale individual cell measurements are often performed in a one-time, snapshot manner after removing cells from their matrix...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Cóndor, T Rüberg, C Borau, J Piles, J M García-Aznar
Advances in microfabrication have allowed the development and popularization of microfluidic devices, which are powerful tools to recreate three-dimensional (3-D) biologically relevant in vitro models. These microenvironments are usually generated by using hydrogels and induced chemical gradients. Going further, computational models enable, after validation, the simulation of such conditions without the necessity of real experiments, thus saving costs and time. In this work we present a web-based application that allows, based on a previous numerical model, the assessment of different chemical gradients induced within a 3-D extracellular matrix...
February 6, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Kevin Suffoletto, Deekshitha Jetta, Susan Z Hua
Collective cell movement is critical in pathological processes such as wound healing and cancer invasion. It entails complex interactions between adjacent cells and between cells-extracellular matrices. Most studies measure the migration patterns and force propagation by placing cells on flat, patterned substrates. The cooperative behavior resulting from cell-cell interactions is not well understood. We have developed a multi-channel microfluidic device that has junctional protein E-cadherin coated onto the sidewalls of the channels that enables the cells' lateral interactions with their neighbors to be studied...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Michael J Landry, Frederic-Guillaume Rollet, Timothy E Kennedy, Christopher J Barrett
Growing primary cells and tissue in long-term cultures, such as primary neural cell culture, presents many challenges. A critical component of any environment that supports neural cell growth in vivo is an appropriate 2-D surface or 3-D scaffold, typically in the form of a thin polymer layer that coats an underlying plastic or glass substrate and aims to mimic critical aspects of extracellular matrix. A fundamental challenge to mimicking a hydrophilic, soft natural cell environment is that materials with these properties are typically fragile, and difficult to adhere and stabilize on an underlying plastic or glass cell culture substrate...
February 26, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jonas C Rose, David B Gehlen, Tamás Haraszti, Jens Köhler, Christopher J Licht, Laura De Laporte
Natural healing is based on highly orchestrated processes, in which the extracellular matrix plays a key role. To resemble the native cell environment, we introduce an artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) with the capability to template hierarchical and anisotropic structures in situ, allowing a minimally-invasive application via injection. Synthetic, magnetically responsive, rod-shaped microgels are locally aligned and fixed by a biocompatible surrounding hydrogel, creating a hybrid anisotropic hydrogel (Anisogel), of which the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties can be tailored...
February 9, 2018: Biomaterials
Bianca N Lourenço, Nora L Springer, Daniel Ferreira, Carla Oliveira, Pedro L Granja, Claudia Fischbach
CD44, an abundantly expressed adhesion molecule, and its alternative splice variants have been associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. In the context of gastric cancer (GC), de novo expression of CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6) is found in more than 60% of GCs, but its role in the pathogenesis and progression of this type of cancer remains unclear. Using a combination of media conditioning experiments and decellularized extracellular matrices (ECMs), this study investigates the hypothesis that CD44v6 overexpression enhances tumor cell malignant behavior by modulating stromal cell-mediated ECM remodeling...
February 16, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
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