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Extracellular matric

Xiao-Hua Qin, Xiaopu Wang, Markus Rottmar, Bradley J Nelson, Katharina Maniura-Weber
Advanced hydrogel systems that allow precise control of cells and their 3D microenvironments are needed in tissue engineering, disease modeling, and drug screening. Multiphoton lithography (MPL) allows true 3D microfabrication of complex objects, but its biological application requires a cell-compatible hydrogel resist that is sufficiently photosensitive, cell-degradable, and permissive to support 3D cell growth. Here, an extremely photosensitive cell-responsive hydrogel composed of peptide-crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is designed to expand the biological applications of MPL...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Kisha A Scarlett, ElShaddai Z White, Christopher J Coke, Jada R Carter, Latoya K Bryant, Cimona V Hinton
G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) heterodimerization has emerged as a means by which alternative signaling entities can be created; yet, how receptor heterodimers affect receptor pharmacology remains unknown. Previous observations suggested a biochemical antagonism between GPCRs, CXCR4 and CB2 (CNR2), where agonist-bound CXCR4 and agonist-bound CB2 formed a physiologically non-functional heterodimer on the membrane of cancer cells, inhibiting their metastatic potential in vitro. However, the reduced signaling entities responsible for the observed functional outputs remain elusive...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Camille L Duran, Colette A Abbey, Kayla J Bayless
STUDY QUESTION: Can primary human uterine microvascular endothelial cells (UtMVECs) be used as a model to study uterine angiogenic responses in vitro that are relevant in pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: UtMVECs demonstrated angiogenic responses when stimulated with proangiogenic factors, including sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), physiological levels of wall shear stress (WSS), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and various combinations of estrogen and progesterone...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
Christian Eichler, Carolin Schulz, Nadine Vogt, Mathias Warm
The use of acellular dermal matrices (ADM), sometimes referred to as extracellular matrix (ECM), has become an interesting aspect of breast reconstruction. A great deal of literature is available, totaling over 7000 ADM-based reconstructions. Most often, ADMs are used in a skin sparing mastectomy (SSM) scenario, although heterologous breast augmentation with a sub-pectoral fixation may also require an ADM application. Their use has become an attractive, but expensive option. Available data shows head to head comparisons between individual ADMs to be mostly retrospective in nature with only a few prospective trials available...
December 22, 2017: Surgical Technology International
Zong-Kun Chang, Fang-Gang Meng, Zhi-Qi Zhang, Gu-Ping Mao, Zhi-Yu Huang, Wei-Ming Liao, Ai-Shan He
Micro(mi)RNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules known to play a significant role in osteoarthritis (OA) initiation and development, and similar to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), they participate in cartilage degeneration and cleave multiple extracellular matrices. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of MMP-19 in interleukin (IL)-1β-induced human chondrocytes is directly regulated by miR-193b-3p. Expression levels of miR-193b-3p and MMP-19 in normal and osteoarthritis (OA) human cartilage, and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β)-induced human chondrocytes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Penelope J Kallis, Adam J Friedman, Hadar Lev-Tov
<p>Wounds that exhibit delayed healing have a tremendous impact on health care expenditures and place patients at serious risk for severe complications including death. The healing of a chronic wound requires the restoration of multiple factors that normally work in concert to repair the damaged skin barrier. Skin substitutes have shown great promise for use as adjunctive therapies for refractory wounds by providing cells, soluble mediators, and extracellular matrix materials needed to stimulate healing...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
María Ángeles Villaronga, Saúl Álvarez Teijeiro, Francisco Hermida-Prado, Marta Garzón-Arango, Victoria Sanz-Moreno, Juana María García-Pedrero
Tumor growth and progression is the result of a complex process controlled not only by malignant cancer cells but also by the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the most abundant cellular component of TME, play an active role in tumor invasion and metastasis by promoting cancer cell invasion through cell-cell interactions and secretion of pro-invasive factors such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading proteases. Due to their tumor-promoting activities, there is an emerging interest in investigating CAFs biology and its potential as drug targets for cancer therapies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Greg M Harris, Irene Raitman, Jean E Schwarzbauer
The ability to create cell-derived decellularized matrices in a dish gives researchers the opportunity to possess a bioactive, biocompatible material made up of fibrillar proteins and other factors that recapitulates key features of the native structure and composition of in vivo microenvironments. By using cells in a culture system to provide a natural ECM, decellularization allows for a high degree of customization through the introduction of selected proteins and soluble factors. The culture system, culture medium, cell types, and physical environments can be varied to provide specialized ECMs for wide-ranging applications to study cell-ECM signaling, cell migration, cell differentiation, and tissue engineering purposes...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
Annemarie K Leonard, Elizabeth A Loughran, Yuliya Klymenko, Yueying Liu, Oleg Kim, Marwa Asem, Kevin McAbee, Matthew J Ravosa, M Sharon Stack
This chapter highlights methods for visualization and analysis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, with particular emphasis on collagen type I, the most abundant protein in mammals. Protocols described range from advanced imaging of complex in vivo matrices to simple biochemical analysis of individual ECM proteins. The first section of this chapter describes common methods to image ECM components and includes protocols for second harmonic generation, scanning electron microscopy, and several histological methods of ECM localization and degradation analysis, including immunohistochemistry, Trichrome staining, and in situ zymography...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
Sean P Giblin, Devadarssen Murdamoothoo, Claire Deligne, Anja Schwenzer, Gertraud Orend, Kim S Midwood
The extracellular matrix molecule tenascin-C (TNC) was discovered over 30 years ago, and its tightly regulated pattern of expression since sparked keen interest in the scientific community. In adult tissues, TNC expression is restricted to specific niches and areas of active remodeling or high mechanical strain. However, while most healthy tissues contain little TNC, its transient expression upon cellular stress or tissue injury helps to mediate repair and restore homeostasis. Persistent expression of TNC is associated with chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer, where methods for its detection are emerging as a reliable means to predict disease onset, prognosis, and response to treatment...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
Bianca R Tomasini-Johansson, Deane F Mosher
Fibronectin (FN) is a plasma glycoprotein produced by hepatocytes that circulates at near micromolar concentration and assembles into extracellular matrix fibrils at cell surfaces along with locally produced cellular FN. We describe two microplate assays that quantify assembly of human FN by cells in monolayer culture. One assay measures fluorescence due to incorporation of ALEXA488-plasma FN into matrices of fibroblasts and has been used successfully in high-throughput screens. The other measures fluorescence due to binding of fluorochrome-labeled antibody to the EDA domain of cellular FN synthesized and deposited by various cell types...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
Renata Zuber, Michaela Norum, Yiwen Wang, Kathrin Oehl, Nicole Gehring, Davide Accardi, Slawomir Bartozsewski, Jürgen Berger, Matthias Flötenmeyer, Bernard Moussian
Lipids in extracellular matrices (ECM) contribute to barrier function and stability of epithelial tissues such as the pulmonary alveoli and the skin. In insects, skin waterproofness depends on the outermost layer of the extracellular cuticle termed envelope that contains cuticulin, an unidentified water-repellent complex molecule composed of proteins, lipids and catecholamines. Based on live-imaging analyses of fruit fly larvae, we find that initially envelope units are assembled within putative vesicles harbouring the ABC transporter Snu and the extracellular protein Snsl...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
Satomi Nadanaka, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitously expressed on cell surfaces and in extracellular matrices, and are engaged in heparin-binding growth factor-related signal transduction. Thus, changes in the amounts, structures, and chain lengths of heparan sulfate have profound effects on aspects of cell growth controlled by heparin-binding growth factors such as FGF2. Exostosin glycosyltransferases (EXT1, EXT2, EXTL1, EXTL2, and EXTL3) control heparan sulfate biosynthesis, and the expression levels of their genes regulate the amounts, chain lengths, and sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate...
January 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ali Farrokhi, Mohammadreza Pakyari, Layla Nabai, Amir Pourghadiri, Ryan Hartwell, Reza B Jalili, Aziz Ghahary
Acute and chronic wounds contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in affected people and impose significant financial burdens on healthcare systems. For these challenging wounds, Acellular Dermal Matrices (ADMs) have been used as a biological wound coverage. Unlike engineered dermal matrices, ADMs are prepared through the removal of cells from skin, while preserving the extracellular matrix structure and function. In this study, our primary objective was to develop a detergent-free method of decellularization of the skin to mitigate chemical stress on matrix molecules...
January 5, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Brad A Krajina, Carolina Tropini, Audrey Zhu, Philip DiGiacomo, Justin L Sonnenburg, Sarah C Heilshorn, Andrew J Spakowitz
The development of experimental techniques capable of probing the viscoelasticity of soft materials over a broad range of time scales is essential to uncovering the physics that governs their behavior. In this work, we develop a microrheology technique that requires only 12 μL of sample and is capable of resolving dynamic behavior ranging in time scales from 10-6 to 10 s. Our approach, based on dynamic light scattering in the single-scattering limit, enables the study of polymer gels and other soft materials over a vastly larger hierarchy of time scales than macrorheology measurements...
December 27, 2017: ACS Central Science
James Devon Tang, Kyle J Lampe
An active area of research in the field of regenerative medicine involves the development of bioactive matrices that can promote cellular interactions and elicit desirable regenerative behavior in vivo. This is particularly important in the context of ischemic stroke where a focal lesion forms preventing the regrowth of brain tissue. Protein-based molecules have been used as building blocks to create supramolecular structures that emulate the properties of the native healthy extracellular matrix (ECM) within the central nervous system (CNS)...
January 3, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Tung-Lin Yang, Pei-Ling Lee, Ding-Yu Lee, Wei-Li Wang, Shu-Yi Wei, Chih-I Lee, Jeng-Jiann Chiu
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis occurs in arterial curvatures and branches, where the flow is disturbed with low and oscillatory shear stress (OSS). The remodeling and alterations of extracellular matrices (ECMs) and their composition is the critical step in atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of different ECM proteins on the regulation of mechanotransduction in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in response to OSS. METHODS: Through the experiments ranging from in vitro cell culture studies on effects of OSS on molecular signaling to in vivo examinations on clinical specimens from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), we elucidated the roles of integrins and different ECMs, i...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Victor Balashov, Anton Efimov, Olga Agapova, Alexander Pogorelov, Igor Agapov, Konstantin Agladze
Building functional and robust scaffolds for engineered biological tissue requires a nanoscale mechanistic understanding of how cells use the scaffold for their growth and development. A vast majority of the scaffolds used for cardiac tissue engineering are based on polymer materials, the matrices of nanofibers. Attempts to load the polymer fibers of the scaffold with additional sophisticated features, such as electrical conductivity and controlled release of the growth factors or other biologically active molecules, as well as trying to match the mechanical features of the scaffold to those of the extracellular matrix, cannot be efficient without a detailed knowledge of how the cells are attached and strategically positioned with respect to the scaffold nanofibers at micro and nanolevel...
December 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Chun Liu, Tao Li, Zhijian Yang, Deshuai Liu, Yun Li, Zhiyou Zhou, Qiqing Zhang
Articular cartilage has poor capability of regeneration due to the avascular surrounding and low metabolic activity. Kartogenin (KGN), an emerging nonprotein heterocyclic compound, was screened to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Co-culturing BMSCs and chondrocytes was reported to overcome the shortcomings of forming fibroblastic and hypertrophic cartilages. In this study, KGN was incorporated into the Col-Tgel hydrogel to form a Gel/Cell/KGN complex which fabricated an appropriate microenvironment for effective cartilage regeneration of BMSCs and/or chondrocyte...
December 27, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Mamoni Dash, Sangram K Samal, Andrea Morelli, Cristina Bartoli, Heidi A Declercq, Timothy E L Douglas, Peter Dubruel, Federica Chiellini
Polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of chitosan and ulvan were fabricated to study alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mediated formation of apatitic minerals. Scaffolds of the PEC were subjected to ALP and successful mineral formation was studied using SEM, Raman and XRD techniques. Investigation of the morphology via SEM shows globular structures of the deposited minerals, which promoted cell attachment, proliferation and extracellular matrix formation. The PEC and their successful calcium phosphate based mineralization offers a greener route of scaffold fabrication towards developing resorbable materials for tissue engineering...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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