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Extracellular matric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453953/dual-functioning-peptides-discovered-by-phage-display-increase-the-magnitude-and-specificity-of-bmsc-attachment-to-mineralized-biomaterials
#1
Harsha Ramaraju, Sharon J Miller, David H Kohn
Design of biomaterials for cell-based therapies requires presentation of specific physical and chemical cues to cells, analogous to cues provided by native extracellular matrices (ECM). We previously identified a peptide sequence with high affinity towards apatite (VTKHLNQISQSY, VTK) using phage display. The aims of this study were to identify a human MSC-specific peptide sequence through phage display, combine it with the apatite-specific sequence, and verify the specificity of the combined dual-functioning peptide to both apatite and human bone marrow stromal cells...
April 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448052/an-in-vitro-organ-culture-model-of-the-murine-intervertebral-disc
#2
Jennifer W Liu, Kevin H Lin, Christian Weber, Sameer Bhalla, Sean Kelso, Kaixi Wang, Simon Y Tang
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a significant contributor to low back pain. The IVD is a fibrocartilaginous joint that serves to transmit and dampen loads in the spine. The IVD consists of a proteoglycan-rich nucleus pulposus (NP) and a collagen-rich annulus fibrosis (AF) sandwiched by cartilaginous end-plates. Together with the adjacent vertebrae, the vertebrae-IVD structure forms a functional spine unit (FSU). These microstructures contain unique cell types as well as unique extracellular matrices...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447547/urinary-bladder-extracellular-matrix-hydrogels-and-matrix-bound-vesicles-differentially-regulate-central-nervous-system-neuron-viability-and-axon-growth-and-branching
#3
Anne Faust, Apoorva Kandakatla, Yolandi van der Merwe, Tanchen Ren, Luai Huleihel, George Hussey, Juan Diego Naranjo, Scott Johnson, Stephen Badylak, Michael Steketee
Central nervous system neurons often degenerate after trauma due to the inflammatory innate immune response to injury, which can lead to neuronal cell death, scarring, and permanently lost neurologic function. Extracellular matrix bioscaffolds, derived by decellularizing healthy tissues, have been widely used in both preclinical and clinical studies to promote positive tissue remodeling, including neurogenesis, in numerous tissues, with extracellular matrix from homologous tissues often inducing more positive responses...
April 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444679/membranes-derived-from-human-umbilical-cord-wharton-s-jelly-stem-cells-as-novel-bioengineered-tissue-like-constructs
#4
B D Jaimes-Parra, I Garzón, V Carriel, D Durand-Herrera, M A Martín-Piedra, J M García, M C Sánchez-Quevedo, M Alaminos, A Campos
Cell-derived matrices were recently described as novel biomaterials generated by human cells allowed to grow and synthetize their own extracellular matrix in culture. In the present work, we generated and evaluated a novel tissue-like substitute (WDM) consisting of a membrane derived from cultured human Wharton's jelly stem cells. WDM were evaluated ex vivo and in vivo by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for several mesenchymal cell markers and fibrillar and non-fibrillar extracellular matrix components...
April 26, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436332/applications-of-three-dimensional-cell-cultures-in-the-early-stages-of-drug-discovery-focusing-on-gene-expressions-drug-metabolism-and-susceptibility
#5
Maddaly Ravi
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures represent advances in the way in which cells are grown in vitro, and they are gaining ground for a variety of applications. Advantages of 3D systems include reliable and realistic study endpoints. Cells grown in 3D conditions mimic in vivo conditions to an extent that is not possible with traditional 2D cell-culture methods. One major area in which 3D cell cultures have proven to make a difference is with drug discovery. The facets taken advantage of for drug discovery are the cells' complex microenvironment, including the production of extracellular matrices, altered gene expressions and their protein products, drug metabolism, and susceptibility to drugs when compared to 2D cultures...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434412/molecular-characterization-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-the-female-enriched-chondroitin-proteoglycan-2-of-toxocara-canis
#6
G X Ma, R Q Zhou, L Hu, Y L Luo, Y F Luo, H H Zhu
Toxocara canis is an important but neglected zoonotic parasite, and is the causative agent of human toxocariasis. Chondroitin proteoglycans are biological macromolecules, widely distributed in extracellular matrices, with a great diversity of functions in mammals. However, there is limited information regarding chondroitin proteoglycans in nematode parasites. In the present study, a female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 gene of T. canis (Tc-cpg-2) was cloned and characterized. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to measure the transcription levels of Tc-cpg-2 among tissues of male and female adult worms...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433789/macromolecular-crowding-for-tailoring-tissue-derived-fibrillated-matrices
#7
Valentina Magno, Jens Friedrichs, Heather M Weber, Marina C Prewitz, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Carsten Werner
Tissue-derived fibrillated matrices can be instrumental for the in vitro reconstitution of multiphasic extracellular microenvironments. However, despite of several advantages, the obtained scaffolds so far offer a rather narrow range of materials characteristics only. In this work, we demonstrate how macromolecular crowding (MMC) - the supplementation of matrix reconstitution media with synthetic or natural macromolecules in ways to create excluded volume effects (EVE) - can be employed for tailoring important structural and biophysical characteristics of kidney-derived fibrillated matrices...
April 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433176/novel-hydroxyethyl-chitosan-cellulose-scaffolds-with-bubble-like-porous-structure-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#8
Yaping Wang, Junmin Qian, Na Zhao, Ting Liu, Weijun Xu, Aili Suo
Hydrogels fabricated from natural polysaccharides may serve as ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering because of their similarity to the extracellular matrices. In this study, novel hydrogel scaffolds with bubble-like porous structure were prepared from hydroxyethyl chitosan (HECS) and cellulose (CEL) by a combination of chemical crosslinking, particle-leaching using silicon dioxide particles as porogen and freeze-drying method. The morphology, compression stress-strain curves, wettability, and swelling and rheological behaviors of the HECS/CEL scaffolds were characterized by SEM, mechanical test, contact angle measurement and rheometer...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432956/introduction-of-n-cadherin-binding-motif-to-alginate-hydrogels-for-controlled-stem-cell-differentiation
#9
Jae Won Lee, Hyoseok An, Kuen Yong Lee
Control of stem cell fate and phenotype using biomimetic synthetic extracellular matrices (ECMs) is an important tissue engineering approach. Many studies have focused on improving cell-matrix interactions. However, proper control of cell-cell interactions using synthetic ECMs could be critical for tissue engineering, especially with undifferentiated stem cells. In this study, alginate hydrogels were modified with a peptide derived from the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), which is known to bind to N-cadherin, as a cell-cell interaction motif...
April 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432302/a-bacterial-abc-transporter-enables-import-of-mammalian-host-glycosaminoglycans
#10
Sayoko Oiki, Bunzo Mikami, Yukie Maruyama, Kousaku Murata, Wataru Hashimoto
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin, constitute mammalian extracellular matrices. The uronate and amino sugar residues in hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate are linked by 1,3-glycoside bond, while heparin contains 1,4-glycoside bond. Some bacteria target GAGs as means of establishing colonization and/or infection, and bacterial degradation mechanisms of GAGs have been well characterized. However, little is known about the bacterial import of GAGs. Here, we show a GAG import system, comprised of a solute-binding protein (Smon0123)-dependent ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, in the pathogenic Streptobacillus moniliformis...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412553/native-and-solubilized-decellularized-extracellular-matrix-a-critical-assessment-of-their-potential-for-improving-the-expansion-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Aida Shakouri-Motlagh, Andrea J O'Connor, Shaun P Brennecke, Bill Kalionis, Daniel E Heath
Capturing the promise of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based treatments is currently limited by inefficient production of cells needed for clinical therapies. During conventional ex vivo expansion, a large portion of MSCs lose the properties that make them attractive for use in cell therapies. Decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has recently emerged as a promising substrate for the improved expansion of MSCs. MSCs cultured on these surfaces exhibit improved proliferation capacity, maintenance of phenotype, and increased differentiation potential...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411253/a-new-path-to-platelet-production-through-matrix-sensing
#12
Vittorio Abbonante, Christian Andrea Di Buduo, Cristian Gruppi, Carmelo De Maria, Elise Spedden, Aurora De Acutis, Cristian Staii, Mario Raspanti, Giovanni Vozzi, David Kaplan, Francesco Moccia, Katya Ravid, Alessandra Balduini
Megakaryocytes in the bone marrow are immersed in a network of extracellular matrix (ECM) components that regulate platelet release into the circulation. Combining biological and bioengineering approaches, we found that the activation of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4), a mechano-sensitive ion channel, is induced upon megakaryocyte adhesion on softer matrices. This response promoted platelet production by triggering a cascade of events that lead to calcium influx, β1 integrin activation and internalization, and Akt phosphorylation, responses not found on stiffer matrices...
April 14, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391683/free-epoxide-content-mediates-encapsulated-cell-viability-and-activity-through-protein-interactions-in-a-thermoresponsive-in-situ-forming-hydrogel
#13
Meryem O Pehlivaner Kara, Adam K Ekenseair
The development of synthetic and well-defined extracellular matrices that are free of xenogeneic components and are capable of inducing desired cellular responses holds great potential for use in vitro as 3D cell culture environments and in vivo as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. In this study, the impact of free and partially occupied epoxide groups on the viability, activity, and behavior of rat fibroblasts encapsulated in thermoresponsive hydrogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNiPAAm) was investigated...
April 20, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390245/myofibroblastic-activation-of-valvular-interstitial-cells-is-modulated-by-spatial-variations-in-matrix-elasticity-and-its-organization
#14
Hao Ma, Anouk R Killaars, Frank W DelRio, Chun Yang, Kristi S Anseth
Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) are key regulators of the heart valve's extracellular matrix (ECM), and upon tissue damage, quiescent VIC fibroblasts become activated to myofibroblasts. As the behavior of VICs during disease progression and wound healing is different compared to healthy tissue, we hypothesized that the organization of the matrix mechanics, which results from depositing of collagen fibers, would affect VIC phenotypic transition. Specifically, we investigated how the subcellular organization of ECM mechanical properties affects subcellular localization of Yes-associated protein (YAP), an early marker of mechanotransduction, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a myofibroblast marker, in VICs...
July 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389920/raman-microspectroscopy-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-microspectroscopy-and-stable-isotope-raman-microspectroscopy-for-biofilm-characterization
#15
REVIEW
Natalia P Ivleva, Patrick Kubryk, Reinhard Niessner
Biofilms represent the predominant form of microbial life on our planet. These aggregates of microorganisms, which are embedded in a matrix formed by extracellular polymeric substances, may colonize nearly all interfaces. Detailed knowledge of microorganisms enclosed in biofilms as well as of the chemical composition, structure, and functions of the complex biofilm matrix and their changes at different stages of the biofilm formation and under various physical and chemical conditions is relevant in different fields...
April 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387349/targeting-microbial-biofilms-using-ficin-a-nonspecific-plant-protease
#16
Diana R Baidamshina, Elena Y Trizna, Marina G Holyavka, Mikhail I Bogachev, Valeriy G Artyukhov, Farida S Akhatova, Elvira V Rozhina, Rawil F Fakhrullin, Airat R Kayumov
Biofilms, the communities of surface-attached bacteria embedded into extracellular matrix, are ubiquitous microbial consortia securing the effective resistance of constituent cells to environmental impacts and host immune responses. Biofilm-embedded bacteria are generally inaccessible for antimicrobials, therefore the disruption of biofilm matrix is the potent approach to eradicate microbial biofilms. We demonstrate here the destruction of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms with Ficin, a nonspecific plant protease...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374743/extracellular-vesicles-for-liquid-biopsy-in-prostate-cancer-where-are-we-and-where-are-we-headed
#17
REVIEW
V R Minciacchi, A Zijlstra, M A Rubin, D Di Vizio
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous class of lipid bound particles shed by any cell in the body in physiological and pathological conditions. EVs play critical functions in intercellular communication. EVs can actively travel in intercellular matrices and eventually reach the circulation. They can also be released directly in biological fluids where they appear to be stable. Because the molecular content of EVs reflects the composition of the cell of origin, they have recently emerged as a promising source of biomarkers in a number of diseases...
April 4, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371310/sequential-bioavailability-of-sedimentary-organic-matter-to-heterotrophic-bacteria
#18
Nagissa Mahmoudi, Steven R Beaupré, Andrew D Steen, Ann Pearson
Aquatic sediments harbor diverse microbial communities that mediate organic matter degradation and influence biogeochemical cycles. The pool of bioavailable carbon continuously changes as a result of abiotic processes and microbial activity. It remains unclear how microbial communities respond to heterogeneous organic matrices and how this ultimately affects heterotrophic respiration. To explore the relationships between the degradation of mixed carbon substrates and microbial activity, we incubated batches of organic-rich sediments in a novel bioreactor (IsoCaRB) that permitted continuous observations of CO2 production rates, as well as sequential sampling of isotopic signatures (δ(13) C, Δ(14) C), microbial community structure and diversity, and extracellular enzyme activity...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371268/aging-of-the-skeletal-muscle-extracellular-matrix-drives-a-stem-cell-fibrogenic-conversion
#19
Kristen M Stearns-Reider, Antonio D'Amore, Kevin Beezhold, Benjamin Rothrauff, Loredana Cavalli, William R Wagner, David A Vorp, Alkiviadis Tsamis, Sunita Shinde, Changqing Zhang, Aaron Barchowsky, Thomas A Rando, Rocky S Tuan, Fabrisia Ambrosio
Age-related declines in skeletal muscle regeneration have been attributed to muscle stem cell (MuSC) dysfunction. Aged MuSCs display a fibrogenic conversion, leading to fibrosis and impaired recovery after injury. Although studies have demonstrated the influence of in vitro substrate characteristics on stem cell fate, whether and how aging of the extracellular matrix (ECM) affects stem cell behavior has not been investigated. Here, we investigated the direct effect of the aged muscle ECM on MuSC lineage specification...
March 30, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362381/vasodilation-of-isolated-vessels-and-the-isolation-of-the-extracellular-matrix-of-tight-skin-mice
#20
Dorothee Weihrauch, John G Krolikowski, Deron W Jones, Tahniyath Zaman, Omoshalewa Bamkole, Janine Struve, Paul S Pagel, Nicole L Lohr, Kirkwood A Pritchard
The interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is crucial for cells to determine if they respond in a pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory fashion. IRF5's ability to switch cells from one pathway to another is highly attractive as a therapeutic target. We designed a decoy peptide IRF5D with a molecular modeling software for designing small molecules and peptides. IRF5D inhibited IRF5, reduced alterations in extracellular matrix, and improved endothelial vasodilation in the tight-skin mouse (Tsk/+). The Kd of IRF5D for recombinant IRF5 is 3...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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