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Extracellular matric

Joshua A Klein, Le Meng, Joseph Zaia
Proteoglycans are distributed in all animal tissues and play critical, multifaceted, physiological roles.  Expressed in a spatially- and temporally-regulated manner, these molecules regulate interactions among growth factors and cell surface receptors and play key roles in basement membranes and other extracellular matrices.  Due to the high degree of glycosylation by glycosaminoglycan (GAG), N-glycan and mucin-type O-glycan classes, the peptide sequence coverage of complex proteoglycans is revealed poorly by standard mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods...
May 17, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Laura J Macdougall, Katherine L Wiley, April M Kloxin, Andrew P Dove
Controlled, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems are of growing interest for both tissue regeneration and disease, including cancer, enabling hypothesis testing about the effects of microenvironment cues on a variety of cellular processes, including aspects of disease progression. In this work, we encapsulate and culture in three dimensions different cancer cell lines in a synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM), using mild and efficient chemistry. Specifically, harnessing the nucleophilic addition of thiols to activated alkynes, we have created hydrogel-based materials with multifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and select biomimetic peptides...
May 7, 2018: Biomaterials
Anushree C Gulvady, Fatemeh Dubois, Nicholas O Deakin, Gregory J Goreczny, Christopher E Turner
The focal adhesion proteins, Hic-5 and Paxillin have been previously identified as key regulators of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration and morphologic mesenchymal-amoeboid plasticity in three-dimensional extracellular matrices. However, their respective roles in other cancer cell types has not been evaluated. Herein, utilizing 3D cell-derived matrices and fibronectin-coated 1D substrates, we show that across a variety of cancer cell lines, the level of Hic-5 expression serves as the major indicator of the cells primary morphology, plasticity and in vitro invasiveness...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Quyen A Tran, Visar Ajeti, Brian T Freeman, Paul J Campagnola, Brenda M Ogle
Developmental studies and 3D in vitro model systems show that the production and engagement of extracellular matrix (ECM) often precede stem cell differentiation. Yet, unclear is how the ECM triggers signaling events in sequence to accommodate multistep process characteristic of differentiation. Here, we employ transcriptome profiling and advanced imaging to delineate the specificity of ECM engagement to particular differentiation pathways and to determine whether specificity in this context is a function of long-term ECM remodeling...
2018: Stem Cells International
Yingge Zhou, Joanna Chyu, Mimi Zumwalt
As a versatile nanofiber manufacturing technique, electrospinning has been widely employed for the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Since the structure of natural extracellular matrices varies substantially in different tissues, there has been growing awareness of the fact that the hierarchical 3D structure of scaffolds may affect intercellular interactions, material transportation, fluid flow, environmental stimulation, and so forth. Physical blending of the synthetic and natural polymers to form composite materials better mimics the composition and mechanical properties of natural tissues...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Aysu Arslan, Soner Çakmak, Menemşe Gümüşderelioğlu
In this study, three dimensional (3D) poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) fibrous scaffolds with more than 90% porosity were fabricated via wet electrospinning method. Amorphous hydroxyapatite (HAp) and boron (B) doped hydroxyapatite (B-HAp) nanoparticles were produced by microwave-assisted biomimetic precipitation and encapsulated into PBAT fibres with the ratio of 5% (w/w) in order to enhance osteogenic activity of the scaffolds. Cell culture studies were carried out with human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSCs) and they showed that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the amounts of collagen and calcium were higher on B containing PBAT (B-HAp-PBAT) scaffolds during the 28-day culture period than that of the PBAT scaffolds...
May 11, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Julia Scheinpflug, Moritz Pfeiffenberger, Alexandra Damerau, Franziska Schwarz, Martin Textor, Annemarie Lang, Frank Schulze
Bone is a complex tissue with a variety of functions, such as providing mechanical stability for locomotion, protection of the inner organs, mineral homeostasis and haematopoiesis. To fulfil these diverse roles in the human body, bone consists of a multitude of different cells and an extracellular matrix that is mechanically stable, yet flexible at the same time. Unlike most tissues, bone is under constant renewal facilitated by a coordinated interaction of bone-forming and bone-resorbing cells. It is thus challenging to recreate bone in its complexity in vitro and most current models rather focus on certain aspects of bone biology that are of relevance for the research question addressed...
May 10, 2018: Genes
Javad Hashemi, Parvin Pasalar, Masoud Soleimani, Ehsan Arefian, Reza Khorramirouz, Aram Akbarzadeh, Fariba Ghorbani, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Abdol Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is known as a worldwide disease with a great burden on society. Since therapeutic options cover a limited number of target points, new therapeutic strategies in the field of regenerative medicine are considered. Bioscaffolds along with islet cells would provide bioengineered tissue as a substitute for β-cells. The perfusion-decellularization technique is considered to create such scaffolds since they mimic the compositional, architectural, and biomechanical nature of a native organ...
May 9, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Saeed Ur Rahman, Joung-Hwan Oh, Young-Dan Cho, Shin Hye Chung, Gene Lee, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Hyun-Mo Ryoo, Kyung Mi Woo
Nanofibrous engineered matrices have significant potential in cellular differentiation and tissue regeneration. Stem cells require specific extracellular signals that lead to the induction of different lineages. However, the mechanisms by which the nanofibrous matrix promotes mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the mechanisms which underlie nanofibrous matrix-induced odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp MSCs (DP-MSCs). An electrospun polystyrene nanofibrous (PSF) matrix was prepared, and the cell responses to the PSF matrix were assessed in comparison with those on conventional tissue culture dishes...
May 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrew J McKenzie, Stephanie R Hicks, Kathryn V Svec, Hannah Naughton, Zöe L Edmunds, Alan K Howe
There is growing appreciation of the importance of the mechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment on disease progression. However, the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness and cellular mechanotransduction in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of substrate rigidity on various aspects of SKOV3 human EOC cell morphology and migration. Young's modulus values of normal mouse peritoneum, a principal target tissue for EOC metastasis, were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and hydrogels were fabricated to mimic these values...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nanna B Svenningsen, Esteban Martínez-García, Mette H Nicolaisen, Victor de Lorenzo, Ole Nybroe
In natural environments most bacteria live in biofilms embedded in complex matrices of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This lifestyle is known to increase protection against environmental stress. Pseudomonas putida mt-2 harbours genes for the production of at least four different EPS polysaccharides, including alginate and cellulose. Little is known about the functional properties of cellulose, while alginate attenuates the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by matric stress. By using mutants that are deficient in either alginate or cellulose production we show that even cellulose attenuates the accumulation of matric stress-induced ROS for cells in biofilms...
May 8, 2018: Microbiology
Luca Fasolato, Nadia Andrea Andreani, Roberta De Nardi, Giulia Nalotto, Lorenzo Serva, Barbara Cardazzo, Stefania Balzan, Lisa Carraro, Federico Fontana, Enrico Novelli
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) have been investigated as rapid techniques to characterize foodborne bacteria through the analysis of the spectra of whole cells or microbial suspensions. The use of spectra collected from broth cultures could be used as a fingerprint for strain classification using a combined polyphasic approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRs and UV-vis for the characterization of blue strains belonging to the Pseudomonas fluorescens group...
March 31, 2018: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Fumio Arai
Stem cells are characterized by their unique ability to both self-renew and differentiate along multiple cellular lineages. Self-renewal and differentiation must be tightly controlled to ensure an appropriate stem cell pool in tissue over the lifetime of an organism. Elucidating the mechanisms controlling stem cell fate and maintenance remains a key challenge in stem cell biology. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for the lifelong production of multiple blood cell lineages. To remain functional, these cells must interact with a particular microenvironment, known as the stem cell niche...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Isaac Perea-Gil, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Ignasi Jorba, Cristina Segú-Vergés, Santiago Roura, Carolina Soler-Botija, Oriol Iborra-Egea, Elena Revuelta-López, Marco A Fernández, Ramon Farré, Daniel Navajas, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Cardiac tissue engineering, which combines cells and supportive scaffolds, is an emerging treatment for restoring cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI), although, the optimal construct remains a challenge. We developed two engineered cardiac grafts, based on decellularized scaffolds from myocardial and pericardial tissues and repopulated them with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells (ATMSCs). The structure, macromechanical and micromechanical scaffold properties were preserved upon the decellularization and recellularization processes, except for recellularized myocardium micromechanics that was ∼2-fold stiffer than native tissue and decellularized scaffolds...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sara Gnavi, Michela Morano, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Claudio Riccobono, Chiara Tonda-Turo, Marco Zanetti, Gianluca Ciardelli, Giovanna Gambarotta, Isabelle Perroteau, Stefano Geuna, Stefania Raimondo
Nerve guidance channels facilitate nerve regeneration and represent an attractive alternative to nerve graft. Actually, nano- and micro-structured biomaterials for nerve reconstruction have gained much attention, thanks to recent discoveries about topography effects on cell behaviour and morphology. Electrospun fibres have been proposed as filler or structural component for nerve guidance channels, principally due to their similarity with extracellular matrices which facilitate nerve regeneration. Among several tested biomaterials, gelatin has been used to prepare fibres able to support Schwann cell migration and neurite outgrowth...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jangho Jeong, Seula Keum, Daehwan Kim, Eunae You, Panseon Ko, Jieun Lee, Jaegu Kim, Jung-Woong Kim, Sangmyung Rhee
Accumulating evidence has shown that matrix stiffening in cancer tissue by the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) is closely related with severe tumor progression. However, much less is known about the genes affected by matrix stiffness and its signaling for cancer progression. In the current research, we investigated the differential gene expression of a non-small lung adenocarcinoma cell line, H1299, cultured under the conditions of soft (∼0.5 kPa) and stiff (∼40 kPa) matrices, mimicking the mechanical environments of normal and cancerous tissues, respectively...
April 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Doris A Taylor, Luiz C Sampaio, Zannatul Ferdous, Andrea S Gobin, Lakeshia J Taite
Of all biologic matrices, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has emerged as a promising tool used either alone or when combined with other biologics in the fields of tissue engineering or regenerative medicine - both preclinically and clinically. dECM provides a native cellular environment that combines its unique composition and architecture. It can be widely obtained from native organs of different species after being decellularized and is entitled to provide necessary cues to cells homing. In this review, the superiority of the macro- and micro-architecture of dECM is described as are methods by which these unique characteristics are being harnessed to aid in the repair and regeneration of organs and tissues...
April 24, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Yu Sun, Lianqi Yan, Song Chen, Ming Pei
Increasing evidence indicates that decellularized extracellular matrices (dECMs) derived from cartilage tissues (T-dECMs) or chondrocytes/stem cells (C-dECMs) can support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of cartilage-forming cells. However, few review papers compare the differences between these dECMs when they serve as substrates for cartilage regeneration. In this review, after an introduction of cartilage immunogenicity and decellularization methods to prepare T-dECMs and C-dECMs, a comprehensive comparison focuses on the effects of T-dECMs and C-dECMs on proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of chondrocytes/stem cells in vitro and in vivo...
April 24, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Subhadeep Das, Reeba S Jacob, Komal Patel, Namrata Singh, Samir K Maji
Extracellular matrices (ECM) play an enormous role in any living system, controlling various factors and eventually fates of cells. ECM regulates cell fate by providing constant exogenous signals altering intracellular signal transduction for diverse pathways including proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. Biomaterial scaffolds are designed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix such that the cells could recapitulate natural events alike their natural niche. Therefore, the success of tissue engineering is largely dependent on how one can engineer the natural matrix properties at nano-scale precision...
April 27, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Anwarul Hasan, Batzaya Byambaa, Mahboob Morshed, Mohammad Ibrahim Cheikh, Rana Abdul Shakoor, Tanvir Mustafy, Hany Marei
A significant challenge in the current orthopedics is the development of suitable osteobiologic materials that can replace the conventional allografts, autografts and xenografts, and thereby serve as implant materials as bone substitutes for bone repair or remodeling. The complex biology behind the nano-microstructure of bones and their repair mechanisms, which involve various types of chemical and biomechanical signaling amongst different cells, has set strong requirements for biomaterials to be used in bone tissue engineering...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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