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Extracellular matric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317173/extracellular-matrix-in-the-cns-induced-by-neuropathogenic-viral-infection
#1
Rihito Watanabe, Masatoshi Kakizaki
During the early phase of infection with an extremely neurovirulent murine coronavirus, cl-2, the ER-TR7 antigen (ERag)-positive fibers (ERfibs) associated with laminin and collagen III show a rapid increase in expression levels in the meninges, followed by an appearance of the antigens in the ventricle and brain parenchyma. Then, cl-2 invades the ventricle and ventricular wall along the newly assembled ERfibs after infection, using them as a pathway from the meninges, the initial site of infection. In the lymph nodes and spleen, ERag is mainly produced by fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), which play a key role in nursing the ERfibs to form a fibroblastic reticular network (FRN)...
March 20, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298931/the-roles-of-insulin-like-growth-factors-in-mesenchymal-stem-cell-niche
#2
REVIEW
Amer Youssef, Doaa Aboalola, Victor K M Han
Many tissues contain adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which may be used in tissue regeneration therapies. However, the MSC availability in most tissues is limited which demands expansion in vitro following isolation. Like many developing cells, the state of MSCs is affected by the surrounding microenvironment, and mimicking this natural microenvironment that supports multipotent or differentiated state in vivo is essential to understand for the successful use of MSC in regenerative therapies. Many researchers are, therefore, optimizing cell culture conditions in vitro by altering growth factors, extracellular matrices, chemicals, oxygen tension, and surrounding pH to enhance stem cells self-renewal or differentiation...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297639/enhanced-directional-migration-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-3d-aligned-collagen-matrices
#3
Arja Ray, Zachary M Slama, Rachel K Morford, Samantha A Madden, Paolo P Provenzano
Directed cell migration by contact guidance in aligned collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical enabler of breast cancer dissemination. The mechanisms of this process are poorly understood, particularly in 3D, in part because of the lack of efficient methods to generate aligned collagen matrices. To address this technological gap, we propose a simple method to align collagen gels using guided cellular compaction. Our method yields highly aligned, acellular collagen constructs with predictable microstructural features, thus providing a controlled microenvironment for in vitro experiments...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289247/three-dimensional-bioprinting-strategies-for-tissue-engineering
#4
Yu Shrike Zhang, Rahmi Oklu, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci, Ali Khademhosseini
Over the past decades, many approaches have been developed to fabricate biomimetic extracellular matrices of desired properties for engineering functional tissues. However, the inability of these techniques to precisely control the spatial architecture has posed a significant challenge in producing complex tissues. 3D bioprinting technology has emerged as a potential solution by bringing unprecedented freedom and versatility in depositing biological materials and cells in a well-controlled manner in the 3D volumes, therefore achieving precision engineering of functional tissues...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287600/defined-and-scalable-generation-of-hepatocyte-like-cells-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Yu Wang, Sharmin Alhaque, Kate Cameron, Jose Meseguer-Ripolles, Baltasar Lucendo-Villarin, Hassan Rashidi, David C Hay
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) possess great value for biomedical research. hPSCs can be scaled and differentiated to all cell types found in the human body. The differentiation of hPSCs to human hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) has been extensively studied, and efficient differentiation protocols have been established. The combination of extracellular matrix and biological stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, and small molecules, have made it possible to generate HLCs that resemble primary human hepatocytes...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285095/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-extracellular-matrix-extracted-from-mono-and-dual-species-biofilms-of-fusobacterium-nucleatum-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#6
Marwan Mansoor Ali Mohammed, Veronika Kuchařová Pettersen, Audun H Nerland, Harald G Wiker, Vidar Bakken
The Gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis are members of a complex dental biofilm associated with periodontal disease. In this study, we cultured F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis as mono- and dual-species biofilms, and analyzed the protein composition of the biofilms extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) by high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis was used for identification of proteins and sequence-based functional characterization for their classification and prediction of possible roles in EPM...
March 9, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284957/proteolytic-activity-in-the-meibomian-gland-implications-to-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Pablo Argüeso
The function of the meibomian gland in the upper and lower eyelids is critical to maintaining homeostasis at the ocular surface. Highly specialized meibocytes within the gland must differentiate and accumulate intracellular lipid droplets that are released into the tear film following rupture of the cell membrane. Proteases and their inhibitors have been recognized as key players in remodeling extracellular matrices and promoting the normal integrity of glandular tissue. They modulate a wide range of biological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, and can contribute to disease when aberrantly expressed...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281255/resonant-waveguide-grating-imager-for-single-cell-monitoring-of-the-invasion-of-3d-speheroid-cancer-cells-through-matrigel
#8
Nicole K Febles, Siddarth Chandrasekaran, Ye Fang
The invasion of cancer cells through their surrounding extracellular matrices is the first critical step to metastasis, a devastating event to cancer patients. However, in vitro cancer cell invasion is mostly studied using two-dimensional (2D) models. Three-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids may offer an advantageous cell model for cancer research and oncology drug discovery. This chapter describes a label-free, real-time, and single-cell approach to quantify the invasion of 3D spheroid colon cancer cells through Matrigel using a spatially resolved resonant waveguide grating imager...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272774/microfluidic-nanofiber-hybrid-array-for-screening-of-cellular-microenvironments
#9
Ken-Ichiro Kamei, Yasumasa Mashimo, Momoko Yoshioka, Yumie Tokunaga, Christopher Fockenberg, Shiho Terada, Yoshie Koyama, Minako Nakajima, Teiko Shibata-Seki, Li Liu, Toshihiro Akaike, Eiry Kobatake, Siew-Eng How, Motonari Uesugi, Yong Chen
Cellular microenvironments are generally sophisticated, but crucial for regulating the functions of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Despite tremendous effort in this field, the correlation between the environmental factors-especially the extracellular matrix and soluble cell factors-and the desired cellular functions remains largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate tools to recapitulate in vivo conditions and/or simultaneously evaluate the interplay of different environment factors. Here, a combinatorial platform is developed with integrated microfluidic channels and nanofibers, associated with a method of high-content single-cell analysis, to study the effects of environmental factors on stem cell phenotype...
March 8, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272740/comparative-proteomic-profiling-of-human-osteoblast-derived-extracellular-matrices-identifies-proteins-involved-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-osteogenic-differentiation-and-mineralization
#10
Marta Baroncelli, Bram C van der Eerden, Yik-Yang Kan, Rodrigo D Alves, Jeroen A Demmers, Jeroen van de Peppel, Johannes P van Leeuwen
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic component of tissue architecture that physically supports cells and actively influences their behavior. In the context of bone regeneration, cell-secreted ECMs have become of interest as they reproduce tissue-architecture and modulate the promising properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We have previously created an in vitro model of human osteoblast-derived devitalized ECM that was osteopromotive for MSCs. The aim of this study was to identify ECM regulatory proteins able to modulate MSC differentiation to broaden the spectrum of MSC clinical applications...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271010/measurement-of-dynamic-cell-induced-3d-displacement-fields-in-vitro-for-traction-force-optical-coherence-microscopy
#11
Jeffrey A Mulligan, François Bordeleau, Cynthia A Reinhart-King, Steven G Adie
Traction force microscopy (TFM) is a method used to study the forces exerted by cells as they sense and interact with their environment. Cell forces play a role in processes that take place over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales, and so it is desirable that TFM makes use of imaging modalities that can effectively capture the dynamics associated with these processes. To date, confocal microscopy has been the imaging modality of choice to perform TFM in 3D settings, although multiple factors limit its spatiotemporal coverage...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270812/borrelia-burgdorferi-keeps-moving-and-carries-on-a-review-of-borrelial-dissemination-and-invasion
#12
REVIEW
Jenny A Hyde
Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiological agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic, multistage, inflammatory infection resulting in patients experiencing cardiac, neurological, and arthritic complications when not treated with antibiotics shortly after exposure. The spirochetal bacterium transmits through the Ixodes vector colonizing the dermis of a mammalian host prior to hematogenous dissemination and invasion of distal tissues all the while combating the immune response as it traverses through its pathogenic lifecycle...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268018/elastin-like-protein-hyaluronic-acid-elp-ha-hydrogels-with-decoupled-mechanical-and-biochemical-cues-for-cartilage-regeneration
#13
Danqing Zhu, Huiyuan Wang, Pavin Trinh, Sarah C Heilshorn, Fan Yang
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix and is an attractive material for use as 3D injectable matrices for cartilage regeneration. While previous studies have shown the promise of HA-based hydrogels to support cell-based cartilage formation, varying HA concentration generally led to simultaneous changes in both biochemical cues and stiffness. How cells respond to the change of biochemical content of HA remains largely unknown. Here we report an adaptable elastin-like protein-hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) hydrogel platform using dynamic covalent chemistry, which allows variation of HA concentration without affecting matrix stiffness...
March 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267594/effects-of-colistin-on-biofilm-matrices-of-escherichia-coli-and-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Claudia Stein, Christina Forstner, Oliwia Makarewicz, Mathias W Pletz
Biofilms are the preferred environment of micro-organisms on various surfaces such as catheters and heart valves, are associated with numerous difficult-to-treat and recurrent infections, and confer an extreme increase in antibiotic tolerance to most compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate how colistin affects both the extracellular biofilm matrix and the embedded bacteria in biofilms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a species with intrinsic resistance to colistin, and colistin-susceptible Escherichia coli...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257035/rnase-l-suppresses-androgen-receptor-signaling-cell-migration-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-activity-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#15
Shubham Dayal, Jun Zhou, Praveen Manivannan, Mohammad Adnan Siddiqui, Omaima Farid Ahmad, Matthew Clark, Sahezeel Awadia, Rafael Garcia-Mata, Lirim Shemshedini, Krishnamurthy Malathi
The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer, suggesting that RNase L may play additional roles in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a role of RNase L as a suppressor of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Using RNase L mutants, we show that its nucleolytic activity is dispensable for both AR signaling and migration...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255367/progress-in-exosome-isolation-techniques
#16
REVIEW
Pin Li, Melisa Kaslan, Sze Han Lee, Justin Yao, Zhiqiang Gao
Exosomes are one type of membrane vesicles secreted into extracellular space by most types of cells. In addition to performing many biological functions particularly in cell-cell communication, cumulative evidence has suggested that several biological entities in exosomes like proteins and microRNAs are closely associated with the pathogenesis of most human malignancies and they may serve as invaluable biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. This provides a commanding impetus and growing demands for simple, efficient, and affordable techniques to isolate exosomes...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251176/bioprinting-the-cancer-microenvironment
#17
Yu Shrike Zhang, Margaux Duchamp, Rahmi Oklu, Leif W Ellisen, Robert Langer, Ali Khademhosseini
Cancer is intrinsically complex, comprising both heterogeneous cellular compositions and microenvironmental cues. During the various stages of cancer initiation, development, and metastasis, cell-cell interactions (involving vascular and immune cells besides cancerous cells) as well as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions (e.g., alteration in stiffness and composition of the surrounding matrix) play major roles. Conventional cancer models both two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) present numerous limitations as they lack good vascularization and cannot mimic the complexity of tumors, thereby restricting their use as biomimetic models for applications such as drug screening and fundamental cancer biology studies...
October 10, 2016: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238143/electrospun-nanofiber-scaffolds-and-their-hydrogel-composites-for-the-engineering-and-regeneration-of-soft-tissues
#18
Ohan S Manoukian, Rita Matta, Justin Letendre, Paige Collins, Augustus D Mazzocca, Sangamesh G Kumbar
Electrospinning has emerged as a simple, elegant, and scalable technique that can be used to fabricate polymeric nanofibers. Pure polymers as well as blends and composites of both natural and synthetic ones have been successfully electrospun into nanofiber matrices for many biomedical applications. Tissue-engineered medical implants, such as polymeric nanofiber scaffolds, are potential alternatives to autografts and allografts, which are short in supply and carry risks of disease transmission. These scaffolds have been used to engineer various soft tissues, including connective tissues, such as skin, ligament, and tendon, as well as nonconnective ones, such as vascular, muscle, and neural tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237245/the-formation-of-quiescent-glomerular-endothelial-cell-monolayer-in-vitro-is-strongly-dependent-on-the-choice-of-extracellular-matrix-coating
#19
Kamilla Pajęcka, Malik Nygaard Nielsen, Troels Krarup Hansen, Julie M Williams
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs)...
February 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221044/tunable-volumetric-density-and-porous-structure-of-spherical-poly-%C3%A9-caprolactone-microcarriers-as-applied-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-expansion
#20
Jian Li, Alan Tin-Lun Lam, Jessica Pei Wen Toh, Shaul Reuveny, Steve Kah-Weng Oh, William R Birch
Polymeric microspheres may serve as microcarrier matrices, for the expansion of anchorage-dependent stem cells. They require surface properties that both promote initial cell adhesion and the subsequent spreading of cells, which is a prerequisite for successful expansion. When implemented in a three-dimensional culture environment, under agitation, their suspension under low shear rates depends on the microcarriers having a modest negative buoyancy, with a density of 1.02-1.05 g/cm(3). Bioresorbable polycaprolactone (PCL), with a density of 1...
February 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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