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Extracellular matric

Hung-Yi Liu, Tanja Greene, Tsai-Yu Lin, Camron S Dawes, Murray Korc, Chien-Chi Lin
: The complex network of biochemical and biophysical cues in the pancreatic desmoplasia not only presents challenges to the fundamental understanding of tumor progression, but also hinders the development of therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer. Residing in the desmoplasia, pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are the major stromal cells affecting the growth and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by means of paracrine effects and extracellular matrix protein deposition. PSCs remain in a quiescent/dormant state until they are 'activated' by various environmental cues...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
O V Kim, R I Litvinov, J Chen, D Z Chen, J W Weisel, M S Alber
Fibrin and collagen as well as their combinations play an important biological role in tissue regeneration and are widely employed in surgery as fleeces or sealants and in bioengineering as tissue scaffolds. Earlier studies demonstrated that fibrin-collagen composite networks displayed improved tensile mechanical properties compared to the isolated protein matrices. Unlike previous studies, here unconfined compression was applied to a fibrin-collagen filamentous polymer composite matrix to study its structural and mechanical responses to compressive deformation...
October 14, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
E De Vlieghere, G Wagemans, S De Backer, Z Drebert, J Tommelein, Q Rousseau, B Weyn, M Van Troys, M Bracke, O De Wever
Cells change their morphology as a response to environmental cues. The quantitative evaluation of single cell spread on extracellular matrices, such as type I collagen, is a key tool in cancer research. Inherent to the manual scoring of cellular spread is inter-observer but also intra-observer variation. To overcome these problems, we have developed the Morphology Analysis Software (MAS). MAS scores phase-contrast images of cells on native type I collagen gels and identifies whether a cell has a spread or round morphology using a combination of four unique parameters such as the presence of a cellular extension, the cell area, the cell eccentricity and cell circularity...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Hwan D Kim, Hae Lin Jang, Hyo-Yong Ahn, Hye Kyoung Lee, Jungha Park, Eun-Seo Lee, Eunjee A Lee, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Do-Gyoon Kim, Ki Tae Nam, Nathaniel S Hwang
Bone remodeling process relies on complex signaling pathway between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and control mechanisms to achieve homeostasis of their growth and differentiation. Despite previous achievements in understanding complicated signaling pathways between cells and bone extracellular matrices during bone remodeling process, a role of local ionic concentration remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that synthetic whitlockite (WH: Ca18Mg2(HPO4)2(PO4)12) nanoparticles can recapitulate early-stage of bone regeneration through stimulating osteogenic differentiation, prohibiting osteoclastic activity, and transforming into mechanically enhanced hydroxyapatite (HAP)-neo bone tissues by continuous supply of PO4(3-) and Mg(2+) under physiological conditions...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Shaofeng Yan, Hao Xue, Ping Zhang, Xiao Han, Xing Guo, Guang Yuan, Lin Deng, Gang Li
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play the important role in the process of glioblastoma cell invasion through 3D matrices. However, the effects of MMP inhibitors used in the treatment of malignant gliomas are unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to explore the reason and mechanism by which cells move through the dense extracellular matrix without proteolysis. The results showed that MMP inhibitor (MMPI), Ilomastat, induced glioma cells to have an amoeboid-like morphology with invasive ability. Moreover, the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK)/myosin light chain (MLC) signal is involved in the MMPI-induced movement mode switch, and RhoA activation is dependent on P115RhoGEF...
October 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Adrian Ranga, Mehmet Girgin, Andrea Meinhardt, Dominic Eberle, Massimiliano Caiazzo, Elly M Tanaka, Matthias P Lutolf
Three-dimensional organoid constructs serve as increasingly widespread in vitro models for development and disease modeling. Current approaches to recreate morphogenetic processes in vitro rely on poorly controllable and ill-defined matrices, thereby largely overlooking the contribution of biochemical and biophysical extracellular matrix (ECM) factors in promoting multicellular growth and reorganization. Here, we show how defined synthetic matrices can be used to explore the role of the ECM in the development of complex 3D neuroepithelial cysts that recapitulate key steps in early neurogenesis...
October 14, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lydia Zajiczek, Michael Shaw, Nilofar Faruqui, Angelo Bella, Vijay M Pawar, Mandayam A Srinivasan, Maxim G Ryadnov
Extracellular protein matrices provide a rigidity interface exhibiting nano-mechanical cues that guide cell growth and proliferation. Cells sense such cues using actin-rich filopodia extensions which encourage favourable cell-matrix contacts to recruit more actin-mediated local forces into forming stable focal adhesions. A challenge remains in identifying and measuring these local cellular forces and in establishing empirical relationships between them, cell adhesion and filopodia formation. Here we investigate such relationships using a micromanipulation system designed to operate at the time scale of focal contact dynamics, with the sample frequency of a force probe being 0...
October 13, 2016: Nanoscale
E R Garvican, M Salavati, R K W Smith, J Dudhia
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of normal synovial fluid (SF) on exposed endogenous tendon-derived cells (TDC) and engrafted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the tendon extracellular matrix. METHODS: Explants from equine superficial digital flexor (extra-synovial) and deep digital flexor tendons (DDFT) from the compressed, intra-synovial and the tensile, extra-synovial regions were cultured in allogeneic or autologous SF-media. Human hamstring explants were cultured in allogeneic SF...
October 11, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
Rachelle N Palchesko, James L Funderburgh, Adam W Feinberg
Basement membranes are protein-rich extracellular matrices (ECM) that are essential for epithelial and endothelial tissue structure and function. Aging and disease cause changes in the physical properties and ECM composition of basement membranes, which has spurred research to develop methods to repair and/or regenerate these tissues. An area of critical clinical need is the cornea, where failure of the endothelium leads to stromal edema and vision loss. Here, an engineered basement membrane (EBM) is developed that consists of a dense layer of collagen IV and/or laminin ≈5-10 nm thick, created using surface-initiated assembly, conformally attached to a collagen I film...
October 10, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Jeffrey P Hymes, Todd R Klaenhammer
Fibronectin is a multidomain glycoprotein found ubiquitously in human body fluids and extracellular matrices of a variety of cell types from all human tissues and organs, including intestinal epithelial cells. Fibronectin plays a major role in the regulation of cell migration, tissue repair, and cell adhesion. Importantly, fibronectin also serves as a common target for bacterial adhesins in the gastrointestinal tract. Fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) have been identified and characterized in a wide variety of host-associated bacteria...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hideki Yamamoto, Helene Rundqvist, Cristina Branco, Randall S Johnson
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) is involved in all the essential biology of endothelial cells, from proliferation to vessel function, by mediating intercellular interactions and monolayer integrity. It is expressed as three major alternative spliced variants. In mice, these are VEGF120, VEGF164, and VEGF188, each with different affinities for extracellular matrices and cell surfaces, depending on the inclusion of heparin-binding sites, encoded by exons 6 and 7. To determine the role of each VEGF isoform in endothelial homeostasis, we compared phenotypes of primary endothelial cells isolated from lungs of mice expressing single VEGF isoforms in normoxic and hypoxic conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Jie Zhu, Alex Mogilner
Cell migration on a two-dimensional flat surface has been extensively studied and is generally characterized by a front-protrusion-rear-contraction process. In a three-dimensional (3D) environment, on the other hand, cells adopt multiple migration strategies depending on the cell type and the properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). By using computer simulations, we find that these migration strategies can be classified by various spatial-temporal dynamics of actin protrusion, actin-myosin contraction and actin-ECM adhesion...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
Karolina Zazakowny, Joanna Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna Mastalska-Popławska, Kamil Kamiński, Anna Kusior, Marta Radecka, Maria Nowakowska
The present work aims at development of novel hybrid materials from genipin crosslinked collagen or collagen/chitosan hydrogels containing various types of TiO2 nanoparticles characterized with different anatase/rutile ratios. Collagen and chitosan were selected as hydrogel components since they are biopolymers being, like collagen, the major compound present in extracellular matrix or exhibit structural similarity to glycosaminoglycans, like chitosan. TiO2 nanoparticles were introduced to the hydrogel matrices to improve their mechanical properties as well as bioactivity...
September 22, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Elizabeth A Calle, Ryan C Hill, Katherine L Leiby, Andrew V Le, Ashley L Gard, Joseph A Madri, Kirk C Hansen, Laura E Niklason
: Extracellular matrix is a key component of many products in regenerative medicine. Multiple regenerative medicine products currently in the clinic are comprised of human or xenogeneic extracellular matrix. In addition, whole-organ regeneration exploits decellularized native organs as scaffolds for organotypic cell culture. However, precise understanding of the constituents of such extracellular matrix-based implants and scaffolds has sorely lagged behind their use. We present here an advanced protein extraction method using known quantities of proteotypic (13)C-labeled peptides to quantify matrix proteins in native and decellularized lung tissues...
September 29, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Markus Kopp, Kerstin Dürr, Matthias Steigleder, Thomas Clavel, Michael Rychlik
Folate-producing bifidobacteria have been studied extensively but appropriate methods for detailed quantitation of intra- and extracellular pteroylmono- and pteroylpolyglutamate patterns are lacking. Therefore, B. adolescentis DSM 20083(T) was cultivated in folate-free medium (FFM) for 24h to develop and validate stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) coupled with LC-MS/MS for the determination of 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-HCO-H4folate), 10-formylfolic acid (10-HCO-PteGlu), tetrahydrofolic acid (H4folate), folic acid (PteGlu) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-CH3-H4folate) including its di-, tri-, and tetraglutamic vitamers (5-CH3-H4PteGlu2-4)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nathaniel J Hogrebe, James W Reinhardt, Keith J Gooch
Insoluble cues from a cell's surrounding microenvironment have increasingly been shown to be important regulators of cell behavior. The microarchitecture of biomaterials used for 3D cell encapsulation, however, is often underappreciated as an important insoluble factor guiding cell activity. In this review, we illustrate that the sub-cellular physical features of a scaffold influence a range of cell behaviors including morphology, cytoskeletal organization, migration, matrix remodeling, and long-range force transmission...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Fouzia Bano, Suneale Banerji, Mark Howarth, David G Jackson, Ralf P Richter
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a category of linear, anionic polysaccharides, are ubiquitous in the extracellular space, and important extrinsic regulators of cell function. Despite the recognized significance of mechanical stimuli in cellular communication, however, only few single molecule methods are currently available to study how monovalent and multivalent GAG·protein bonds respond to directed mechanical forces. Here, we have devised such a method, by combining purpose-designed surfaces that afford immobilization of GAGs and receptors at controlled nanoscale organizations with single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS)...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Aaron C Petrey, Carol A de la Motte
Dynamic alterations of the extracellular matrix in response to injury directly modulate inflammation, and consequently, the promotion and resolution of disease. During inflammation, hyaluronan (HA) is increased at sites of inflammation where it may be covalently modified with the heavy chains (HC) of inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (IαI). Deposition of this unique, pathological form of HA (HC:HA) leads to the formation of cable-like structures that promote adhesion of leukocytes. Naive mononuclear leukocytes bind specifically to inflammation-associated HA matrices but do not adhere to HA constitutively expressed under homeostatic conditions...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mahshid Vashaghian, Behrouz Zandieh, Jan Paul Roovers, Theodoor Henri Smit
Electrospun matrices are proposed as an alternative for polypropylene meshes in reconstructive pelvic surgery. Here, we investigated the effect of fiber diameter on i) the mechanical properties of electrospun poly (glycolide-co-lactide acid)-blended-poly(caprolactone) (PLGA/PCL) matrices; ii) cellular infiltration; and iii) the newly-formed extracellular matrix (ECM) in vitro. We compared electrospun matrices with 1- and 8μm fiber diameter and used non-porous PLGA/PCL films as controls. The 8-μm matrices were almost twice as stiff as the 1-μm matrices with 1...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Jessica Y Hsieh, Tim D Smith, Vijaykumar S Meli, Thi N Tran, Elliot L Botvinick, Wendy F Liu
: Fibrin is a major component of the provisional extracellular matrix formed during tissue repair following injury, and enables cell infiltration and anchoring at the wound site. Macrophages are dynamic regulators of this process, advancing and resolving inflammation in response to cues in their microenvironment. Although much is known about how soluble factors such as cytokines and chemokines regulate macrophage polarization, less is understood about how insoluble and adhesive cues, specifically the blood coagulation matrix fibrin, influence macrophage behavior...
September 20, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
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