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Extracellular matric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#1
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiate into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898729/rna-contaminates-glycosaminoglycans-extracted-from-cells-and-tissues
#2
Jasper J van Gemst, Markus A Loeven, Mark J J de Graaf, Jo H M Berden, Ton J Rabelink, Cornelis H Smit, Johan van der Vlag
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear negatively charged polysaccharides and important components of extracellular matrices and cell surface glycan layers such as the endothelial glycocalyx. The GAG family includes sulfated heparin, heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), keratan sulfate, and non-sulfated hyaluronan. Because relative expression of GAGs is dependent on cell-type and niche, isolating GAGs from cell cultures and tissues may provide insight into cell- and tissue-specific GAG structure and functions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895039/region-specific-effect-of-the-decellularized-meniscus-extracellular-matrix-on-mesenchymal-stem-cell-based-meniscus-tissue-engineering
#3
Kazunori Shimomura, Benjamin B Rothrauff, Rocky S Tuan
BACKGROUND: The meniscus is the most commonly injured knee structure, and surgical repair is often ineffective. Tissue engineering-based repair or regeneration may provide a needed solution. Decellularized, tissue-derived extracellular matrices (ECMs) have received attention for their potential use as tissue-engineered scaffolds. In considering meniscus-derived ECMs (mECMs) for meniscus tissue engineering, it is noteworthy that the inner and outer regions of the meniscus have different structural and biochemical features, potentially directing the differentiation of cells toward region-specific phenotypes...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891678/morphomechanics-of-dermis-a-method-for-non-destructive-testing-of-collagenous-tissues
#4
R G Shah, M C Pierce, F H Silver
BACKGROUND: Collagenous tissues store, transmit and dissipate elastic energy during mechanical deformation. In skin, mechanical energy is stored during loading and then is dissipated, which protects skin from mechanical failure. Thus, energy storage (elastic properties) and dissipation (viscous properties) are important characteristics of extracellular matrices (ECMs) that support the cyclic loading of ECMs without tissue failure. METHODS: Uniaxial stress-strain measurements on decellularized human dermis have been made and compared to results of a non-destructive technique involving optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with vibrational analysis...
November 27, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889666/yap-dependent-mechanotransduction-is-required-for-proliferation-and-migration-on-native-like-substrate-topography
#5
Shamik Mascharak, Patrick L Benitez, Amy C Proctor, Christopher M Madl, Kenneth H Hu, Ruby E Dewi, Manish J Butte, Sarah C Heilshorn
Native vascular extracellular matrices (vECM) consist of elastic fibers that impart varied topographical properties, yet most in vitro models designed to study the effects of topography on cell behavior are not representative of native architecture. Here, we engineer an electrospun elastin-like protein (ELP) system with independently tunable, vECM-mimetic topography and demonstrate that increasing topographical variation causes loss of endothelial cell-cell junction organization. This loss of VE-cadherin signaling and increased cytoskeletal contractility on more topographically varied ELP substrates in turn promote YAP activation and nuclear translocation, resulting in significantly increased endothelial cell migration and proliferation...
November 16, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888741/cell-type-dependent-response-to-photodynamic-treatment-in-3d-collagen-cell-cultures
#6
Anton Mateašík, Michal Trnka, Karol Kajo, Miroslava Vallová, Beata Čunderlíková
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can induce direct tumor cell destruction, indirect tumor cell inactivation due to vascular occlusion as well as immune response. Evidence suggests that the PDT-induced cell death is dependent on both PDT protocol-related as well as microenvironmental factors, and its mode is also decisive for the type of immune response. This suggests potential interrelationship among PDT-induced tumor cell destruction, immune response and microenvironmental factors. In the present study we analyzed the effect of a microenvironmental factor - extracellular matrix on the cellular response to photodynamic treatment in vitro...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880891/a-novel-3d-in%C3%A2-vitro-metastasis-model-elucidates-differential-invasive-strategies-during-and-after-breaching-basement-membrane
#7
Asja Guzman, Víctor Sánchez Alemany, Yen Nguyen, Catherine Ruiqi Zhang, Laura J Kaufman
Invasive breast cancer and other tumors of epithelial origin must breach a layer of basement membrane (BM) that surrounds the primary tumor before invading into the adjacent extracellular matrix. To analyze invasive strategies of breast cancer cells during BM breaching and subsequent invasion into a collagen I-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), we developed a physiologically relevant 3D in vitro model that recreates the architecture of a solid tumor with an intact, degradable, cell-assembled BM layer embedded in a collagen I environment...
November 15, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866022/novel-approaches-toward-the-generation-of-bioscaffolds-as-a-potential-therapy-in-cardiovascular-tissue-engineering
#8
REVIEW
Fahimeh Shahabipour, Maciej Banach, Thomas P Johnston, Matteo Pirro, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Cardiovascular disease associated with myocardial infarction (MI) is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide, in part, due to the limited regenerative capacity of tissues. Although various approaches have been employed to generate bioartificial myocardial tissues, including surgical reconstruction and the use of biosynthetic or biological cell-free grafts, many challenges still remain. Natural biomaterials based on decellularization have made significant inroads into the development of favorable biomatrices for myocardial tissue regeneration...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857727/cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-and-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells
#9
REVIEW
Chizuka Ide, Norihiko Nakano, Kenji Kanekiyo
Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) enhanced the outgrowth of regenerating axons and promoted locomotor improvements of rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). BMSCs did not survive long-term, disappearing from the spinal cord within 2-3 weeks after transplantation. Astrocyte-devoid areas, in which no astrocytes or oligodendrocytes were found, formed at the epicenter of the lesion. It was remarkable that numerous regenerating axons extended through such astrocyte-devoid areas. Regenerating axons were associated with Schwann cells embedded in extracellular matrices...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851951/viscoplasticity-enables-mechanical-remodeling-of%C3%A2-matrix-by-cells
#10
Sungmin Nam, Joanna Lee, Doug G Brownfield, Ovijit Chaudhuri
Living tissues consist largely of cells and extracellular matrices (ECMs). The mechanical properties of ECM have been found to play a key role in regulating cell behaviors such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Although most studies to date have focused on elucidating the impact of matrix elasticity on cell behaviors, recent studies have revealed an impact of matrix viscoelasticity on cell behaviors and reported plastic remodeling of ECM by cells. In this study, we rigorously characterized the plasticity in materials commonly used for cell culture...
November 15, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851739/designer-matrices-for-intestinal-stem-cell-and-organoid-culture
#11
Nikolce Gjorevski, Norman Sachs, Andrea Manfrin, Sonja Giger, Maiia E Bragina, Paloma Ordóñez-Morán, Hans Clevers, Matthias P Lutolf
Epithelial organoids recapitulate multiple aspects of real organs, making them promising models of organ development, function and disease. However, the full potential of organoids in research and therapy has remained unrealized, owing to the poorly defined animal-derived matrices in which they are grown. Here we used modular synthetic hydrogel networks to define the key extracellular matrix (ECM) parameters that govern intestinal stem cell (ISC) expansion and organoid formation, and show that separate stages of the process require different mechanical environments and ECM components...
November 16, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846786/systematic-comparison-of-protocols-for-the-preparation-of-human-articular-cartilage-for-use-as-scaffold-material-in-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#12
Cornelia Schneider, Johannes Lehmann, Gerjo van Osch, Florian Hildner, Andreas Herbert Teuschl, Xavier Monforte, David Miosga, Patrick Heimel, Eleni Priglinger, Heinz Redl, Susanne Wolbank, Sylvia Nürnberger
Natural extracellular matrix (ECM) derived biomaterials from decellularized allogenic tissues are of increasing interest for tissue engineering since their structure and composition provide a complexity that is not achievable with current manufacturing techniques. The prerequisite to bring allogenic tissue from bench to bedside as a functional biomaterial is the full removal of cells while preserving most of its native characteristics such as structure and composition. The exceptionally dense structure of articular cartilage, however, poses a special challenge for decellularisation, scaffold preparation and reseeding...
November 15, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835867/keratin-13-expression-reprograms-bone-and-brain-metastases-of-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#13
Qinlong Li, Lijuan Yin, Lawrence W Jones, Gina C-Y Chu, Jason B-Y Wu, Jen-Ming Huang, Quanlin Li, Sungyong You, Jayoung Kim, Yi-Tsung Lu, Stefan Mrdenovic, Ruoxiang Wang, Michael R Freeman, Isla Garraway, Michael S Lewis, Leland W K Chung, Haiyen E Zhau
Lethal progression of prostate cancer metastasis can be improved by developing animal models that recapitulate the clinical conditions. We report here that cytokeratin 13 (KRT13), an intermediate filament protein, plays a directive role in prostate cancer bone, brain, and soft tissue metastases. KRT13 expression was elevated in bone, brain, and soft tissue metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and in primary and metastatic clinical prostate, lung, and breast cancer specimens. When KRT13 expression was determined at a single cell level in primary tumor tissues of 44 prostate cancer cases, KRT13 level predicted bone metastasis and the overall survival of prostate cancer patients...
November 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829621/development-of-microfluidic-systems-for-fabricating-cellular-multilayers
#14
Koji Matsuura, Ikuyo Sugimoto, Yuka Kuroda, Koji Kadowaki, Michiya Matsusaki, Mitsuru Akashi
We designed a microfluidic system comprising microfluidic channels, pumps, and valves to enable the fabrication of cellular multilayers in order to reduce labor inputs for coating extracellular matrices onto adhesive cells (e.g., centrifugation). Our system was used to fabricate nanometer-sized, layer-by-layer films of the extracellular matrices on a monolayer of C2C12 myoblasts. The use of this microfluidic system allowed the fabrication of cellular multilayers in designed microfluidic channels and on commercial culture dishes...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826794/the-challenge-in-using-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-recellularization-of-decellularized-cartilage
#15
REVIEW
Zhao Huang, Owen Godkin, Gundula Schulze-Tanzil
Some decellularized musculoskeletal extracellular matrices (ECM)s derived from tissues such as bone, tendon and fibrocartilaginous meniscus have already been clinical use for tissue reconstruction. Repair of articular cartilage with its unique zonal ECM architecture and composition is still an unsolved problem, and the question is whether allogenic or xenogeneic decellularized cartilage ECM could serve as a biomimetic scaffold for this purpose.Hence, this survey outlines the present state of preparing decellularized cartilage ECM-derived scaffolds or composites for reconstruction of different cartilage types and of reseeding it particularly with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826469/a-novel-reticular-dermal-graft-leverages-architectural-and-biological-properties-to-support-wound-repair
#16
Anouska Dasgupta, Dennis Orgill, Robert D Galiano, Charles M Zelen, Yen-Chen Huang, Evangelia Chnari, William W Li
BACKGROUND: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) are frequently used in reconstructive surgery and as scaffolds to treat chronic wounds. The 3-dimensional architecture and extracellular matrix provide structural and signaling cues for repair and remodeling. However, most ADMs are not uniformly porous, which can lead to heterogeneous host engraftment. In this study, we hypothesized that a novel human reticular ADM (HR-ADM; AlloPatch Pliable, Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation, Edison, N...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822332/extracellular-matrix-gene-expression-profiling-using-microfluidics-for-colorectal-carcinoma-stratification
#17
Christopher J Hayes, Catriona M Dowling, Susan Dwane, Mary E McCumiskey, Shona M Tormey, B Anne Merrigan, John C Coffey, Patrick A Kiely, Tara M Dalton
In cancer, biomarkers have many potential applications including generation of a differential diagnosis, prediction of response to treatment, and monitoring disease progression. Many molecular biomarkers have been put forward for different diseases but most of them do not possess the required specificity and sensitivity. A biomarker with a high sensitivity has a low specificity and vice versa. The inaccuracy of the biomarkers currently in use has led to a compelling need to identify more accurate markers with diagnostic and prognostic significance...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816054/increased-age-rage-ratio-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#18
Carlos Machahua, Ana Montes-Worboys, Roger Llatjos, Ignacio Escobar, Jordi Dorca, Maria Molina-Molina, Vanesa Vicens-Zygmunt
BACKGROUND: The abnormal epithelial-mesenchymal restorative capacity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been recently associated with an accelerated aging process as a key point for the altered wound healing. The advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are the consequence of non-enzymatic reactions between lipid and protein with several oxidants in the aging process. The receptor for AGEs (RAGEs) has been implicated in the lung fibrotic process and the alveolar homeostasis. However, this AGE-RAGE aging pathway has been under-explored in IPF...
November 5, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812894/breast-cancer-risk-assessment-a-non-invasive-multiparametric-approach-to-stratify-patients-by-mmp-9-serum-activity-and-rhoa-expression-patterns-in-circulating-leucocytes
#19
Olga Golubnitschaja, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Jella-Andrea Abraham, Hans H Schild, Vincenzo Costigliola, Manuel Debald, Walther Kuhn
Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease classified by several sub-types which differ from each other by risk factors, specific molecular promoters and severity of outcomes. Tumour aggressiveness and metastatic disease are the key determinants of breast cancer outcomes. Tumour cell ability to degrade the extracellular matrix and to be motile is the hallmark of invasion and essential step in a development of breast cancer metastatic disease. Therefore, a coordinated action between cell motility and ability to degrade the extracellular matrix is currently under extensive investigation focused on molecular targets for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes...
November 3, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804979/laminin-guided-highly-efficient-endothelial-commitment-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Ryo Ohta, Akira Niwa, Yukimasa Taniguchi, Naoya M Suzuki, Junko Toga, Emiko Yagi, Norikazu Saiki, Yoko Nishinaka-Arai, Chihiro Okada, Akira Watanabe, Tatsutoshi Nakahata, Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi, Megumu K Saito
Obtaining highly purified differentiated cells via directed differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is an essential step for their clinical application. Among the various conditions that should be optimized, the precise role and contribution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during differentiation are relatively unclear. Here, using a short fragment of laminin 411 (LM411-E8), an ECM predominantly expressed in the vascular endothelial basement membrane, we demonstrate that the directed switching of defined ECMs robustly yields highly-purified (>95%) endothelial progenitor cells (PSC-EPCs) without cell sorting from hPSCs in an integrin-laminin axis-dependent manner...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
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