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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471595/circulating-piiinp-levels-identify-adipose-tissue-associated-inflammation-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-and-without-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
I Barchetta, F A Cimini, R De Gioannis, G Ciccarelli, L Bertoccini, A Lenzi, M G Baroni, M G Cavallo
AIMS: Procollagen-III peptide (PIIINP) is a marker of fibrosis associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk and progression of chronic liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH); its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been elucidated yet. Aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating PIIINP levels, metabolic traits and body fat distribution in subjects with T2DM with or without NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from sixty-two T2DM subjects recruited in our Diabetes outpatient clinics at Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, were analysed...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471285/effects-of-docosahexanoic-acid-supplementation-on-inflammatory-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-gene-expression-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-cart-a-sub-study-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#2
Pere Domingo, José Miguel Gallego-Escuredo, Irene Fernández, Joan Villarroya, Ferran Torres, María Del Mar Gutierrez, María Gracia Mateo, Francesc Villarroya, Francesc Vidal, Marta Giralt, Joan Carles Domingo
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids have the potential to decrease inflammation and modify gene transcription. Whether docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation can modify systemic inflammatory and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression in HIV-infected patients is unknown. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 84 antiretroviral-treated patients who had fasting TG levels from 2.26 to 5.65 mmol/l and received DHA or placebo for 48 weeks was performed (ClinicalTrials...
February 19, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470797/body-mass-index-is-independently-associated-with-xanthine-oxidase-activity-in-overweight-obese-population
#3
Aleksandra Klisic, Gordana Kocic, Nebojsa Kavaric, Milovan Jovanovic, Verica Stanisic, Ana Ninic
PURPOSE: The pathophysiological mechanism of the relationship between xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and obesity has not been completely elucidated. Since inflammation and oxidative stress are regarded as key determinants of enlarged adipose tissue, we aimed to investigate the association between oxidative stress (as measured with XO activity), inflammation [as measured with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and obesity [as measured with body mass index (BMI)]. In addition, we wanted to examine whether hsCRP itself plays an independent role in XO activity increase or it is only mediated through obesity...
February 22, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470303/clues-in-histopathological-diagnosis-of-panniculitis
#4
Mar Llamas Velasco, Yosmar Carolina Pérez-Gónzalez, Werner Kempf, Bruno Emilio Paredes, Lorenzo Cerroni, María Teresa Fernández Figueras
BACKGROUND: Panniculitides comprise a group of heterogeneous inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, histopathological study along with clinicopathological correlation usually led to a specific diagnosis. In most textbooks, the first step in the diagnosis is to classify them as mostly septal or lobular depending on where the inflammatory infiltrate is located. The second step is deciding if vasculitis is present or not. Finally, the third step is further characterizing the inflammatory infiltrate...
March 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469650/prenatal-androgen-exposure-causes-hypertension-and-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis
#5
Shermel Sherman, Nadeen Sarsour, Marziyeh Salehi, Allen Schroering, Blair Mell, Bina Joe, Jennifer W Hill
BACKGROUND: Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant...
February 22, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469051/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progresses-into-severe-nash-when-physiological-mechanisms-of-tissue-homeostasis-collapse
#6
Silvia Sookoian, Carlos J Pirola
Phenotypic modulation of NAFLD-severity by molecules derived from white (adipokines) and brown (batokines) adipose tissue may be important in inducing or protecting against the progression of the disease. Adipose tissue-derived factors can promote the progression of NAFLD towards severe histological stages (NASH-fibrosis and NASHcirrhosis). This effect can be modulated by the release of adipokines or batokines that directly trigger an inflammatory response in the liver tissue or indirectly modulate related phenotypes, such as insulin resistance...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468805/aligned-nanofiber-material-supports-cell-growth-and-increases-osteogenesis-in-canine-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#7
Sony Pandey, Kusum Rathore, Jed Johnson, Maria Cekanova
Tissue engineering shows great promise for the treatment of degenerative diseases, including bone repair. Polymer nanofibers provide a three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold for attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells. Increasing evidence supports that fiber alignment on scaffolds plays a major role in the viability and differentiation of stem cells. We compared the cell viability of canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cADMSCs) cultured in the aligned- (NanoAligned™) and random- (NanoECM™) oriented polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber-coated plates to control polystyrene tissue culture plates using a proliferation assay...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468486/tumor-associated-macrophages-and-crown-like-structures-in-adipose-tissue-in-breast-cancer
#8
Yoon Jin Cha, Eun-Sol Kim, Ja Seung Koo
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate macrophage infiltration and to identify the status of crown-like structures (CLSs) in mammary adipose tissue of human breast tissue in cases with and without breast cancer. METHODS: Breast adipose tissue was obtained from reduction mammoplasty (N = 56, Group 1), non-neoplastic breast tissue of breast cancer patients (N = 84, Group 2), and breast cancer with adipose stroma (N = 140, Group 3). Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 and CD163 was performed, and the infiltrating macrophages and CLSs within breast adipose tissue were evaluated...
February 21, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468424/full-depth-measurement-of-tenofovir-transport-in-rectal-mucosa-using-confocal-raman-spectroscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography
#9
Aubrey L Presnell, Oranat Chuchuen, Morgan G Simons, Jason R Maher, David F Katz
The prophylactic activity of antiretroviral drugs applied as microbicides against sexually transmitted HIV is dependent upon their concentrations in infectable host cells. Within mucosal sites of infection (e.g., vaginal and rectal mucosa), those cells exist primarily in the stromal layer of the tissue. Traditional pharmacokinetic studies of these drugs have been challenged by poor temporal and spatial specificity. Newer techniques to measure drug concentrations, involving Raman spectroscopy, have been limited by laser penetration depth into tissue...
February 21, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467799/exposure-to-maternal-cafeteria-diets-during-the-suckling-period-has-greater-effects-on-fat-deposition-and-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-srebp-1c-gene-expression-in-rodent-offspring-compared-to-exposure-before-birth
#10
M A Vithayathil, J R Gugusheff, Z Y Ong, S C Langley-Evans, R A Gibson, B S Muhlhausler
Background: While the adverse metabolic effects of exposure to obesogenic diets during both the prenatal and early postnatal period are well established, the relative impact of exposure during these separate developmental windows remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the relative contribution of exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during pregnancy and lactation on body weight, fat mass and expression of lipogenic and adipokine genes in the offspring. Methods: Wistar rats were fed either a control chow (Control, n  = 14) or obesogenic cafeteria diet (CAF, n  = 12) during pregnancy and lactation...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467719/physical-exercise-enhanced-heat-shock-protein-60-expression-and-attenuated-inflammation-in-the-adipose-tissue-of-human-diabetic-obese
#11
Abdelkrim Khadir, Sina Kavalakatt, Preethi Cherian, Samia Warsame, Jehad Ahmed Abubaker, Mohammed Dehbi, Ali Tiss
Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is a key protein in the crosstalk between cellular stress and inflammation. However, the status of HSP60 in diabetes and obesity is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that HSP60 expression levels in the adipose tissue of human obese adults with and without diabetes are different and physical exercise might affect these levels. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and blood samples were collected from obese adults with and without diabetes ( n  = 138 and n  = 92, respectively, at baseline; n  = 43 for both groups after 3 months of physical exercise)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467675/pvat-and-its-relation-to-brown-beige-and-white-adipose-tissue-in-development-and-function
#12
REVIEW
Staffan Hildebrand, Jasmin Stümer, Alexander Pfeifer
Adipose tissue is commonly categorized into three types with distinct functions, phenotypes, and anatomical localizations. White adipose tissue (WAT) is the major energy store; the largest depots of WAT are found in subcutaneous or intravisceral sites. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for energy dissipation during cold-exposure (i.e., non-shivering thermogenesis) and is primarily located in the interscapular region. Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipose tissue can be found interspersed in WAT and can attain a brown-like phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467670/zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-is-associated-with-obesity-in-chinese-people-and-hfd-induced-obese-mice
#13
Meijuan Liu, Huijuan Zhu, Yufei Dai, Hui Pan, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Fengying Gong
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) plays an important role in the regulation of body weight, body fat, and glucose metabolism. In this study, we first measured ZAG levels in serum and ZAG mRNA levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) among overweight/obese patients and lean control subjects. Second, we investigated the effects of ZAG administration on the body weight, body fat and glucose metabolism of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese ICR mice and the possible mechanisms involved. The results showed that serum ZAG and mRNA levels in sWAT were significantly decreased in overweight/obese patients and that both showed a negative association with body mass index (BMI) and body weight after adjustment for age and sex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467658/how-do-structurally-distinct-compounds-exert-functionally-identical-effects-in-combating-obesity
#14
Zhi-Jun Deng, Ruo-Xuan Liu, A-Rong Li, Jie-Wen Guo, Qing-Ping Zeng
Although the concept of inflammatory obesity remains to be widely accepted, a plethora of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, mitochondrial uncouplers, and other structurally distinct compounds with unknown mechanisms have been demonstrated to exert functionally identical effects on weight reduction. Here we summarize a universal mechanism in which weight loss is modulated by mitochondrial biogenesis, which is correlated with conversion from the mitochondria-insufficient white adipose tissue to the mitochondria-abundant brown adipose tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467502/cdh13-abundance-interferes-with-adipocyte-differentiation-and-is-a-novel-biomarker-for-adipose-tissue-health
#15
Simon Göddeke, Birgit Knebel, Pia Fahlbusch, Tina Hörbelt, Gereon Poschmann, Frederique van de Velde, Tim Benninghoff, Hadi Al-Hasani, Sylvia Jacob, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Bruno Lapauw, Stefan Lehr, D Margriet Ouwens, Jorg Kotzka
BACKGROUND: CDH13, an atypical member of the cadherin superfamily, has been identified in adipocyte secretomes of lean mouse models. CDH13 abundance differs in mouse models according to their susceptibility to develop metabolic disorders, but the role of CDH13 in adipose tissue is unknown. METHODS: Secreted CDH13 protein levels and mRNA levels in visceral adipose tissue were determined in lean and obese mouse models. In vitro studies were performed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the role of CDH13 in adipocyte differentiation...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467310/whole-body-but-not-hepatic-knockdown-of-chemerin-by-antisense-oligonucleotide-decreases-blood-pressure-in-rats
#16
David J Ferland, Bridget Seitz, Emma S Darios, Janice M Thompson, Steve T Yeh, Adam E Mullick, Stephanie W Watts
Chemerin is an inflammatory adipokine positively associated with hypertension and obesity. The majority of chemerin derives from the liver and adipose tissue, however, their individual contributions to blood pressure are unknown. We began studying chemerin in the normal rat using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) with whole-body activity (Gen 2.5 chemerin ASO) or liver-restricted activity (GalNAc chemerin ASO). We hypothesized that in normotensive male SD rats, circulating chemerin is predominately liver-derived and regulates blood pressure...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467283/activation-of-hypothalamic-rip-cre-neurons-promotes-beiging-of-wat-via-sympathetic-nervous-system
#17
Baile Wang, Ang Li, Xiaomu Li, Philip Wl Ho, Donghai Wu, Xiaoqi Wang, Zhuohao Liu, Kelvin Kl Wu, Sonata Sy Yau, Aimin Xu, Kenneth Ky Cheng
Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige fat by cold increases energy expenditure. Although their activation is known to be differentially regulated in part by hypothalamus, the underlying neural pathways and populations remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of rat-insulin-promoter-Cre (RIP-Cre) neurons in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) preferentially promotes recruitment of beige fat via a selective control of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) outflow to subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), but has no effect on BAT Genetic ablation of APPL2 in RIP-Cre neurons diminishes beiging in sWAT without affecting BAT, leading to cold intolerance and obesity in mice...
February 21, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467034/seasonal-differences-in-brown-adipose-tissue-density-and-pulse-rate-variability-in-a-thermoneutral-environment
#18
Shinsuke Nirengi, Naoki Sakane, Shiho Amagasa, Sawako Wakui, Toshiyuki Homma, Yuko Kurosawa, Takafumi Hamaoka
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is sympathetically activated and induces thermogenesis during cold exposure, thereby influencing energy expenditure and body fat levels. The very low frequency (VLF) components of pulse rate variability could be a form of thermogenic sympathetic nervous activity, but no clear relationship has yet been reported between VLF activity and BAT density. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between them. METHODS: We enrolled 20 adults in winter and 20 matched adults in summer...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467010/human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-inhibit-bioactivity-of-keloid-fibroblasts
#19
Xiuxia Wang, Yan Ma, Zhen Gao, Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: A keloid is a fibroproliferative disorder occurring in wounds characterized by an exaggerated response to injury. To date, no effective cure has been identified. As multipotent stem cells, human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) may show the possibility for curing diseases such as fibrosis. This study sought to explore the potential role of human ADSCs in curing keloids. METHODS: After culture in conditioned medium, gene and protein expression of keloid fibroblasts was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, while analysis of the cell cycle was used to measure the proliferative properties of the cells...
February 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466957/altered-dna-methylation-in-liver-and-adipose-tissues-derived-from-individuals-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
Francisco Barajas-Olmos, Federico Centeno-Cruz, Carlos Zerrweck, Iván Imaz-Rosshandler, Angélica Martínez-Hernández, Emilio J Cordova, Claudia Rangel-Escareño, Faustino Gálvez, Armando Castillo, Hernán Maydón, Francisco Campos, Diana Gabriela Maldonado-Pintado, Lorena Orozco
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), although the precise mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unknown. In this study we identified alterations of DNA methylation influencing T2D pathogenesis, in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, liver, and blood from individuals with obesity. METHODS: The study included individuals with obesity, with and without T2D. From these patients, we obtained samples of liver tissue (n = 16), visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (n = 30), and peripheral blood (n = 38)...
February 21, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
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