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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911483/effects-of-dietary-heme-iron-and-exercise-training-on-abdominal-fat-accumulation-and-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#1
Masanori Katsumura, Shoko Takagi, Hana Oya, Shohei Tamura, Takaoki Saneyasu, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911443/transient-mitochondrial-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-mice-cause-accelerated-aging-phenotypes-in-a-ros-dependent-but-p53-p21-independent-manner
#2
Milena Pinto, Alicia M Pickrell, Xiao Wang, Sandra R Bacman, Aixin Yu, Aline Hida, Lloye M Dillon, Paul D Morton, Thomas R Malek, Siôn L Williams, Carlos T Moraes
We observed that the transient induction of mtDNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in cultured cells led to activation of cell cycle arrest proteins (p21/p53 pathway) and decreased cell growth, mediated through reactive oxygen species (ROS). To investigate this process in vivo we developed a mouse model where we could transiently induce mtDNA DSBs ubiquitously. This transient mtDNA damage in mice caused an accelerated aging phenotype, preferentially affecting proliferating tissues. One of the earliest phenotypes was accelerated thymus shrinkage by apoptosis and differentiation into adipose tissue, mimicking age-related thymic involution...
December 2, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911319/autotaxin-is-related-to-metabolic-dysfunction-and-predicts-alzheimer-s-disease-outcomes
#3
Kelsey E McLimans, Auriel A Willette
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with neuropathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2, also called autotaxin, is produced by beige adipose tissue, regulates metabolism, and is higher in AD prefrontal cortex (PFC). Autotaxin may be a novel biomarker of dysmetabolism and AD. METHODS: We studied Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants who were cognitively normal (CN; n = 86) or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 135) or AD (n = 66)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911285/the-relation-between-chondromalacia-patella-and-meniscal-tear-and-the-sulcus-angle-trochlear-depth-ratio-as-a-powerful-predictor
#4
Hatice Resorlu, Coskun Zateri, Gurdal Nusran, Ferdi Goksel, Nilufer Aylanc
PURPOSE: To investigate the relation between chondromalacia patella and the sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio as a marker of trochlear morphology. In addition, we also planned to show the relationship between meniscus damage, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness as a marker of obesity, patellar tilt angle and chondromalacia patella. METHODS: Patients with trauma, rheumatologic disease, a history of knee surgery and patellar variations such as patella alba and patella baja were excluded...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911148/effects-of-chronic-estrogen-administration-in-the-ventromedial-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-vmh-on-fat-and-bone-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#5
Z Zhang, J Liu, A G Veldhuis-Vlug, Y Su, E Foppen, B C J van der Eerden, M Koedam, N Bravenboer, A Kalsbeek, A Boelen, E Fliers, P H Bisschop
Estrogen deficiency after ovariectomy (OVX) results in increased adiposity and bone loss, which can be prevented by systemic 17-β estradiol (E2) replacement. Studies in transgenic mice suggested that in addition to direct actions of estrogen in peripheral tissues, also estrogen signaling in the hypothalamus regulates fat distribution and bone metabolism. We hypothesized that the protective effect of systemic E2 on fat and bone metabolism in the OVX model is partly mediated through the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH)...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911095/epigenetic-alterations-in-blood-mirror-age-associated-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-changes-in-human-liver
#6
Madhusudhan Bysani, Alexander Perfilyev, Vanessa D de Mello, Tina Rönn, Emma Nilsson, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Charlotte Ling
AIM: To study the impact of aging on DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human liver. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: We analysed genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in human liver samples using Illumina 450K and HumanHT12 expression BeadChip arrays. RESULTS: DNA methylation analysis of ∼455,000 CpG sites in human liver revealed that age was significantly associated with altered DNA methylation of 20,396 CpG sites. Comparison of liver methylation data with published methylation data in other tissues showed that vast majority of the age-associated significant CpG sites overlapped between liver and blood, whereas a smaller overlap was found between liver and pancreatic islets or adipose tissue, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910825/monte-carlo-studies-on-water-and-lif-cavity-properties-for-dose-reporting-quantities-when-using-x-ray-and-brachytherapy-sources
#7
Isabela Soares Lopes Branco, Paula Cristina Guimarães Antunes, Gabriel Paiva Fonseca, Hélio Yoriyaz
Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) are the current tools to estimate dose in brachytherapy, which takes into account heterogeneous medium, therefore, departing from water-based formalism (TG-43). One aspect associated to MBCDA is the choice of dose specification medium since it offers two possibilities to report dose: (a) dose to medium in medium, D m,m; and (b) dose to water in medium, D w,m. The discussion about the preferable quantity to be reported is underway. The dose conversion factors, DCF, between dose to water in medium, D w,m, and dose to medium in medium, D m,m, is based on cavity theory and can be obtained using different approaches...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910746/nutrition-and-diabetes-mellitus-how-are-they-interlinked
#8
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen exponentially, and the number of incidences increases every day. The purpose of this article is to summarize the experimental evidence supporting the important association between nutrition and diet-based therapy for the control and management of T2DM. Evidence from several in vitro, in vivo, and human studies broadly found that nutrition-based therapy enriched with several important phytochemical constituents modulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and it ameliorates glucolipotoxicity and insulin resistance...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910744/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-ppar%C3%AE-a-key-regulator-of-lipid-metabolism-in-avians
#9
Bahman Navidshad, M Royan
Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of the gene expression. Fatty acids upregulate or downregulate the expression of different genes by acting both as agonists or antagonists for nuclear hormone receptors. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. To date, three PPAR subtypes, α, β, and γ, have been recognized. PPARs regulate various target genes with a role in intracellular and extracellular lipid metabolism, mainly those involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910111/cystatin-c-and-epicardial-adipose-tissue-as-noninvasive-predictors-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-acromegaly
#10
Anna Aulinas, Iris Crespo, David Viladés, Ruben Leta, Eulàlia Urgell, Betina Biagetti, Susan M Webb, Elena Valassi
BACKGROUND: Acromegaly (ACRO) is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk, although the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. Increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and elevated cystatin-C (Cys-C) levels are cardiovascular risk factors, also related to the progression of CAD in several populations. AIMS: To measure the severity and extent of CAD in patients with ACRO and to determine whether either EAT or Cys-C reflect higher cardiovascular risk in patients with ACRO than in healthy controls...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909908/obesity-and-liver-cancer
#11
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Sabrina Schlesinger
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909561/korean-solar-salts-reduce-obesity-and-alter-its-related-markers-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#12
Jaehyun Ju, Jia-Le Song, Eui-Seong Park, Myoung-Sool Do, Kun-Young Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this experiments was to show anti-obesity effects of Korean solar salt from different salt fields in diet-induced obese mice. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Diet-induced obesity (DIO) was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% cal from fat) in C57BL/6J mice for eight weeks. The mice were fed with the designated diets (chow diet for Normal, HFD for Control, 0.47%-salt-mixed HFD for purified salt (PS), Guerande solar salt from France (SS-G), solar salt from Y salt field (SS-Y), solar salts from T salt field (SS-T) and S salt field (SS-S)) for another eight weeks...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909554/high-maysin-corn-silk-extract-reduces-body-weight-and-fat-deposition-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-high-fat-diets
#13
Eun Young Lee, Sun Lim Kim, Hyeon Jung Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES: The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909270/safe-introduction-of-ancillary-trocars-in-gynecological-surgery-the-yellow-island-anatomical-landmark
#14
Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Nicola Gasbarro, Antonio Simone Lagana, Fabrizio Sapia, Agnese Maria Chiara Rapisarda, Gaetano Valenti, Maria Antonietta Trovato, Diego Rossetti, Benito Chiofalo, Giuseppina Barrasso, Andrea Tinelli, Francesco Corrado
AIM: This technical note aims to suggest a safe introduction of ancillary trocars in gynaecological surgery, in order to prevent inferior epigastric artery damage. MATERIAL OF STUDY: We performed a narrative overview, synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. RESULTS: Among the different techniques, the identification of the "yellow island" as anatomical landmark seems to be a useful aid to avoid complication...
November 18, 2016: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909015/diabetic-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-fail-to-differentiate-in-functional-adipocytes
#15
Ignazio Barbagallo, Giovanni Li Volti, Fabio Galvano, Guido Tettamanti, Francesca R Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Luca Vanella
Adipose tissue dysfunction represents a hallmark of diabetic patients and is a consequence of the altered homeostasis of this tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their differentiation into adipocytes contribute significantly in maintaining the mass and function of adult adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differentiation of MSCs from patients suffering type 2 diabetes (dASC) and how such process results in hyperplasia or rather a stop of adipocyte turnover resulting in hypertrophy of mature adipocytes...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908917/erratum-impact-of-perturbed-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-cholesterol-homeostasis-on-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-diabetes-2016-65-3610-3620
#16
Blake J Cochran, Liming Hou, Anil Paul Chirackal Manavalan, Benjamin M Moore, Fatiha Tabet, Afroza Sultana, Luisa Cuesta Torres, Shudi Tang, Sudichhya Shrestha, Praween Senanayake, Mili Patel, William J Ryder, Andre Bongers, Marie Maraninchi, Valerie C Wasinger, Marit Westerterp, Alan R Tall, Philip J Barter, Kerry-Anne Rye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908299/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-induces-inflammatory-and-degradative-effects-in-articular-cells-but-not-through-leptin-or-adiponectin
#17
Jean-Baptiste Gross, Cecile Guillaume, Pascale Gegout-Pottie, Pascal Reboul, Jean-Yves Jouzeau, Didier Mainard, Nathalie Presle
OBJECTIVES: Based on a novel approach suggesting a role of adipose tissue in osteoarthritis (OA), we aimed to determine whether the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) may affect joint cell functions through adipokines. METHODS: The conditioned media of IFP and subcutaneous adipose tissue from OA patients were used to determine the production of leptin and adiponectin, and to stimulate chondrocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Blocking experiments were carried out to evaluate the contribution of adipokines to IFP effects...
November 13, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907824/effect-of-dry-tomato-peel-supplementation-on-glucose-tolerance-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-markers-in-mice-fed-high-saturated-fat-high-cholesterol-diets
#18
Sofiane Zidani, Amar Benakmoum, Ali Ammouche, Yasmine Benali, Anissa Bouhadef, Souheila Abbeddou
Many studies have investigated the effect of crude tomato peel in vivo, but no studies have determined the dose-effect of dry tomato peel (DTP) on glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by a high-saturated-fat (HSF) diet in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of DTP on the levels of oxidative stress in mice fed an HSF and cholesterol-rich diet for 12 weeks. The main outcomes are glucose and insulin tolerance, plasma lipids, and hepatic steatosis and inflammation...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907211/characterization-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-canine-adipose-tissue-and-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#19
Keith A Russell, Natalie H C Chow, David Dukoff, Thomas W G Gibson, Jonathan LaMarre, Dean H Betts, Thomas G Koch
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) hold promise for both cell replacement and immune modulation strategies owing to their progenitor and non-progenitor functions, respectively. Characterization of MSC from different sources is an important and necessary step before clinical use of these cells is widely adopted. Little is known about the biology and function of canine MSC compared to their mouse or human counterparts. This knowledge-gap impedes development of canine evidence-based MSC technologies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907186/inter-tissue-gene-co-expression-networks-between-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obese-individuals
#20
Lisette J A Kogelman, Jingyuan Fu, Lude Franke, Jan Willem Greve, Marten Hofker, Sander S Rensen, Haja N Kadarmideen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with severe co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, studies have shown that 10-25 percent of the severely obese individuals are metabolically healthy. To date, the identification of genetic factors underlying the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state is limited. Systems genetics approaches have led to the identification of genes and pathways in complex diseases. Here, we have used such approaches across tissues to detect genes and pathways involved in obesity-induced disease development...
2016: PloS One
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