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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909574/the-possible-antidiabetic-effects-of-vitamin-d-receptors-agonist-in-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
Wafaa M Abdel-Rehim, Rasha A El-Tahan, Mennatullah A El-Tarawy, Rowaida R Shehata, Maher A Kamel
Vitamin D3 deficiency was found to be tightly linked to many health problems including metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our study, we tested the possible antidiabetic effects of one of vitamin D3 analogs, alfacalcidol, solely or in a combination with metformin on type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic model rats were induced by feeding high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. In addition to the control group, the diabetic rats were divided into four groups: untreated, metformin-treated, alfacalcidol-treated, and combination-treated group (metformin + alfacalcidol) for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908753/abdominal-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-after-an-episode-of-acute-pancreatitis
#2
Ruma G Singh, Sayali A Pendharkar, Aya Cervantes, Jaelim Cho, Victor Miranda-Soberanis, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that individuals after an episode of acute pancreatitis (AP) are at an increased risk of developing metabolic derangements. While the link between general obesity and insulin resistance (IR) is well established, only a few studies have investigated the association between abdominal obesity and IR. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between abdominal obesity and several indices of IR in individuals after an episode of AP. METHODS: Patients were eligible for this cross-sectional study if they were previously admitted with a primary diagnosis of AP based on the recent international guidelines...
May 1, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908372/association-of-fibrotic-remodeling-and-cytokines-chemokines-content-in-epicardial-adipose-tissue-with-atrial-myocardial-fibrosis-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#3
Ichitaro Abe, Yasushi Teshima, Hidekazu Kondo, Haruka Kaku, Shintaro Kira, Yuki Ikebe, Shotaro Saito, Akira Fukui, Tetsuji Shinohara, Kunio Yufu, Mikiko Nakagawa, Naoki Hijiya, Masatsugu Moriyama, Tatsuo Shimada, Shinji Miyamoto, Naohiko Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: Using human left atrial appendage (LAA) samples, we examined the interactive relationship between the EAT profile and atrial myocardial fibrosis through histological and biochemical analyses. METHODS: LAA samples were obtained from 59 consecutive AF patients during cardiovascular surgery...
June 13, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908367/cell-proliferation-and-anti-apoptosis-essential-processes-for-recruitment-of-the-full-thermogenic-capacity-of-brown-adipose-tissue
#4
REVIEW
Jan Nedergaard, Yanling Wang, Barbara Cannon
In mice living under normal animal house conditions, the brown adipocytes in classical brown adipose tissue depots are already essentially fully differentiated: UCP1 mRNA and UCP1 protein levels are practically saturated. This means that any further recruitment - in response to cold exposure or any other browning agent - does not result in significant augmentation of these parameters. This may easily be construed to indicate that classical brown adipose tissue cannot be further recruited. However, this is far from the case: the capacity for further recruitment instead lies in the ability of the tissue to increase the number of brown-fat cells, a remarkable and highly controlled physiological recruitment process...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908226/visfatin-alters-the-cytokine-and-matrix-degrading-enzyme-profile-during-osteogenic-and-adipogenic-msc-differentiation
#5
Lali Tsiklauri, Janina Werner, Marian Kampschulte, Klaus W Frommer, Lucija Berninger, Martina Irrgang, Kristina Glenske, Dirk Hose, Thaqif El Khassawna, Jörn Pons-Kühnemann, Stefan Rehart, Sabine Wenisch, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Elena Neumann
OBJECTIVES: Age-related bone loss is associated with bone marrow adiposity. Adipokines (e.g. visfatin, resistin, leptin) are adipocyte-derived factors with immunomodulatory properties and might influence differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis. Thus, the presence of adipokines and MMPs in bone marrow and their effects on MSC differentiation were analyzed. METHODS: MSC and RNA were isolated from femoral heads after hip replacement surgery of OA or osteoporotic femoral neck fracture (FF) patients...
June 13, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908127/sphingolipid-metabolism-an-ambiguous-regulator-of-autophagy-in-the-brain
#6
Gerhild van Echten-Deckert, Shah Alam
In mammals, the brain exhibits the highest lipid content in the body next to adipose tissue. Complex sphingolipids are characteristic compounds of neuronal membranes. Vital neural functions including information flux and transduction occur along these membranes. It is therefore not surprising that neuronal function and survival is dependent on the metabolism of these lipids. Autophagy is a critical factor for the survival of post-mitotic neurons. On one hand it fulfils homeostatic and waste-recycling functions and on the other hand it constitutes an effective strategy to eliminate harmful proteins that cause neuronal death...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907930/characterization-of-a-diet-induced-obesity-rat-model-for-periodontal-research
#7
Anna Damanaki, Marjan Nokhbehsaim, Kanishka Hiththetiya, Svenja Memmert, Jinlong Gao, Ky-Anh Nguyen, Werner Götz, Andreas Jäger, Gerhard Wahl, James Deschner
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with periodontitis, but the mechanisms underlying this association have yet to be unraveled. The present investigation was to evaluate a common rat model, in which obesity is induced by high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFSD), for its applicability in periodontal research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten male Wistar rats were fed a 3-month HFSD along with a matching control group. Afterwards, the body weight, adipocyte morphology, leptin and adiponectin levels in adipose tissue, gingiva, and serum as well as the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, and glucose were analyzed...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907876/in-vitro-evaluation-of-a-lentiviral-two-step-transcriptional-amplification-system-using-gal4ff-transactivator-for-gene-therapy-applications-in-bone-repair
#8
Sofia Bougioukli, Osamu Sugiyama, Ram K Alluri, Robert Yoho, Daniel A Oakes, Jay R Lieberman
In this study, we developed a lentiviral two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system expressing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) under the control of a GAL4FF transactivator to enhance gene expression and limit toxicity for bone repair applications. To this end human MSCs, isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue, were transduced overnight with a LV-TSTA system (GAL4FF or GAL4vp16) expressing BMP-2 or GFP and evaluated in vitro for transduction efficiency, mean fluorescence intensity, cell viability, and BMP-2 production...
June 15, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907525/tissue-restricted-adaptive-type-2-immunity-is-orchestrated-by-expression-of-the-costimulatory-molecule-ox40l-on-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#9
Timotheus Y F Halim, Batika M J Rana, Jennifer A Walker, Bernhard Kerscher, Martin D Knolle, Helen E Jolin, Eva M Serrao, Liora Haim-Vilmovsky, Sarah A Teichmann, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Marina Botto, Timothy J Vyse, Padraic G Fallon, Zhi Li, David R Withers, Andrew N J McKenzie
The local regulation of type 2 immunity relies on dialog between the epithelium and the innate and adaptive immune cells. Here we found that alarmin-induced expression of the co-stimulatory molecule OX40L on group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) provided tissue-restricted T cell co-stimulation that was indispensable for Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses in the lung and adipose tissue. Interleukin (IL)-33 administration resulted in organ-specific surface expression of OX40L on ILC2s and the concomitant expansion of Th2 and Treg cells, which was abolished upon deletion of OX40L on ILC2s (Il7raCre/+ Tnfsf4fl/fl mice)...
May 31, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907450/altered-maternal-and-placental-lipid-metabolism-and-fetal-fat-development-in-obesity-current-knowledge-and-advances-in-non-invasive-assessment
#10
Flavien Delhaes, Stephanie A Giza, Tianna Koreman, Genevieve Eastabrook, Charles A McKenzie, Samantha Bedell, Timothy R H Regnault, Barbra de Vrijer
Abnormal maternal lipid profiles, a hallmark of increased maternal adiposity, are associated with pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and offspring long-term metabolic health is impacted as the consequence of altered fetal growth, physiology and often iatrogenic prematurity. The metabolic changes associated with maternal obesity and/or the consumption of a high-fat diet effecting maternal lipid profiles and metabolism have also been documented to specifically affect placental function and may underlie changes in fetal development and life course disease risk...
May 26, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906484/the-contributions-of-diet-genes-and-physical-activity-to-the-etiology-of-obesity-contrary-evidence-and-consilience
#11
REVIEW
Edward Archer, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill
The debate on the relative contributions of presumptive etiologic factors in the development of obesity is becoming increasingly speculative, insular, and partisan. As the global prevalence of obesity continues to rise, the sheer volume of unfounded conjecture threatens to obscure well-established evidence. We posit that the failure to distinguish between causal factors and mere statistical associations engendered the proliferation of misleading and demonstrably false research programs and failed public health initiatives...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905790/characterization-of-the-tissue-and-stromal-cell-components-of-micro-superficial-enhanced-fluid-fat-injection-micro-seffi-for-facial-aging-treatment
#12
Martina Rossi, Barbara Roda, Silvia Zia, Ilaria Vigliotta, Chiara Zannini, Francesco Alviano, Laura Bonsi, Andrea Zattoni, Pierluigi Reschiglian, Alessandro Gennai
Background: New microfat preparations provide material suitable for use as a regenerative filler for different facial areas. To support the development of new robust techniques for regenerative purposes, the cellular content of the sample should be considered. Objectives: To evaluate the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell components of micro-superficial enhanced fluid fat injection (SEFFI) samples via a technique to harvest re-injectable tissue with minimum manipulation...
June 14, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905053/-effect-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-on-pressure-ulcer-healing-in-mouse
#13
Chengliang Deng, Zhiyuan Liu, Yuanzhen Yao, Ruichi Liu, Zairong Wei, Dali Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) on pressure ulcers in mouse. Methods: The subcutaneous adipose tissue from voluntary donation was harvested. Then the hADSCs were isolated and cultured by mechanical isolation combined with typeⅠcollagenase digestion. The 3rd generation cells were identified by osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic differentiations and flow cytometry. The platelet rich plasma (PRP) from peripheral blood donated by healthy volunteers was prepared by centrifugation...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904777/science-behind-the-cardio-metabolic-benefits-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-biochemical-effects-vs-clinical-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
Rohith N Thota, Jessica J A Ferguson, Kylie A Abbott, Cintia B Dias, Manohar L Garg
Lower incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Greenland Inuit, Northern Canada and Japan has been attributed to their consumption of seafood rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA). While a large majority of pre-clinical and intervention trials have demonstrated heart health benefits of LCn-3PUFA, some studies have shown no effects or even negative effects. LCn-3PUFA have been shown to favourably modulate blood lipid levels, particularly a reduction in circulating levels of triglycerides...
June 15, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904569/the-rs2167270-polymorphism-of-leptin-gene-is-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis
#15
Saleem A Banihani, Rawan A Elmadhoun, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that arises because of complex environmental, immunological, and genetic interactions. Adipokines are bioactive mediators secreted from adipocytes of white adipose tissue and are known to have a role in body metabolism and regulation of immune responses. Leptin is a proinflammatory adipokine that functions mainly to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. Few studies have implicated adipokines in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the association of three leptin gene polymorphisms: -2548G>A (rs7799039), -188 C/A (rs791620), and A19G (rs2167270), with the incidence of atopic dermatitis...
2018: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904432/breast-panniculitis-with-liquefactive-fat-necrosis-a-case-report
#16
Yongfeng Zhang, Xuhua Shi, Yuewu Lu
Panniculitis is a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by inflammation of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Panniculitis of breast tissue as the initial manifestation has rarely been reported and is often misdiagnosed. Breast panniculitis may cause substantial morbidity and early diagnosis and treatment are important for the prognosis of the disease. The present study has reported a case of panniculitis with inflammation of the mammary glands as the initial presentation and provided a detailed description of ultrasonography, X-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging features of breast panniculitis...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904371/hypothalamic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-as-a-target-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#17
REVIEW
Juan Cunarro, Sabela Casado, Javier Lugilde, Sulay Tovar
Mitochondria are important organelles for the adaptation to energy demand that play a central role in bioenergetics metabolism. The mitochondrial architecture and mitochondrial machinery exhibits a high degree of adaptation in relation to nutrient availability. On the other hand, its disruption markedly affects energy homeostasis. The brain, more specifically the hypothalamus, is the main hub that controls energy homeostasis. Nevertheless, until now, almost all studies in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction and energy metabolism have focused in peripheral tissues like brown adipose tissue, muscle, and pancreas...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904354/paracrine-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-human-monocytes
#18
Maria I Guillén, Julia Platas, María D Pérez Del Caz, Vicente Mirabet, Maria J Alcaraz
The inflammatory process is an essential phenomenon in the induction of immune responses. Monocytes are key effector cells during the inflammatory process. A wide range of evidence indicates that mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ASC) are endowed with immunomodulatory capacity. However, the interaction between ASC and monocytes in the innate immune response is not well understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible paracrine anti-inflammatory effects of ASC in human monocytes. Monocytes were isolated from buffy coats and ASC from fat of non-obese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904148/intra-individual-gene-expression-variability-of-histologically-normal-breast-tissue
#19
Xuezheng Sun, Yue Shan, Quefeng Li, Lynn Chollet-Hinton, Erin L Kirk, Gretchen L Gierach, Melissa A Troester
Several studies have sought to identify novel transcriptional biomarkers in normal breast or breast microenvironment to predict tumor risk and prognosis. However, systematic efforts to evaluate intra-individual variability of gene expression within normal breast have not been reported. This study analyzed the microarray gene expression data of 288 samples from 170 women in the Normal Breast Study (NBS), wherein multiple histologically normal breast samples were collected from different block regions and different sections at a given region...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904053/naoxintong-capsules-inhibit-the-development-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-db-db-mice
#20
Shu Yang, Mengyang Liu, Yuanli Chen, Chuanrui Ma, Lipei Liu, Buchang Zhao, Yong Wang, Xiaoju Li, Yan Zhu, Xiumei Gao, Deling Kong, Yajun Duan, Jihong Han, Xiaoxiao Yang
NaoXinTong Capsule (NXT), a Chinese medicine, is currently used to treat patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Clinical observations indicate its anti-diabetic functions with unclear mechanisms. Herein, we report the effect of NXT on diabetic nephropathy (DN). Type 2 diabetic db/db mice were treated with NXT for 14 weeks. In the course of treatment, NXT reduced diabetes-increased glucose levels and improved renal functions. At the end of treatment, we found that NXT ameliorated serum lipid profiles and other biochemical parameters...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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